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Submit dissertation umi proquest

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bible study homework Additional lessons may be found in the Student Workbook. If you are using the submit dissertation student workbook, answers to the lesson homework may be found here. Hamlet's Through Soliloquies Essay! You will need the password found in submit umi proquest, the back of the workbook. What is the abstract art essay Bible? The Bible is the compilation of writings from submit umi proquest, various authors over the course of 3500 years. The Bible is the inspired word of God transmitted through people. It is divided into the Old Testament (or agreement) and the New Testament.

Moses - Tablets of growth soliloquies essay Stone. Kings their scribes - Papyrus Scrolls. Judges Prophets - Scrolls. How did the Bible get into this form? The Bible was passed down from one generation to another, first through story, song and memorized passages, then on umi proquest tablets of stone or Papyrus reeds flattened to form a type of paper. Abstract Art Essay! Each book was recorded separately onto scrolls, and compiled by Jewish priests and Bible scholars.

Eventually the Bible was translated from it's original language, Hebrew, into Greek, then Latin. For years it was kept from the common man because only priests could read Latin. Finally John Wycliff produced the first English version, then William Tyndale wrote a layman's version and was killed for dissertation it. Martin Luther believed everyone should have access to scientific paper the Bible, so he wrote a version in German and in doing so was excommunicated from the dissertation Catholic church. This act was how the research paper Protestant church began. King James I ordered the dissertation umi proquest first official version of the Bible in on perception, England, known as the dissertation umi proquest King James Bible. Why are there so many versions? There's not a lot of difference in the various versions, with the exception of the Catholic Bible which includes a dozen or so extra books that were not generally accepted by the early church leaders. Each translation interprets the original Hebrew or Greek language a little differently, however you will find many versions of the same translation in the book store.

Examples of translations are: New International Version, American Standard Version, New Revised Standard, New English Version and so forth. Some variations of the same translation contain extra study materials, definitions, targeted devotionals, maps and hamlet's growth essay, so forth, for example: The Women's Devotional Bible, The Student Bible, The Life Application Study Bible and the NIV Quest Bible are all NIV translations. Submit Dissertation Umi Proquest! The difference between an actual translation and a paraphrase, for example The Living Bible or The Message, is that a paraphrase is someone’s interpretation of the Bible written in before the majority and other, everyday language. Why is every sentence numbered? For the purpose of study, the books were divided into chapters, and submit umi proquest, the sentences numbered so that people could refer to specific passages. How can I be sure it’s accurate? Much debate has centered around this question. Of Dialogue! I believe the Bible is the inspired word of God, true and inerrant.

It has certainly stood the test of time. Umi Proquest! The internet is filled with debate on both sides. You should study the Bible to make your own determination. A Sonata And Other! What’s the best way to study the Bible? Ideally you should study the Bible in a group setting because the discussion leader and other members of your group can help you understand difficult passages. You should have a good study Bible to read, which includes definitions, references to other related scriptures and submit umi proquest, side notes. If you stay with this course, keep up with the weekly reading, and do the homework you will soon find you are making great progress in understanding the Bible. Additional reference material can be found: By Wesley Ringer. by through John W. Umi Proquest! Miller. How the Bible Came to Be. Lesson 2 Homework.

1. What was the earth before God began creating it? The earth was just a vapor, a mist. 2. Have you ever experienced the grandeur of God in nature? Describe your experience: My husband and I love to SCUBA dive so I have been blessed to experienced the wonders of the deep, the vastness of the ocean and the amazing creatures that God created to live beneath the sea. I've stood on top of Mauna Kea, on the Big Island of Hawaii and marvelled at the shadow of the earth and the nearness of the stars. I've hiked through the Northwest wilderness, gawking at the mountain peaks along the research paper North Cascade Highway in Washington State.

But I have to say the most profound life-changing experience has been the birth of my own two children. Of course God reveals himself in all of nature. Who else could create a world so filled with creativity, order and beauty? Every intricate detail works together so perfectly. Dissertation! All this can't be just chance.

3. List what God created on each day according to Genesis 1: Day 2 - Sky and Land, Plants Trees. Day 3 - Sun, Moon Stars. Day 4 - Fish Birds. Anatomy Paper! Day 5 - Animals Reptiles. 4. What did God do on the 7th day? Why? He rested -- to submit dissertation reflect on all that he created.

5. What surprises you the most about this account of creation? For me, the purposeful order in which everything was prepared for essays a sonata the majority and other man before he came into existence. God not only knew what he was doing, he did it with excellence. What was the light described in verse 3? He says repeatedly, it was good. What did God intend for submit umi proquest people to thesis statement eat? Why is submit dissertation umi proquest, it important to rest one day a week? Additional reference material can be found: Science and the Bible. Lesson 3 Homework. 1. With what did Satan tempt Eve? Why did this work? 2. Essays Before A Sonata The Majority Writings! What is your greatest temptation?

3. How did Adam respond to God’s call? Why? 4. What were the consequences of Adam Eve’s sin? 5. What did God do to cover Adam and Eve’s sin? What qualities do you see in a good marriage from Gen.

2:24-25. Separating from dissertation, mother and essay, father, the dissertation two become one. That oneness is God's idea of the perfect marriage. The two were naked, totally honest with nothing hidden, and they were unashamed to be that way with one another. According to James 1:13-17, what are the consequences of through soliloquies essay giving in to temptation? Next we decide we must have it (we want it) Then we rationalize our wrong decision (we had to have it) The result is death. How did Adam and Eve know they were naked?

The fruit opened their eyes to their nakedness (helplessness?). Why were Adam and submit umi proquest, Eve banished from the Garden of Eden? Because if they had not been banished they might have eaten from the other tree, the tree of life, and would then live forever in their sinful state. God protected them from essay, themselves. How can we be free of our sin?

We are set free of sin because of the death of Jesus on the cross. He paid the price that covered our sin once and for all. We need only acknowledge this sacrifice and accept the salvation that Jesus' death bought for us.

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The early days of the water crisis, January-December 2014. In Flint, and to umi proquest some extent across the state, 2014 saw the beginnings of statement, search interest in aspects of the water crisis. In particular, Flint residents were primarily searching for news of the water problems, and to a lesser degree, information about the public health impact of the submit umi proquest crisis. Michigan residents more generally were also searching at higher rates for news of the crisis and, again to a smaller degree, for television information on specific water contaminants. At the time, personal health and political aspects of the crisis had not popped. National search activity would not rise in any category until 2016. Twitter activity related to dissertation the crisis was also minimal throughout 2014. The first time Google search activity rose in hamlet's soliloquies relation to the Flint water crisis was in May 2014, in the News and Media category. These searches, with terms such as “Flint water crisis news” and submit umi proquest “lead contamination USA Today,” rose for growth soliloquies essay three straight weeks before falling back down.

Search activity would not rise again until July and August – this time not only in Flint but also across Michigan, and to umi proquest a much more substantial degree. This search interest again focused on news about the crisis and preceded a “boil water” advisory issued by the city of Flint after the detection of fecal coliform bacteria in the water. Then, on anatomy scientific, Sept. 5, 2014, the city issued a second advisory following more positive tests for coliform bacteria. Concurrently (the week of submit, Aug. 31), searches about public health terms such as “water pollution city” or “Flint water environment” registered a small uptick for the first time. Also that week, searches in Michigan in the Contaminants category, including terms such as “water contamination coliform” and “water quality ppm,” started increasing.

These searches continued to inch upward for eight consecutive weeks, finally peaking during the a sonata the majority and other week starting Oct. 19, around the same time General Motors decided to stop using Flint River water at its engine plant because of dissertation umi proquest, high levels of chloride, which allegedly caused corrosion. Over the eight weeks of search activity growth, searches about contaminants increased by 161%. Even with that increase, however, it is important to note that the overall proportion of searches in the Contaminants category is far lower than those of essay television, other categories such as Public Health and submit dissertation umi proquest News. Four periods of elevated search activity across categories and regions emerged in 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. Contaminants in Michigan. News about the water crisis in Flint and abstract Michigan.

Larger proportion of searches. Flint switches from Detroit to Flint River for tap water. Boil water advisory issued. Flint city issues another boil water advisory. GM stops using Flint River water. Smaller proportion of searches.

Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Four periods of submit dissertation, elevated search activity across categories and regions emerged in 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. Larger proportion of searches.

News about the water crisis in Flint and Michigan. Flint switches from Detroit to Flint River for anatomy scientific tap water. Boil water advisory issued. Smaller proportion of dissertation umi proquest, searches. Larger proportion of searches. Flint city issues another boil water advisory.

Smaller proportion of searches. Contaminants in abstract art essay Michigan. Larger proportion of submit umi proquest, searches. GM stops using Flint River water. Smaller proportion of searches. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Four periods of elevated search activity across categories and regions emerged in 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. News about the water crisis in scientific research Flint and Michigan. Larger proportion of searches. Flint switches from Detroit to Flint River for tap water. Boil water advisory issued. Smaller proportion of searches.

Larger proportion of searches. Flint city issues another boil water advisory. Smaller proportion of searches. Contaminants in Michigan. Larger proportion of dissertation, searches. GM stops using Flint River water.

Smaller proportion of searches. Note: For details on search topic definitions and thesis statement on perception sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Demand among local residents for more news about what was happening not only rose before other categories but also preceded increased regional news coverage and government notices. About a month after the city of Flint switched its tap water supply from Detroit’s system (Lake Huron) to the Flint River in April 2014, Google searches for news about the submit dissertation umi proquest Flint water crisis registered a first, moderate uptick in Flint. In the week of May 11, News and Media searches about Flint water issues increased 17% from the week before.

That share again grew in each of the following two weeks, by 26% and 13% respectively. News and Media search interest reached second-highest level in of dialogue Flint and Michigan in August 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for the News and Media category within each geographic area. Flint issues another advisory. Boil water advisory issued. Flint switches from Detroit to Flint River for umi proquest tap water. GM stops using Flint River water. Note: For details on search topic definitions and of a scientific research paper sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan.

5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. News and dissertation umi proquest Media search interest reached second-highest level in anatomy research Flint and Michigan in August 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for the News and Media category within each geographic area. Boil water advisory issued. Flint switches from Detroit to Flint River for dissertation tap water. Flint issues another advisory. GM stops using Flint River water.

Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. News and Media search interest reached second-highest level in Flint and essay watching Michigan in August 2014. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for the News and Media category within each geographic area. Apr 25 Flint switches from submit dissertation, Detroit to Flint River for tap water. Aug 16 Boil water advisory issued.

Sep 5 Flint issues another advisory. Oct 13 GM stops using Flint River water. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of essays before, Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. News and Media searches in Flint remained somewhat elevated over the next seven weeks, but then a larger increase occurred both within Flint and across Michigan.

Searches increased at the state level first. In the week beginning July 13, 2014, search interest in Michigan related to news about the Flint crisis shot up 38% from the week prior. It then continued to grow through the week of dissertation, Aug. Art Essay! 3, reaching the second-highest peak for News and Media searches in Michigan over the entire 2 ?-year time range, second only to when Obama declared a national state of emergency in January 2016. Over the four weeks of continuous increases, searches about submit umi proquest news on the water crisis in Michigan experienced a threefold increase before returning to pre-peak levels. In the city of Flint, meanwhile, searches for news about the crisis began to rise again a week later than in research Michigan (July 20). Within this more heavily impacted geographic area, searches rose 27% over the previous week and continued to increase for submit dissertation the next three weeks (adding 67%, 47% and 15% each consecutive week), reaching their peak the week of Aug.

10. Television! That was the same week fecal coliform bacteria were detected in Flint’s water, leading to the “boil water” advisory issued by the city on Aug. 16. Over the whole four-week time span, News and Media searches in submit dissertation umi proquest the Flint area more than tripled from what they were before the rises began. Both of scientific research, these stretches of dissertation, heightened News and Media searches occurred weeks before the advisory was published. In another sign that the essay of dialogue public may have been ahead of the local government and news media, on July 30 – during the period of increased search activity – the city responded to citizen complaints about the color of the water by umi proquest, flushing out the thesis statement on perception city’s fire hydrants, but they did not test the water’s safety at that time. The first period of heightened search also preceded a rise in submit umi proquest news media attention to the crisis. From May 25 through the week ending Aug. 16, the on perception media audit data show no rise in regional news coverage. Across these 12 weeks there were never more than two stories per week in the outlets audited, and an average of one per week.

2 During the week following the dissertation boil advisory, on hamlet's soliloquies essay, the other hand, local and regional news media attention grew, with a total of five stories that week among the outlets studied. It is worth noting that, separate from health-related coverage, there were two weeks – April 13 through April 26 – when one media outlet in particular gave increased attention to the switch itself and how the costs might trickle down to submit umi proquest local residents (there were 14 stories identified during these two weeks). But this was not sustained and was not about the water itself or any health issues, as was the case for the News and Media search category (with terms such as “drinking water crisis news” and “lead poisoning news”). 3. Local and regional news coverage about the Flint water crisis was minimal in 2014. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Flint issues another advisory. Boil water advisory issued. Flint switches from of dialogue, Detroit to Flint River for tap water.

GM stops using Flint River water. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from submit dissertation umi proquest, LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in essays before a sonata and other the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. For a full list of news outlets, see the dissertation Methodology.

Source: Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Local and regional news coverage about the anatomy paper Flint water crisis was minimal in 2014.

Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Flint issues another advisory. Boil water advisory issued. GM stops using Flint River water. Flint switches from Detroit to Flint River for tap water.

Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. Submit Umi Proquest! For a full list of news outlets, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Local and soliloquies regional news coverage about the Flint water crisis was minimal in 2014. Number of dissertation, Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Apr 25 Flint switches from hamlet's growth through soliloquies essay, Detroit to Flint River for tap water. Aug 16 Boil water advisory issued. Sep 5 Flint issues another advisory.

Oct 13 GM stops using Flint River water. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and umi proquest alt-weekly newspapers in growth through essay the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. For a full list of news outlets, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Later in 2014, however, the first increase in search activity related to public health elements of the submit dissertation crisis coincided with government activity and hamlet's growth soliloquies a small uptick in dissertation umi proquest local and regional media coverage. Essay Watching! On Sept.

5, another advisory was issued, following more positive tests for coliform bacteria. Submit Dissertation! During that same week, searches in Flint under the Public Health category increased 6% from the essay of dialogue week before and continued to grow through the next two weeks. Over the three weeks, search interest in dissertation public health grew 25%. Local and regional news media also turned to abstract the issue at slightly higher rates, producing 11 stories in the first two full weeks of submit dissertation, September, up from just two during the two weeks prior. Still, all these periods of heightened search activity in 2014 would not surpass the search levels in 2015 and 2016. Art Essay! Even though searches in the News and umi proquest Media category in Flint reached, in August 2014, their second-highest point of the entire time range studied, the average search activity for this category was still lower overall in 2014 than in the other two phases. Proportionally, there were 18% more news searches per week in Flint 2015, on average, and 150% more in essay of dialogue 2016. As with the News and Media category, Public Health searches would register much higher levels after 2014. Even though the week of Sept. 14, 2014, marked a notable rise in search activity related to Flint public health information, search interest for this category was relatively small compared with the two later phases (27% more Public Health searches in 2015 than in 2014, on average, and 235% more in first half of 2016 than in 2014).

Local and regional interest broadens, January-December 2015. In 2015, Google searches by users in the Flint area moved beyond the unfolding facts of the submit dissertation umi proquest news story itself to how the events were impacting their own lives. All but one of the categories – Politics and Government – experienced upticks. Still, all the increases occurred over research paper, a two-month time range and umi proquest were again only in Flint and Michigan. National search interest and Twitter activity remained relatively flat over anatomy of a paper, the course of 2015. In 2015, the first notable instance of elevated search activity occurred in September. Google users in submit dissertation umi proquest Flint searched for news about the crisis at heightened levels the week of Sept. 6, up 9% from the week before. Search interest continued to climb for another three weeks.

During that same first week in September, Flint residents also began connecting the crisis more directly to their own lives, with increased search activity in the Personal Health and Public Health categories. Searches related to personal health sustained heightened activity for a week longer than searches for news, hitting their second-highest point in the entire 2 ?-year time range. Searches in the Public Health category also increased at the state level from the week starting on Sept. 6 through the week of Sept. 27 (a 268% rise over four weeks).

Also during that time period, users across Michigan displayed a second round of elevated interest in learning more about the chemical and biological elements, though as in abstract art essay the first phase, the overall proportion of searches for this category remained below all others in umi proquest Michigan). Four search categories about the Flint water crisis saw increased activity in fall 2015. Proportion of of dialogue, all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. Public health and contaminants in Michigan. Personal health, public health and news in Flint. Larger proportion of searches. Genesee County issues public health emergency. High blood levels detected in Flint children.

Flint issues lead warning. Lead advisory issued. Smaller proportion of searches. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of submit, Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Four search categories about the Flint water crisis saw increased activity in fall 2015.

Proportion of abstract, all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. Personal health, public health and news in Flint. Genesee County issues public health emergency. Larger proportion of searches. Lead advisory issued. Smaller proportion of searches. Public health and contaminants in Michigan.

High blood levels detected in Flint children. Flint issues lead warning. Larger proportion of submit dissertation, searches. Smaller proportion of searches. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016.

“Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Four search categories about the Flint water crisis saw increased activity in fall 2015. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for each category within each geographic area. Personal health, public health and news in Flint. Larger proportion of searches.

Genesee County issues public health emergency. Lead advisory issued. Smaller proportion of essays before, searches. Public health and contaminants in Michigan. High blood levels detected in Flint children. Flint issues lead warning. Larger proportion of searches. Smaller proportion of submit, searches. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for essay television Jan.

5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. In early fall 2015, as more became known about the severity of the submit dissertation umi proquest water contamination, residents in both Flint and across Michigan began searching intently about the art essay personal and public health implications . Signs of increased activity in Flint began the week starting Sept. 6 , when searches related to personal health issues such as “Flint water bathing” and “tap water cloudy” grew 9% over submit dissertation umi proquest, the previous week and searches in essays and other the Public Health category such as “water pollution agriculture” and dissertation “lead test school” grew 2%. These were followed by continuous increases through the week starting on thesis statement on perception, Oct. 4. Over the five weeks, the share of searches about personal health matters more than doubled and those about public health rose by nearly five times.

Personal and public health searches in Flint increased as evidence of water contamination mounted. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for Personal Health or Public Health categories within Flint area. High blood lead levels detected in Flint children; Flint issues lead warning. Genesee County issues public health emergency. to Detroit water. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for submit umi proquest Jan. 5, 2014-July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER.

Personal and public health searches in Flint increased as evidence of water contamination mounted. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for Personal Health or Public Health categories within Flint area. Flint reconnects to Detroit water. Genesee County issues public health emergency. High blood lead levels detected in Flint children; Flint issues lead warning. Note: For details on search topic definitions and art essay sampling, see the Methodology.

Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for submit umi proquest Jan. 5, 2014-July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Personal and public health searches in Flint increased as evidence of hamlet's growth through soliloquies, water contamination mounted. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for Personal Health or Public Health categories within Flint area. Sep 2425 High blood lead levels detected in Flint children; Flint issues lead warning. Oct 1 Genesee County issues public health emergency. Oct 16 Flint reconnects to Detroit water.

Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the submit dissertation Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014-July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER.

In addition, searches in Michigan under the Public Health category also experienced an anatomy of a paper, increase from the submit dissertation umi proquest week of Sept. 6 through the essays before a sonata and other writings week of Sept. 27 (the proportion of searches more than tripled over these four weeks). These five weeks of increased search activity coincided with a series of public reports and government actions that shed more light on the extent of the contamination, the individuals affected and the additional steps local residents needed to submit take. Essay! On Sept. 2, Marc Edwards, a researcher from submit, Virginia Tech, released the results of tests he conducted on Flint water samples in which lead was found. This was followed by the results of tests conducted by Dr. Mona Hanna-Attisha, a pediatrician, who found that the number of children with elevated levels of lead in their bloodstream had doubled since the water source was switched in April 2014.

In response, on Sept. 25, the city of Flint issued a lead warning and on Oct. 1 Genesee County declared a public health emergency. Google searches in of dialogue Flint for news related to dissertation the events also rose during this time period, up 9% the week of Sept. 6 and 76% the next week. They reached their high point the week of Sept. 27, for a total increase of 223% over the four-week time span. Even as events persisted and the county issued its emergency advisory, however, searches for news began to fall back, while those related to public or personal health continued to rise for another week. Increased search activity in Flint coincided not only with events but also with heightened local and regional media coverage. In 2015, from the week starting Sept.

6 through the week beginning Oct. 4, researchers identified 154 news stories produced by the local and essay watching regional outlets audited. That compares with a total of 207 stories that were identified for all of 2015 prior to this point (week of Jan. 4 though week of Aug. 30). By contrast, national coverage remained largely flat throughout the year, with a small uptick from the week of Sept. 27 through the dissertation week starting Oct.

4; there were 10 stories identified in total over this two-week time range, up from virtually none since the beginning of 2015. Flint water crisis draws local and regional news media attention as the extent of water contamination comes to light. Number of essay television watching, Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Genesee County issues public health emergency. State of emergency declared in Flint. City of submit umi proquest, Flint issues warning that water contains high levels of toxic byproducts. Flint issues lead warning. Flint reconnects to Detroit water. Gov. Thesis Statement On Perception! Snyder approves $2M for water system improvements. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases.

Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in umi proquest the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. For a full list of essay of dialogue, news outlets, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016.

“Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Flint water crisis draws local and regional news media attention as the extent of water contamination comes to light. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in submit the local/regional and national news outlets studied. State of emergency declared in statement Flint. Flint reconnects to Detroit water. Genesee County issues public health emergency.

Gov. Submit Dissertation! Snyder approves $2M for water system improvements. Flint issues lead warning. City of art essay, Flint issues warning that water contains high levels of toxic byproducts. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and umi proquest were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and abstract alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming.

For a full list of news outlets, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. Submit! 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Flint water crisis draws local and regional news media attention as the extent of water contamination comes to light. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Jan 2 City of Flint issues warning that water contains high levels of toxic byproducts.

Feb 3 Gov. Snyder approves $2M for abstract water system improvements. Sep 25 Flint issues lead warning. Oct 1 Genesee County issues public health emergency. Oct 16 Flint reconnects to Detroit water.

Dec 14 State of emergency declared in Flint. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and submit regional news media include daily, weekly and statement on perception alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and umi proquest TV network evening programming. For a full list of news outlets, see the of a Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. The news coverage coincided very closely with the sharp boost in public desire to submit learn more about their own personal health and the state of health in their communities. In contrast with previous months, local and regional coverage in this instance remained elevated for a bit longer than public search interest.

Even though search activity in public and of dialogue personal health began to fall back down the submit umi proquest week of Oct. 11, the local and regional media’s attention to the issue remained somewhat higher through much of November. Local and regional media outlets produced another 192 stories from the essay of dialogue week of Oct. 11 through the week of Nov. 15. A number of events in 2015 connected to the water crisis did not translate to any meaningful rise in search activity – even though some did receive media attention. On Jan. 2, for instance, the city published an advisory about too much disinfection byproduct in the water, and a heated City Hall meeting about the crisis was held on Jan. 21, followed seven days later by the distribution of bottled water in a giveaway program. In February, Gov.

Snyder approved $2 million in infrastructure improvements, and in March the dissertation umi proquest Environmental Protection Agency stepped in after Flint resident LeeAnne Walters’ son developed skin rashes; subsequent tests of her home’s tap water found high levels of lead. During this time, however, not one of the five search categories studied showed any major signs of increased search activity in anatomy scientific paper any of the geographic areas studied. Submit Dissertation Umi Proquest! This was the case even amid elevated local and essay television watching regional news coverage through early February of that year, which gradually declined as spring began. Water safety concerns register nationally, January-July 2016. If 2015 was when interest among Flint-area residents turned personal, the first half of 2016 was when interest in water safety and dissertation umi proquest the dynamics of the story registered nationally. High-level national activity and intense media coverage related to Flint aligned closely with individuals at the local, state and national levels turning to Google at an increasing rate to learn more about the different elements of the water crisis. Public search interest grew dramatically in January 2016 across all aspects of the crisis, corresponding closely to significant events and heightened media coverage. At the national level, searches about news and personal health issues showed some first small signs of increased activity the last week of December 2015, but it was in January 2016 that search activity really took off. From the week of Jan. 3 through the week of growth soliloquies, Jan. 24, searches for submit dissertation all five categories increased by statement on perception, up to 19 times what they were before.

Within Flint and across Michigan, the story was similar. In Flint, searches in all but the dissertation umi proquest Contaminants category (data for this category were not available for Flint because the watching level of activity was below the privacy threshold required by submit dissertation umi proquest, Google) started increasing the week of watching, Dec. Umi Proquest! 27, 2015, and also reached their highest points the thesis on perception week of Jan. Submit Umi Proquest! 24. And across the state, the same pattern of growth was found in all five search categories. The involvement of the federal government in Flint’s water issues and the launch of national-level search activity coincided with accompanying national news coverage.

On Dec. Paper! 14, 2015, a state of emergency was declared in Flint, followed about three weeks later by another state of emergency for Genesee County (containing Flint and the larger Flint DMA) and dissertation the state of Michigan (Jan. 4-5, 2016). A week later (Jan. 12), the governor activated the Michigan National Guard to help distribute filters and bottled water, and, on Jan. 16, President Obama declared a state of emergency, freeing up to $5 million in aid and assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency. That same week (Jan. 10-16), local and regional news stories more than doubled from the week before: A total of 129 pieces were produced in the local and essay regional news media studied, compared with 55 the week prior. News stories found in national media studied here more than tripled during the same week from the week prior. It is important to note that the dissertation umi proquest total number of Flint-related news stories identified in national as well as in local and regional news media was much larger in 2016 than in thesis statement on perception the two years before, even though only half the year was studied in 2016. More than four times as many stories were found in local and dissertation regional coverage in 2016 as in the previous year (from 668 news stories audited in 2015 to hamlet's through essay nearly 3,000 stories in 2016).

National media also experienced dramatic increases in 2016. For these first six months of 2016, researchers identified a total of 749 news stories in submit dissertation national media coverage about the Flint water crisis, up from 25 stories the essay of dialogue year before. Coverage at both the submit dissertation national and regional levels did ebb and flow over these six months, often spiking when events occurred and anatomy lessening soon after – though it maintained a somewhat higher baseline of coverage than in submit 2014 or 2015. After years as a local issue, national media turned to the Flint water crisis in 2016. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and abstract national news outlets studied. President Obama declares state of submit, emergency and offers $5M in aid. Criminal charges filed. State of emergency declared in Genesee County and Michigan. Democratic presidential candidates hold a debate in Flint.

Obama addresses Flint. Note: Data represent stories identified in hamlet's growth soliloquies essay local, regional and umi proquest national news media and essay of dialogue were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. Submit! National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. Abstract Art Essay! For a full list of dissertation, news outlets, see the Methodology. Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for hamlet's through soliloquies essay News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. After years as a local issue, national media turned to the Flint water crisis in 2016. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Obama addresses Flint. Criminal charges filed. Democratic presidential candidates hold a debate in Flint. President Obama declares state of emergency and dissertation umi proquest offers $5M in aid.

State of emergency declared in essay television watching Genesee County and submit dissertation Michigan. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and national news media and were retrieved from LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Art Essay! Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in submit dissertation the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. For a full list of news outlets, see the Methodology. Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. After years as a local issue, national media turned to essay the Flint water crisis in 2016. Number of Flint water crisis-related stories identified in the local/regional and national news outlets studied. Jan 45 State of emergency declared in submit dissertation Genesee County and essay Michigan. Jan 16 President Obama declares state of emergency and offers $5M in aid. Mar 6 Democratic presidential candidates hold a debate in Flint. Apr 20 Criminal charges filed.

May 4 Obama addresses Flint. Note: Data represent stories identified in local, regional and submit national news media and were retrieved from statement, LexisNexis and ProQuest News Newspapers databases. Submit Dissertation! Local and regional news media include daily, weekly and alt-weekly newspapers in the Flint and Detroit regions, as well as the hamlet's growth through soliloquies digital outlet MLive.com. National news media include national newspapers and TV network evening programming. For a full list of news outlets, see the Methodology. Pew Research Center audit of local, regional and national news coverage of the Flint water crisis, Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. The search data suggest that events in one region could spur people outside of that region to see whether similar events could affect them. At the national level, search terms related to public health, which include searches both directly relevant to Flint (e.g., “Flint water diseases” and “Flint water legionnaires”) as well as water quality issues more generally (e.g., “lead water health effects” and “lead water limit”) started rising in the week of Jan. 3 – up 60% from the week before. These searches continued to submit rise, reaching their peak the week of Jan.

24. In total, public health-related searches more than quadrupled over these four weeks. National-level searches related to personal health, which include terms such as “lead water filter” and “tap water brown,” followed the same trajectory, but started to rise earlier. On the week of Dec. 20, Personal Health searches rose a minimal 2% from the week before, also reaching their highest point in the week of Jan. 24 after continuous weekly increases, for a total of 46% growth over those six weeks. In early 2016, the angle of the story that saw the most dramatic rise in of a scientific research paper search activity was political; until then, this search category had seen no increases in any region. During 2014 and 2015, search interest for umi proquest political terms such as “Flint water bill Congress,” “water pollution legislation” and “Flint water Obama” did not register any heightened search interest in any of the geographic areas studied, but in January 2016, the proportion of of a paper, searches under the Politics category climbed sharply.

In Flint and across Michigan, politics-related searches started to rise a week earlier than they did across the umi proquest entire country. In Flint, on abstract, the week of dissertation umi proquest, Dec. 27, 2015, these searches increased 34% from the hamlet's through week before, then continued to rise for another four consecutive weeks. Overall, interest in submit dissertation political searches in Flint grew by 522% over these six weeks. In Michigan, the essay watching pattern was the same. Submit Umi Proquest! Political searches began to growth soliloquies essay increase statewide the same week they did in Flint, also growing for submit dissertation five continuous weeks. These increases occurred about essay watching two weeks after Flint declared a state of emergency (Dec. Submit Umi Proquest! 14) and around the same time that a state of emergency was issued in Genesee County and of dialogue across the state (Jan. Umi Proquest! 4-5, 2016). Political angle of Flint water crisis rose in searches both locally and nationally in January 2016 for the first time.

Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water crisis-related terms for thesis statement the Politics category within each geographic area. President Obama declares. state of emergency and. offers $5M in aid. State of emergency. declared in Genesee. County and Michigan. Note: For details on submit dissertation, search topic definitions and anatomy of a research sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan.

5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Political angle of Flint water crisis rose in searches both locally and nationally in January 2016 for the first time. Proportion of all Google searches that contain Flint water. crisis-related terms for the Politics category within each. Criminal charges filed. candidates hold a debate in Flint. President Obama declares state of. emergency and offers $5M in aid. State of emergency declared in.

Genesee County and dissertation umi proquest Michigan. Note: For details on search topic definitions and sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google Health API data for Jan. 5, 2014-July 2, 2016. “Searching for hamlet's growth through News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Political angle of Flint water. crisis rose in searches both. locally and nationally in. January 2016 for the first time. Proportion of all Google searches that.

contain Flint water crisis-related. terms for the Politics category within. each geographic area. Jan 45 State of emergency declared in Genesee County and Michigan. Jan 16 President Obama declares state of emergency and dissertation umi proquest offers $5M in aid. Mar 6 Democratic presidential candidates hold a debate in Flint. Apr 20 Criminal charges filed.

May 4 Obama addresses Flint. Note: For details on search topic definitions and. sampling, see the Methodology. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of Google. Health API data for Jan. Essays The Majority! 5, 2014-July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis”

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. As key political actors and the federal government became publicly involved in the Flint water crisis, political searches at submit, the national level also came to the fore, posting a 363% growth the week of hamlet's soliloquies, Jan. 3 from the week before. The proportion of searches continued to grow by 139%, 52% and 10% in the following three weeks. In total, political searches at the national level grew to submit dissertation 19 times from what they were prior to Jan. 3. Even though all categories of Google searches about the Flint crisis reached their apex in January 2016, search interest continued at of dialogue, elevated levels through the end of the study, with smaller increases at key moments. Even after the January peak, the average activity across all categories and dissertation umi proquest geographic areas remained higher than the averages in 2015. Averages from Jan.

31-July 2, 2016, ranged between 17% and 323% higher than averages for thesis on perception all of dissertation, 2015, depending on the search category. At the same time, there were also smaller spikes in search activity, often tied to anatomy of a scientific research paper major events in submit dissertation umi proquest the story, especially in the Politics search category. Of Dialogue! For instance, in the week starting March 6, 2016 – the week of the Democratic presidential primary debate in submit Flint, which addressed the abstract art essay water crisis – national searches for submit dissertation political terms rose 19% from the week before. Similarly, political searches in Michigan registered a 31% uptick that week over the week prior, and in Flint, the week-by-week increase was 20%. A similar bump upward occurred around the paper week the first criminal charges were filed (April 20), suggesting continued interest in the political outlook of the water crisis. Conversation on Twitter about the Flint water crisis also exploded in submit January 2016. Social media have been another avenue through which people seek or share news, with 59% of Twitter users getting news on that particular site. Tweets about the Flint water crisis increased dramatically in essay television watching January 2016; from the week of Jan.

10 through the week of Jan. Submit Dissertation! 24, there were about 877,000 related tweets, up from about 58,000 the three weeks prior. By comparison, there were a total of about 7,000 tweets posted about the Flint water crisis in 2014, compared with about 92,000 in 2015 and about 2.1 million in the first half of 2016. Looking at the rate Twitter users were tweeting about the Flint water crisis, the weekly average number of tweets in the first half of 2016 skyrocketed compared with the weekly averages of 2014 and 2015: The weekly average number of a sonata, tweets in 2014 was 139; it was 1,787 in 2015; and in the first half of 2016 it was 81,338. Moreover, the Twitter conversation remained elevated for a couple of weeks following the events in January before dropping off. As with search activity, interest on submit umi proquest, Twitter was renewed the week of the Democratic debate in Flint (nearly 127,000 tweets) and the week of art essay, April 17, 2016 (about 92,000 tweets), when criminal charges were filed against a Flint city official and dissertation umi proquest two state workers tasked with monitoring water quality. Still, this resurgence of essays a sonata the majority writings, Twitter activity during these two events was much smaller than the number of tweets in January 2016. Twitter conversation about the Flint water crisis took off in 2016. Total number of Twitter posts about the Flint water crisis per submit umi proquest week across the U.S. President Obama declares state of emergency and offers $5M in essay aid. hold a debate in Flint.

State of emergency declared in Genesee County and Michigan. Obama addresses Flint. Note: Data include all publicly available tweets from this period that contain the terms “Flint” and “water.” Source: Pew Research Center analysis using Crimson Hexagon technology for submit Jan. Thesis Statement! 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Twitter conversation about the Flint water crisis took off in 2016. Total number of Twitter posts about the dissertation Flint water crisis per week across the abstract art essay U.S. President Obama declares state of emergency and offers $5M in aid. State of emergency declared in Genesee County and Michigan.

Obama addresses Flint. Note: Data include all publicly available tweets from umi proquest, this period that contain the terms “Flint” and anatomy paper “water.” Source: Pew Research Center analysis using Crimson Hexagon technology for Jan. Submit Dissertation Umi Proquest! 5, 2014July 2, 2016. “Searching for paper News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER.

Twitter conversation about the Flint water crisis took off in 2016. Total number of Twitter posts about the Flint water crisis per week across the umi proquest U.S. Jan 45 State of emergency declared in Genesee County and Michigan. Jan 16 President Obama declares state of television, emergency and offers $5M in aid. Mar 6 Democratic presidential candidates hold a debate in Flint. May 4 Obama addresses Flint. Note: Data include all publicly available tweets from this period that contain the submit umi proquest terms “Flint” and “water.” Source: Pew Research Center analysis using Crimson Hexagon technology for essays before Jan. 5, 2014July 2, 2016.

“Searching for News: The Flint Water Crisis” PEW RESEARCH CENTER. This first foray by the Center into the Google Health API was as much an exploration of how analyses of search data can shed light on the public’s response to submit news and events as it was a study of the the majority writings Flint water crisis. The detailed methodology is an effort to openly share what we learned through this process, and an accompanying blog post sums up some of the key methodological takeaways. This report was made possible by submit dissertation, The Pew Charitable Trusts.

Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of thesis statement on perception, The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder. This report is a collaborative effort based on submit umi proquest, the input and analysis of a number of individuals and experts at Pew Research Center. Of A Scientific Research Paper! Google’s data experts provided valuable input during the course of the project, from assistance in understanding the structure of the submit dissertation umi proquest data to consultation on methodological decisions. See for essays before example Seth Stephens-Davidowitz, “The cost of racial animus on a black candidate: Evidence using Google search data,” Journal of Public Economics 118, 26-40. Dissertation! #8617; During the month of July there were five stories identified in local and regional news coverage, mainly about the rising water prices due to the switch from Detroit’s water system to art essay Flint River and dissertation one story about a protest organized by a local city councilman in response to the rising. Anatomy Scientific! There was also no point during these five weeks in which coverage rose above the baseline level even as search interest was rising through the week starting Aug. 3 in Michigan and dissertation umi proquest Aug. 10 in of dialogue Flint. #8617; Similarly, the week of submit dissertation, May 25 that News and Media searches peaked, there was one New York Times story about the business repercussions that a water supply switch would have on essay television, the city of Detroit. This could have had some impact on searches though the lack of local coverage and the fact that the piece did not focus at all on water quality, and the fact that searches had already begun to rise before the publication of the umi proquest story suggests that this story could not have triggered the rise in searches. #8617; About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions.

It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts.

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Master s Theses & Ph D Dissertations: Submission Guidelines | Rare

When Women Become Men at Wellesley. Hundreds of young women streamed into submit umi proquest Wellesley College on the last Monday of August, many of thesis statement, them trailed by parents lugging suitcases and bins filled with folded towels, decorative pillows and Costco-size jugs of laundry detergent. Submit! The banner by essay of dialogue the campus entranceway welcoming the submit, Class of 2018 waved in the breeze, as if beckoning the newcomers to discover all that awaited them. All around the campus stood buildings named after women: the essay, Margaret Clapp library, the Betsy Wood Knapp media and technology center, dorms, labs, academic halls, even the parking garage. The message that anything is submit umi proquest, possible for women was also evident at a fenced-in work site, which bore the sign “Elaine Construction,” after a firm named for of dialogue one woman and dissertation umi proquest, run by another. It was the first day of orientation, and along the picturesque paths there were cheerful upper-class student leaders providing directions and encouragement. Hamlet's Essay! They wore pink T-shirts stamped with this year’s orientation theme: “Free to Explore” — an enticement that could be interpreted myriad ways, perhaps far more than the college intended. Dissertation Umi Proquest! One of those T-shirted helpers was a junior named Timothy Boatwright.

Like every other matriculating student at Wellesley, which is hamlet's through essay, just west of umi proquest, Boston, Timothy was raised a girl and checked “female” when he applied. Though he had told his high-school friends that he was transgender, he did not reveal that on before and other writings his application, in part because his mother helped him with it, and he didn’t want her to know. Besides, he told me, “it seemed awkward to dissertation write an application essay for a women’s college on why you were not a woman.” Like many trans students, he chose a women’s college because it seemed safer physically and psychologically. From the start, Timothy introduced himself as “masculine-of-center genderqueer.” He asked everyone at essay Wellesley to use male pronouns and the name Timothy, which he’d chosen for himself. For the most part, everyone respected his request. Submit Dissertation Umi Proquest! After all, he wasn’t the only trans student on campus. Some two dozen other matriculating students at Wellesley don’t identify as women. Of those, a half-dozen or so were trans men, people born female who identified as men, some of whom had begun taking testosterone to change their bodies.

The rest said they were transgender or genderqueer, rejecting the anatomy of a research paper, idea of gender entirely or identifying somewhere between female and male; many, like Timothy, called themselves transmasculine. Though his gender identity differed from that of most of his classmates, he generally felt comfortable at submit dissertation his new school. Last spring, as a sophomore, Timothy decided to run for a seat on the student-government cabinet, the highest position that an openly trans student had ever sought at Wellesley. Watching! The post he sought was multicultural affairs coordinator, or “MAC,” responsible for submit dissertation promoting “a culture of on perception, diversity” among students and staff and submit umi proquest, faculty members. Along with Timothy, three women of art essay, color indicated their intent to run for the seat.

But when they dropped out for various unrelated reasons before the race really began, he was alone on the ballot. Submit! An anonymous lobbying effort began on Facebook, pushing students to vote “abstain.” Enough “abstains” would deny Timothy the essays a sonata the majority, minimum number of votes Wellesley required, forcing a new election for the seat and providing an dissertation opportunity for hamlet's other candidates to dissertation come forward. The “Campaign to Abstain” argument was simple: Of all the people at a multiethnic women’s college who could hold the of dialogue, school’s “diversity” seat, the least fitting one was a white man . “It wasn’t about Timothy,” the dissertation, student behind the Abstain campaign told me. “I thought he’d do a perfectly fine job, but it just felt inappropriate to have a white man there. It’s not just about that position either. Having men in abstract art essay, elected leadership positions undermines the idea of this being a place where women are the leaders.” I asked Timothy what he thought about dissertation umi proquest, that argument, as we sat on a bench overlooking the growth through soliloquies essay, tranquil lake on campus during orientation. He pointed out that he has important contributions to make to the MAC position. After all, at Wellesley, masculine-of-center students are cultural minorities; by dissertation numbers alone, they’re about as minor as a minority can be. And yet Timothy said he felt conflicted about taking a leadership spot. “The patriarchy is alive and well,” he said. “I don’t want to perpetuate it.” In the essay of dialogue, 19th century, only men were admitted to most colleges and universities, so proponents of dissertation umi proquest, higher education for women had to build their own.

The missions at these new schools both defied and reinforced the gender norms of the anatomy of a paper, day. By offering women access to an education they’d previously been denied, the schools’ very existence was radical, but most were nevertheless premised on traditional notions: College-educated women were considered more likely to be engaging wives and umi proquest, better mothers, who would raise informed citizens. On Perception! Over time, of course, women’s colleges became more committed to preparing students for careers, but even in the early 1960s, Wellesley, for example, taught students how to get groceries into submit dissertation the back of a station wagon without exposing their thighs. By the watching, late 1960s, however, gender norms were under scrutiny. Amid the growing awareness of civil rights and women’s liberation, academic separation based on gender, as with race, seemed increasingly outdated. Submit Dissertation Umi Proquest! As a vast majority of women opted for coed schools, enrollment at women’s colleges tumbled. The number of women’s colleges dropped to fewer than 50 today from nearly 300. In response to abstract art essay shifting ideas about gender, many of the remaining women’s colleges redefined themselves as an umi proquest antidote to the sexism that feminists were increasingly identifying in society.

Women’s colleges argued that they offered a unique environment where every student leader was a woman, where female role models were abundant, where professors were far more likely to be women and of dialogue, where the umi proquest, message of women’s empowerment pervaded academic and essay, campus life. All that seemed to foster students’ confidence. Women’s colleges say their undergrads are more likely to major in fields traditionally dominated by submit men. A Sonata! Wellesley alumnae in particular are awarded more science and engineering doctorates than female graduates of umi proquest, any other liberal-arts college in television watching, the nation, according to submit government data. Its alums have become two secretaries of state; a groundbreaking string theorist; a NASA astronaut; and Korea’s first female ambassador. As women’s colleges challenged the conventions of womanhood, they drew a disproportionate number of students who identified as lesbian or bisexual. Today a small but increasing number of students at those schools do not identify as women, raising the question of what it means to essay be a “women’s college.” Trans students are pushing their schools to submit umi proquest play down the women-centric message. At Wellesley, Smith, Mount Holyoke and others, they and their many supporters have successfully lobbied to scrub all female references in of a research, student government constitutions, replacing them with gender-neutral language. At Wellesley, they have pressed administrators and fellow students to excise talk of sisterhood, arguing that that rhetoric, rather than being uplifting, excludes other gender minorities. Submit Dissertation! At many schools, they have also taken leadership positions long filled by women: resident advisers on of dialogue dorm floors, heads of student groups and members of college government.

At Wellesley, one transmasculine student was a dorm president. At Mills College, a women’s school in California, even the president of student government identifies as male. What’s a women’s college to dissertation do? Trans students point out that they’re doing exactly what these schools encourage: breaking gender barriers, fulfilling their deepest yearnings and forging ahead even when society tries to hold them back. But yielding to their request to dilute the focus on essay women would undercut the identity of a women’s college. While women in coed schools generally outpace men in enrollment and performance, the equation shifts after college: Recent female graduates working full time earn far less than their male counterparts, and more experienced women are often still shut out of corporate and political leadership — all of submit dissertation, which prompts women’s-college advocates to conclude that a four-year, confidence-building workshop still has its place. “Sisterhood is why I chose to go to Wellesley,” said a physics major who graduated recently and asked not to be identified for fear she’d be denounced for her opinion. “A women’s college is a place to celebrate being a woman, surrounded by women.

I felt empowered by that every day. You come here thinking that every single leadership position will be held by a woman: every member of the student government, every newspaper editor, every head of the Economics Council, every head of the Society of Physics. That’s an incredible thing! This is what they advertise to students. But it’s no longer true.

And if all that is no longer true, the thesis, intrinsic value of a women’s college no longer holds.” A few schools have formulated responses to this dilemma, albeit very different ones. Hollins University, a small women’s college in Virginia, established a policy several years ago stating it would confer diplomas to only women. Umi Proquest! It also said that students who have surgery or begin hormone therapy to become men — or who legally take male names — will be “helped to transfer to essay watching another institution.” Mount Holyoke and Mills College, on the other hand, recently decided they will not only continue to submit dissertation welcome students who become trans men while at school but will also admit those who identify on their applications as trans men, noting that welcoming the former and of a, not the submit dissertation umi proquest, latter seemed unjustifiably arbitrary. But most women’s colleges, including Wellesley, consider only female applicants. Once individuals have enrolled and announced that they are trans, the schools, more or less, leave it to the students to work out before and other writings how trans classmates fit into submit a women’s college. Essay Of Dialogue! Two of those students hashed it out submit dissertation umi proquest last fall after Kaden Mohamed, then a Wellesley senior who had been taking testosterone for seven months, watched a news program on WGBH-TV about the plummeting number of women’s colleges. One guest was Laura Bruno, another Wellesley senior. The other guest was the president of Regis College, a women’s school that went coed in 2007 to reverse its tanking enrollment. Essays Before The Majority! The interviewer asked Laura to describe her experience at submit umi proquest an “all-female school” and to explain how that might be diminished “by having men there.” Laura answered, “We look around and we see only abstract women, only people like us, leading every organization on campus, contributing to every class discussion.” Kaden, a manager of the campus student cafe who knew Laura casually, was upset by submit dissertation umi proquest her words.

He emailed Laura and television, said her response was “extremely disrespectful.” He continued: “I am not a woman. I am a trans man who is dissertation umi proquest, part of your graduating class, and you literally ignored my existence in your interview. . . . You had an watching opportunity to show people that Wellesley is a place that is complicating the meaning of being an ‘all women’s school,’ and dissertation umi proquest, you chose instead to displace a bunch of your current and past Wellesley siblings.” Laura apologized, saying she hadn’t meant to marginalize anyone and had actually vowed beforehand not to imply that all Wellesley students were women. But she said that under pressure, she found herself in a difficult spot: How could she maintain that women’s colleges would lose something precious by of dialogue including men, but at the same time argue that women’s colleges should accommodate students who identify as men? Although it may seem paradoxical, Jesse Austin said he chose to attend Wellesley because being female never felt right to him. “I figured if I was any kind of woman, I’d find it there. I knew Wellesley would have strong women. They produce a ton of strong women, strong in all sorts of submit, ways.” When Jesse arrived on campus in the fall of 2009, his name was Sara.

Eighteen years old, Sara wore form-fitting shirts and snug women’s jeans, because growing up in a small, conservative town in hamlet's growth essay, Georgia, she learned that that’s what girls were supposed to do — even though she never felt like a girl. As a child, Sara had always chosen to be male characters in pretend plays, and all her friends were boys. In middle school, those boys abandoned her because she was a social liability: not feminine enough to flirt with and not masculine enough to really be one of the guys. In high school, at the urging of well-intentioned female classmates, she started wearing her hair down instead of pulled back and umi proquest, began dressing like they did, even though people kept pointing out that she still acted and carried herself like a boy. “I had no idea that gender was something you could change,” Jesse told me recently. “I just thought I needed to make myself fit into these fixed places: There are boys, and there are girls. I knew I didn’t fit; I just didn’t know what was wrong with me.” Around the middle of Sara’s first year at Wellesley, she attended a presentation by hamlet's growth through soliloquies essay trans alums, including one who was in the process of transitioning. As Sara listened, the gender dysphoria she’d always felt suddenly made sense. “It was all so clear to me,” Jesse told me. “All I needed were the words.” Sara spent the next two weeks scouring the Internet for videos and submit dissertation, information on becoming a man. She learned that unlike previous generations, today’s trans young adults don’t consider physical transformation a prerequisite for identity. Essays A Sonata The Majority Writings! Some use hormones; some have their breasts removed in “top” surgery; some reject medical interventions altogether, as unnecessary invasions and expense.

She discovered that sexual orientation is independent of gender: Some trans men are attracted to submit women, some to men, some to both. And she learned that trans men aren’t necessarily determined to hide the fact they were raised as girls, or that they once attended a women’s college. Soon after, Sara cut her hair short and bought her first pair of men’s jeans. Essay! Sara told friends she was a man. Submit Dissertation Umi Proquest! By second semester, he was using male pronouns and calling himself Jesse, the other name his mother had considered for her daughter. He also joined a tiny campus group for hamlet's through soliloquies students who knew or suspected they were trans men. It was called Brothers, a counterweight to submit dissertation the otherwise ubiquitous message of sisterhood.

That summer, Jesse saw a gender therapist, and scientific research paper, early in his sophomore year, he began injecting testosterone into his thigh every two weeks, making him one of the first students to submit medically transform into thesis a man while at Wellesley. Submit Dissertation! He became the administrator of Brothers. Though he felt supported, he also felt alone; all the other trans men on campus had graduated, and the other students in Brothers were not even sure they identified as men. Outside Brothers, everything at Wellesley was still sisterhood and female empowerment. Nevertheless, he said, “I thought of Wellesley as my home, my community. I felt fine there, like I totally belonged.” Jesse decided he wanted to have top surgery over winter break, and his parents agreed to pay for it. He returned for spring semester but only briefly, taking a sudden leave of absence to go home and essays a sonata the majority and other writings, help care for his ill father. When Jesse re-enrolled at Wellesley a year and a half later, in fall 2012, much had changed in dissertation umi proquest, Jesse and at school. Having been on testosterone for essay television two years at that point, Jesse no longer looked like a woman trying to pass as a man.

His voice was deep. His facial hair was thick, though he kept it trimmed to a stubble. His shoulders had become broad and muscular, his hips narrow, his arms and chest more defined. Wellesley was different, too. Submit Dissertation! By then, a whole crowd of people identified as trans — enough for two trans groups. Brothers had officially become Siblings and welcomed anyone anywhere on the gender spectrum except those who identified as women.

Meanwhile, Jesse and some transmasculine students continued to meet unofficially as Brothers, though Jesse was the essays and other writings, only one on testosterone. Over all, campus life had a stronger trans presence than ever. At least four of the school’s 70 R.A.s did not identify as women. Student organizations increasingly began meetings by asking everyone to submit dissertation state preferred names and pronouns. Around campus, more and more students were replacing “sisterhood” with “siblinghood” in conversation. Even the hamlet's soliloquies, school’s oldest tradition, Flower Sunday — the dissertation umi proquest, 138-year-old ceremony that paired each incoming student with an upper-class Big Sister to essay television watching support her — had become trans-inclusive. Though the school website still describes Flower Sunday as “a day of sisterhood,” the department that runs the event yielded to trans students’ request and started referring to each participant as a Big or Little “Sister/Sibling” — or simply as Bigs and Littles. And yet even with the increased visibility of trans students on submit dissertation umi proquest campus, Jesse stood out. When he swiped his Wellesley ID card to get into friends’ dorms, the groundskeepers would stop him and say, “You can’t go in there without a woman to anatomy of a escort you.” Residential directors who spotted him in the dorm stairwells told him the same thing. Submit Dissertation! In his own dorm, parents who were visiting their daughters would stop him to ask why he was there. Because bathrooms in essay of dialogue, the dorms are not labeled “women” or “men” but rather “Wellesley only” and “non-Wellesley,” students who didn’t know Jesse would call him out for submit dissertation using the “Wellesley only” bathroom instead of the one for visitors.

When he tried to explain he was a Wellesley student, people sometimes thought he was lying. “Everything felt very different than it had before,” he said of that semester. “I felt so distinctly male, and I felt extremely awkward. I felt like an outsider. My voice was jarring — a male voice, which is so distinct in a classroom of women — so I felt weird saying much in class. Thesis On Perception! I felt much more aware of Wellesley as a women’s place, even though the college was starting to change.” Once spring semester ended, Jesse withdrew. “I still think of Wellesley as a women’s place, and I still think that’s a wonderful idea,” he said. Submit Umi Proquest! “It just didn’t encompass me anymore. I felt it was a space I shouldn’t tread in.” Some female students, meanwhile, said Wellesley wasn’t female enough.

They complained among themselves and to the administration that sisterhood had been hijacked. “Siblinghood,” they argued, lacked the statement, warm, pro-women connotation of “sisterhood,” as well as its historic resonance. Others were upset that even at umi proquest a women’s college, women were still expected to before and other accommodate men, ceding attention and submit dissertation, leadership opportunities intended for television women. Still others feared the dissertation, changes were a step toward coeducation. Despite all that, many were uneasy: As a marginalized group fighting for respect and clout, how could women justify marginalizing others? “I felt for essay television watching the first time that something so stable about our school was about to change, and it made me scared,” said Beth, a junior that year, who asked to be identified by only her middle name because she was afraid of offending people she knew. “Changing ‘sister’ to submit ‘sibling’ didn’t feel like it was including more people; it felt like it was taking something away from sisterhood, transforming our safe space for the sake of someone else. On Perception! At the same time, I felt guilty feeling that way.” Beth went to submit dissertation Kris Niendorf, the statement, director of residential life, who listened sympathetically and dissertation, then asked: Why does “sibling” take away from abstract your experience? After thinking about it, Beth concluded that she was connected to her classmates not because of gender but because of their shared experiences at Wellesley. Umi Proquest! “That year was an epiphany for me. I realized that if we excluded trans students, we’d be fighting on the wrong team. We’d be on the wrong side of history.” Exactly how Wellesley will resolve the trans question is anatomy of a scientific, still unclear.

Trans students say that aside from making sure every academic building on campus has a unisex bathroom, Wellesley has not addressed what gender fluidity means for Wellesley’s identity. Last spring, Alex Poon won Wellesley’s 131-year-old hoop-rolling race, an annual spirit-building competition among seniors. Alex’s mother was the hoop-rolling champion of the Class of ’82 and had long ago taught her daughters the ways of the hoop, on the assumption that they would one day attend her alma mater. (One of Alex’s older sisters was Wellesley Class of ’11; another went to Bryn Mawr.) Alex was a former Girl Scout who attended an all-girls high school. Submit! But unknown to his mother, he was using Google to search for an explanation for his confusing feelings. By the essay watching, time Alex applied to dissertation umi proquest Wellesley, he secretly knew he was trans but was nonetheless certain Wellesley was a good fit. For one thing, going there was a family tradition; for another, it was a place where gender could be reimagined. In his sophomore year at Wellesley, he went public with his transgender status.

On hoop-rolling day, Alex — wearing a cap backward on his buzz-cut hair — broke through the finish-line streamer. President H. Kim Bottomly took a selfie with him, each with a wide smile. Essay! A small local newspaper covered the event, noting that for the first time in the school’s history, the winner was a man. And yet the page on Wellesley’s website devoted to submit umi proquest school traditions continues to describe the hamlet's growth, race as if it involves only women. “Back in the day, it was proclaimed that whoever won the Hoop Roll would be the first to get married. Submit! In the status-seeking 1980s, she was the essay of dialogue, first to be C.E.O. Now we just say that the winner will be the first to submit achieve happiness and success, whatever that means to growth soliloquies essay her.” But Alex isn’t a her, and he told me that his happiness and success includes being recognized for what he is: a man. That page is not the only place on the site where Wellesley markets itself as a school of only female students.

Elsewhere, it crows that “all the most courageous, most provocative, most accomplished people on campus are women.” The student body, it says, is dissertation, “2,300 smart, singular women feeling the power of 2,300 smart, singular women together” on a campus where “our common identity, spirit and pride as Wellesley women” are celebrated. Those sorts of messages, trans students say, make them feel invisible. “I just wish the administration would at least acknowledge our existence,” said Eli Cohen, a Wellesley senior who has been taking testosterone for nearly a year. Art Essay! “I’d be more O.K. Dissertation! with ‘We’re not going to cater to you, because men are catered to hamlet's growth through everywhere else in life,’ rather than just pretending we don’t exist.” Some staff and faculty members, however, are acknowledging the trans presence. Women-and-gender-studies professors, and a handful of others, typically begin each semester asking students to indicate the names and pronouns they prefer for themselves. Submit Dissertation! Kris Niendorf, director of art essay, campus and residential life, recruits trans students who want to be R.A.s., as she does with all minorities. Submit Dissertation Umi Proquest! Niendorf also initiated informational panels with trans students and alums. Art Essay! And before this school year began, at dissertation the urging of essays the majority and other, trans students, Niendorf required all 200 student leaders to attend a trans-sensitivity workshop focused on how to “create a more inclusive Wellesley College.” For the last few years, orientation organizers have also included a trans student as one of the submit dissertation umi proquest, half-dozen upper-class students who stand before the incoming first-years and recount how they overcame a difficult personal challenge. And yet many trans students feel that more needs to research paper be done.

They complain that too many professors assume all their students are women. Students provided numerous examples in courses across subject areas where they’ve been asked their viewpoint “as a woman.” In a course on westerns two years ago, an essay assignment noted that western films and novels were aimed at male audiences and focused on masculinity. Submit! The professors asked students for their perspective “as a female reader or watcher” — wording that offended the essay, three trans students in class. When a classmate pointed out the dissertation, problematic wording to growth through soliloquies the professors, the submit umi proquest, instructors asked everyone instead “to explore how your own gender identity changes how you approach westerns.” At times, professors find themselves walking a fine line. Essay Of Dialogue! Thomas Cushman, who has taught sociology at Wellesley for the last 25 years, first found out about Wellesley’s trans population five years ago, after a student in one of his courses showed up at Cushman’s office and introduced himself as a trans male. The student pointed out that every example Cushman gave in class referred to submit dissertation women, and every generic pronoun he used was female, as in “Ask your classmate if she. Essay! . . . Dissertation! He told Cushman that Wellesley could no longer call itself a “women’s college,” given the presence of trans men, and he asked Cushman to hamlet's growth through essay use male pronouns and submit dissertation, male examples more often, so trans students didn’t feel excluded. Of Dialogue! Cushman said he would abide by dissertation umi proquest whatever pronoun individual students requested for themselves, but he drew the line at changing his emphasis on women. “All my life here,” Cushman told me, “I’ve been compelled to use the essay of dialogue, female pronoun more generously to submit dissertation umi proquest get away from the sexist ‘he.’ I think it’s important to a sonata the majority and other writings evoke the submit dissertation umi proquest, idea that women are part of before a sonata, humanity.

That should be affirmed, especially after being denied for so long. Dissertation Umi Proquest! Look, I teach at a women’s college, so whenever I can make women’s identity central to that experience, I try to do that. Being asked to change that is anatomy paper, a bit ironic. Submit Umi Proquest! I don’t agree that this is a ‘historically’ women’s college. It is through soliloquies, still a women’s college.”

On the submit dissertation umi proquest, second day of orientation this fall, Eli Cohen arrived on campus in a muscle T and men’s shorts, with a carabiner full of keys hanging from his belt loop. He was elated to be back to essays a sonata the majority writings the place that felt most like home. Submit Umi Proquest! It was the first time in four years that Eli had not been part of orientation — first as a newcomer and then two years as an R.A. We hung out in the Lulu Chow Wang Campus Center, known affectionately as Lulu, and watched the excited first-years flutter by, clutching their orientation schedules and television watching, their newly purchased Wellesley wear. Just 12 days earlier, Eli underwent top surgery, which he said gave him a newfound self-assurance in his projection of manhood. It had been nine months since he started testosterone, and the effects had become particularly noticeable over the three-month summer break. His jaw line had begun to submit square, his limbs to essays a sonata the majority and other thicken and the hair on his arms and dissertation umi proquest, legs to essays before a sonata the majority darken. And of course now his chest was a flat wall.

As his friends caught sight of him for the first time in months, they hugged him and gushed, “You look sooo good!” Though Eli secretly suspected in umi proquest, high school that he was a boy, it wasn’t until after he arrived at Wellesley that he could imagine he might one day declare himself a man. By his second year, he had buzz-cut his hair and started wearing men’s clothes. He asked his friends to call him Beckett, which is hamlet's soliloquies, similar to his female birth name, which he asked me not to mention. His parents live only 14 miles away and dropped by for short visits. He left his girl nameplate on his dorm door. Submit Umi Proquest! His friends understood that whenever his parents arrived, everyone was to revert to his female name and its attendant pronouns. He was an R.A. at the time and decided not to hamlet's through soliloquies reveal his male name to his first-year students, figuring it was too complicated to explain which name to use when. Given how guarded he had to be, being Beckett was exhausting and anxiety-inducing.

Demoralized, he eventually told his pals to just use his birth name. Umi Proquest! The summer after his sophomore year, he got an thesis statement internship at a Boston health center serving the L.G.B.T. community, and submit, many of his co-workers were trans. Their confidence gave him confidence. When the Wellesley office that coordinates internships sent out an email to of a scientific research paper all interns that began, “Good morning, ladies . . . ,” he emailed back to say he did not identify as a woman. The coordinator apologized and submit umi proquest, explained that all the names on her paperwork from Wellesley were female. By summer’s end, he began introducing himself as Eli, a name utterly unlike his birth name. Thesis Statement! Eli mustered the courage to tell his parents.

It took a little while for his mother to submit dissertation accept that her only abstract daughter was actually a son, but she came around. When I asked Eli if trans men belonged at Wellesley, he said he felt torn. “I don’t necessarily think we have a right to women’s spaces. But I’m not going to transfer, because this is submit dissertation, a place I love, a community I love. I realize that may be a little selfish. It may be a lot selfish.” Where, he wondered, should Wellesley draw a line, if a line should even be drawn? At trans men? At transmasculine students? What about students who are simply questioning their gender? Shouldn’t students be “free to explore” without fearing their decision will make them unwelcome? Other trans students have struggled with these questions, too.

Last December, a transmasculine Wellesley student wrote an anonymous blog post that shook the school’s trans community. The student wrote to apologize for growth through soliloquies essay “acting in dissertation umi proquest, the interest of preserving a hurtful system of privileging masculinity.” He continued: “My feelings have changed: I do not think that trans men belong at Wellesley. . Abstract Art Essay! . . This doesn’t mean that I think that all trans men should be kicked out of Wellesley or necessarily denied admission.” He acknowledged he didn’t know how Wellesley could best address the trans question, but urged fellow transmasculine classmates to “start talking, and thinking critically, about the submit dissertation, space that we are given and occupying, and the space that we are taking from women.” The reactions were swift and abstract, strong. “A lot of dissertation umi proquest, trans people on campus felt emotionally unsafe,” recalled Timothy, a sophomore that year. Abstract! “A place that seemed welcoming suddenly wasn’t. Submit Umi Proquest! The difficulty was that because it was a trans person saying it, people who don’t have enough of an understanding to appreciate the nuance of this can say, ‘Well, even a trans person says there shouldn’t be trans people at statement Wellesley, so it’s O.K. for submit me to think the art essay, same thing, too.’ ” Students and submit dissertation, alums — queer and straight, trans and not — weighed in, sometimes in agreement but other times in essay, anger. Some accused the submit dissertation umi proquest, blogger of research, speaking on behalf of dissertation, women as if they were unable to essay speak for themselves. Others accused him of betraying transmasculine students. (He declined to comment for this article.) But other students, including several transmasculine ones, were glad he had the courage to start a public discussion about Wellesley’s deeply conflicted identity. “It’s a very important conversation to have,” Eli said. Dissertation Umi Proquest! “Why can’t we have this conversation without feeling hurt or hated?” In some ways, students are already having that conversation, though perhaps indirectly. Abstract! Timothy ended up easily winning his seat on the student government last spring, capturing two-thirds of the votes. Given that 85 percent of the student body cast ballots in dissertation umi proquest, that race, his victory suggests most students think that transmasculine students — and transmasculine leaders — belong at abstract Wellesley.

Another difficult conversation about trans students touches on the disproportionate attention they receive on campus. “The female-identified students somehow place more value on those students,” said Rose Layton, a lesbian who said she views trans students as competitors in the campus dating scene. “They flirt with them, hook up with them. And it’s not just the hetero women, but even people in submit dissertation umi proquest, the queer community. Essay! The trans men are always getting this extra bit of acknowledgment. Even though we’re in a women’s college, the fact is men and masculinity get more attention and more value in this social dynamic than women do.” Jesse Austin noticed the paradox when he returned to campus with a man’s build and full swath of beard stubble after nearly two years on testosterone. “That was the first time in my life I was popular!

People were clamoring to dissertation date me.” Trans bodies are seen as an in-between option, Timothy said. “So no matter your sexuality, a trans person becomes safe to art essay flirt with, to explore with. But it’s not really the person you’re interested in, it’s the novelty. For lesbians, there’s the safety of dissertation umi proquest, ‘I may be attracted to this person, but they’re “really” a woman, so I’m not actually bi or straight.’ And for straight people, it’s ‘I may be attracted to a woman’s body, but he’s a male, so I’m not really lesbian or bi.’ ” Kaden Mohamed said he felt downright objectified when he returned from summer break last year, after five months of testosterone had lowered his voice, defined his arm muscles and reshaped his torso. It was attention that he had never experienced before he transitioned. But as his body changed, students he didn’t even know would run their hands over his biceps. Thesis Statement! Once at the school pub, an intoxicated Wellesley woman even grabbed his crotch and submit dissertation, that of another trans man. “It’s this very bizarre reversal of what happens in the real world,” Kaden said. “In the essay, real world, it’s women who get fetishized, catcalled, sexually harassed, grabbed. At Wellesley, it’s trans men who do.

If I were to go up to someone I just met and touch her body, I’d get grief from the entire Wellesley community, because they’d say it’s assault — and it is. But for some reason, when it’s done to trans men here, it doesn’t get read the same way. It’s like a free pass, that suddenly it’s O.K. to talk about or touch someone’s body as long as they’re not a woman.” While trans men are allowed at most women’s colleges if they identify as female when applying, trans women — people raised male who go on to identify as women — have found it nearly impossible to get through the campus gates. Dissertation! Arguably, a trans woman’s identity is more compatible with a women’s college than a trans man’s is. But most women’s colleges require that all of an applicant’s documentation indicate the candidate is female. Essay Of Dialogue! That’s a high bar for a 17- or 18-year-old born and raised male, given that so few come out as trans in high school. Umi Proquest! (Admissions policies at private undergraduate schools are exempt from Title IX, which bans gender discrimination at scientific schools receiving federal funds.) Two years ago, Calliope Wong, a high-school trans woman from submit dissertation Connecticut, applied to abstract Smith College, but her application was returned because her federal aid form indicated she was male. She posted the rejection letter online, catalyzing a storm on the Internet and student rallies at dissertation Smith.

Smith eventually agreed to require that the applicant be referred to essay as female only in submit dissertation, the transcript and recommendation letters, but not on hamlet's through soliloquies financial-aid documents; by then, however, Wong had decided to attend the University of Connecticut. For its part, Wellesley has never admitted a trans woman, at least not knowingly. Many Wellesley students, including some who are uncomfortable having trans men on campus, say that academically eligible trans women should be admitted, regardless of the gender on submit their application documents. Others are wary of opening Wellesley’s doors too quickly — including one of of dialogue, Wellesley’s trans men, who asked not to be named because he knew how unpopular his stance would be. He said that Wellesley should accept only trans women who have begun sex-changing medical treatment or have legally changed their names or sex on umi proquest their driver’s licenses or birth certificates. “I know that’s a lot to ask of an 18-year-old just applying to college,” he said, “but at the same time, Wellesley needs to maintain its integrity as a safe space for women. What if someone who is essays the majority, male-bodied comes here genuinely identified as female, and then decides after a year or two that they identify as male — and wants to stay at Wellesley? How’s that different from admitting a biological male who identifies as a man? Trans men are a different case; we were raised female, we know what it’s like to be treated as females and we have been discriminated against submit dissertation, as females. We get what life has been like for women.”

In May, Mills College became the first women’s college to broaden its admissions policy to include self-identified trans women, even those who haven’t legally or medically transitioned and even if their transcripts or recommendation letters refer to them as male. The new policy, which begins by affirming Mills’s commitment to remaining a women’s college, also welcomes biological females who identify anywhere on watching the gender spectrum, as long as they haven’t become legally male. Umi Proquest! The change grew out of two years of essay, study by a committee of faculty and submit dissertation umi proquest, staff, which noted that Mills has always fought gender-based oppression and television watching, concluded, “Trans inclusiveness represents not an erasure but an updating of this mission.” Mills also aims to educate students, staff and faculty members to be more trans inclusive, said Brian O’Rourke, who oversees enrollment at the college and dissertation, was the president’s liaison to the committee. I asked O’Rourke if that included reducing the focus on women in the classroom. “I honestly don’t know,” he said. “We had a national speaker on trans issues join us on television campus about a year ago, and one of the things she suggested is umi proquest, that we stop referring to essay Mills as a women’s college, because that concept is exclusionary. In the auditorium, there was an audible gasp. We’ve had a lot of submit umi proquest, conversations about how to thesis statement stress women’s leadership and women’s empowerment and at the same time, include people who may not identify as women.

The answer is: We don’t know yet.” Last month, Mount Holyoke College announced a more far-reaching policy: It would admit all academically qualified students regardless of their anatomy or self-proclaimed gender, except for those biologically male at submit birth who still identify as male. In a list that reflects just how much traditional notions of television, gender have been upended, Mount Holyoke said eligible candidates now include anyone born biologically female, whether identified as woman, man, neither or “other” and submit dissertation umi proquest, anyone born biologically male who identifies as a woman or “other.” The school president, Lynn Pasquerella, said she and her officers made the decision after concluding it was an issue of civil rights. But Pasquerella said accommodations for trans students will not include changing the school’s mission. Of Dialogue! “We’re first and foremost committed to being a women’s college,” she told me. “I’m not going to stop using the language of sisterhood.” She mentioned she taught a class in critical race theory two years ago and told her students, “When I use the term ‘sisterhood,’ I’m using it in dissertation, a way that acknowledges the fact that not everybody here identifies as a woman. It is a rhetorical device . Of Dialogue! . Dissertation! . , but it is not intended to exclude anybody.” I said her explanation seemed like the one for using “he” as a generic pronoun for a male or female. She offered a different analogy, noting the parallel between women’s colleges and statement, historically black colleges and universities. “Isn’t it still legitimate to speak of dissertation umi proquest, being a community of color even if you have half a dozen students who aren’t individuals of anatomy of a, color?” she asked. Submit Dissertation! “The same might be said about women’s colleges. Our mission was built upon education for women, and while we recognize that not everyone identifies this way, this is who we are and how we talk about things.” Meanwhile, Wellesley continues to hamlet's soliloquies essay struggle with its own identity.

In August, Debra DeMeis, the dean of submit dissertation umi proquest, students, told me the administration had not yet worked out how to be a women’s college at a time when gender is no longer considered binary. President H. Kim Bottomly and Jennifer C. Essays A Sonata And Other Writings! Desjarlais, the dean of admissions, declined to talk to me. But a few days after Mount Holyoke’s announcement, Bottomly released a statement saying that Wellesley would begin to think about how to address the trans question. On the submit umi proquest, last Friday in May, some 5,000 parents, alumnae and hamlet's soliloquies essay, soon-to-be graduates streamed onto the rolling field near Severance Hall, named after Elisabeth Severance, a generous 1887 alumna. It was a gorgeous, temperate morning for Wellesley’s 136th annual commencement, and umi proquest, once the last baccalaureate degree was conferred, the audience was asked to stand. As is the school’s tradition, two graduates led an uplifting rendition of “America, the essays before the majority and other, Beautiful.” The lyrics, for those who needed them, were printed in submit dissertation, the commencement program, including the chorus: “And crown thy good, with brotherhood, from sea to shining sea!” Those words were penned by Katharine Lee Bates, an 1880 graduate of essays a sonata the majority writings, Wellesley who defied the dissertation umi proquest, expectations of her gender, and not just by before the majority and other writings becoming a professor, published author and famous poet. A pastor’s daughter, she never married, living instead for 25 years with Katharine Coman, founder of Wellesley’s economics department, with whom she was deeply in love. When a colleague described “free-flying spinsters” as a “fringe on submit the garment of a sonata, life,” Bates, then 53, answered: “I always thought the fringe had the best of it.” As parents, professors and graduates joined in the singing of Bates’s most famous poem, many felt an intense pride in their connection to the graduates and this remarkable college, which has sent forth so many women who leave impressive marks on the world.

As the hundreds of submit umi proquest, voices rounded the curve on “And crown thy good with . . . ,” the unknowing parents continued to “brotherhood,” the word that was always supposed to stand in for women too, but never really did. Wellesley women long ago learned that words matter, and for decades, this has been the point in the song when their harmonious choral singing abruptly becomes a bellow as they belt out “sisterhood,” drowning out the word that long excluded them and hamlet's growth through essay, replacing it with a demand for submit dissertation recognition. Thesis Statement On Perception! It’s one of the most powerful moments of commencement, followed every year by cheers, applause and tears, evoked by submit dissertation umi proquest the rush of solidarity with women throughout time, and the thrill of thesis on perception, claiming in one of the nation’s most famous songs that women matter — even if the world they’re about to enter doesn’t always agree. In the last few years, a handful of umi proquest, graduates have changed that word once again, having decided that “sisterhood,” no matter how well intended, is exclusionary, and of dialogue, so they instead call out “siblinghood.” A few trans men find even that insufficient, and in that instant, they roar the submit dissertation, word that represents them best: “brotherhood,” not as a sexist stand-in for all humankind, but as an appeal from a tiny minority struggling to essay be acknowledged. In truth, it’s difficult to distinguish in the cacophony each of the umi proquest, words shouted atop one another. What is clear is that whatever word each person is hollering is immensely significant as a proclamation of existence, even if it’s hard to make out what anyone else is saying. Ruth Padawer is of dialogue, a contributing writer for the magazine and teaches at the Columbia School of dissertation umi proquest, Journalism.

I listened to only female singers all summer. Thesis! Here’s what I learned. Six writers on their favorite cultural experiences of 2017. After years as the umi proquest, industry’s top African-American talent agent, Charles D. King is building an audacious new production company — with a vision for bringing long-neglected stories to the screen.

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Who are your customers? When will things get done? When are bills due, and when do you get paid? To guide entrepreneurs in completing their four-question business plan, Go provides a simplified way of essay watching answering each question in his blog post on the subject. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to submit help you with writing a complete business plan, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from of dialogue a variety of vendors for free. Updated on May 1, 2015.

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