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ENG 101 - Intro to Argumentative Synthesis

A video providing an introduction to argumentative synthesis for Prof. Rand s ENG 101 class. Table of Contents: 01:24 -

How to Write a Synthesis Essay - A Research Guide for Students

Explanatory synthesis essay thesis

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Formula SAE: Shaping Engineers Who Think Outside the Box. Front to back: Some leaders of the current SAE Formula team: team captain and explanatory synthesis president, Mike Bastanipour; Suspension Team leader main driver, Keith Harris; Alex Allmandinger, Aerodynamics Team leader. December 19, 2014. It makes sense that three MechSE upperclassmen, senior Mike Bastanipour and listing thesis juniors Alex Allmandinger and explanatory thesis Keith Harris, some of the leaders of Illinois ' Formula SAE racing team, want careers in gcses, the automotive industry or motor sports. They've spent the last several years designing and competing a high-performance racing car and interning at companies like Ford and Chrysler. But, they've been infatuated with cars since way before that. For instance, it's been Allmandinger's chosen profession ever since he had an epiphany and resigned himself to explanatory synthesis essay thesis the fact that he wouldn't get to be a professional athlete: About the age of 12, I realized I wasn't cut out for that! he admits. Allmandinger sees motorsports as a perfect marriage—joining his love of cars and his love of competition: I've grown up loving cars, but I've also been very competitive. Motorsports is the one thing that combines the automotive industry with the competition side of things. That drive to get things done on short deadlines, trying to beat other teams, trying to be the supply paper best—I think that's what draws me towards motorsports.

Harris' career aspirations are similar. Definitely something with cars, he says, since I've been around cars for so long, and explanatory essay thesis it's just kind of become a part of me. He says motorsports has lots of job opportunities: Indy car, Nascar, Formula 1. There's a lot of coursework, need for engineers since all of those teams are trying to improve the cars and thesis win. And motorsports is listing thesis, why these students chose Illinois . For instance, Harris recalls that two brothers visited his high school and synthesis essay gave a presentation about gcses coursework, SAE. Afterwards, he told himself, I'm going to explanatory essay do that; I absolutely want to do that. In fact, he was actually considering a school in Austria, but says the whole learning-German thing made it hard. Harris (seated in the Formula SAE car) along with a number of other team members showed up to woo high school visitors during MechSE's Open House this past fall.

So with SAE uppermost in his mind, during each school visit he would get a personal tour of the garage and meet the process essay team. Illinois was a step above and was really pretty impressive, he says. It was definitely one of the biggest drivers in explanatory essay, deciding where to essay go. The Formula SAE team (named for thesis, their main competition hosted by the Society of national security, Automotive Engineers) is comprised of students from across Engineering, with around half from MechSE. However, their car involves more than just mechanical. An aerodynamics subsystem (comprised mostly of aerospace students) builds the bodywork and works to boost the car's performance. The electrical team (mostly from synthesis essay thesis ECE and Computer Engineering) does the chain - research paper electronics. But the explanatory thesis three believe SAE's interdisciplinary aspect has made them more well-rounded. Making Process. For example, for explanatory synthesis essay thesis, three years, Bastanipour worked on the electronics subsystem. (Team captain this year, he's taken on more managerial duties.)

People usually shop around and creative art institute choose the subsystem they have the most fun on—whatever interests them the most, not necessarily what they're cut out to do, based on their degree, says Bastanipour. Because you can learn a lot more when you do that. Take Allmandinger. He was torn between mechanical and aerospace when he applied to Illinois ; being on the aerodynamics subsystem has filled that aerospace niche. The things we're doing are taught in 400-level aero classes: designing foils, designing aero package, a lot of high technicality analysis work, he says. It's really allowed me to expand outside of the explanatory synthesis mechanical realm.

While Harris has mostly been mechanical (last year he led the optimization paper chassi subsystem; this year he switched to suspension), he has another big responsibility: he's the synthesis thesis main driver during races. In addition to exposing members to gcses other disciplines, SAE fills another void: project-based learning: I think the explanatory biggest benefit is the hands-on work that you get to do, says Bastanipour. He says most MechSE courses are theoretical; students don't really build any projects or apply what they learn in class. The cool part about this is, you take what you're learning in class…and you get to make real stuff with it. For example, they design something, analyze it (if it's structural, make sure it's not going to range plan break, but can last the whole racing season), figure out explanatory how to manufacture it, make it, then assemble it to essays the car.

And integrating their part with what other team members are doing teaches them a real-world skill—cooperating with others. Bastanipour says, Just the sheer amount of hands-on work, gives SAE students a jump start on their careers: All the stuff you'd learn later on in industry, you get to learn here for explanatory synthesis thesis, four years just by joining a team and working on a car. Aerodynamics Team leader Alex Allmandinger shows how one of the machines in making process, their shop, a Shopbot 5-Axis CNC Router, works. Allmandinger says another benefit is learning how to design something that can be manufactured cost-effectively: It is explanatory synthesis, easy to listing thesis design a super intricate part that works really well, but would cost 20–30 grand to manufacture, he admits. But SAE has helped them learn what's feasible, and what's not. Harris adds that, on explanatory synthesis thesis, class projects, there's a pretty notable difference between SAE versus non-SAE students: It just puts you miles ahead of the people who haven't had those same experiences. While two revamped mechanical design classes involve projects (student teams build a contraption to complete in process essay, a challenge), They still don't reach the level of explanatory essay, having a really big part on creative writing chicago art institute, a car and having to do all the explanatory synthesis essay thesis steps, says Bastanipour. He equates what they do with senior design: a lot of driving range plan, work, and explanatory essay going through all the same paces that people on this team do.

Their hard work all fall designing then building their race car pays off—and is tested—in spring at the two big races in which they compete. The biggest one, held at the Michigan International Speedway, is a two-part competition with static (such as business/marketing and chicago art institute design) and dynamic events (such as racing). For one static event, teams design a business and marketing plan for starting a company to make their car and sell it to weekend racers. For the design event, people from industry come in and evaluate our designs and grill us about why we did what we did, says Harris. Since Michigan is the synthesis essay home of U.S. automobile manufacturing, judges are from nearby companies: Ford, Chrysler, GM, etc.

Harris and Bastanipour, who both interned at Bosch, knew one of the writing art institute design judges. One of my coworkers was a judge who specifically had our team and spoke to us, admits Bastanipour. So did knowing the judge help the team? Bastanipour's cryptic retort: It was interesting. He explains that, rather than giving them points because he knew them, the judge was a little bit harsher since he expected more out of thesis, us.

The one perk: knowing the judge made it more casual, it was somebody we knew that we could talk to, ask questions. While the guys say Formula SAE is driving business, not about the fastest car, they're proud of their accomplishments and keep their many trophies on essay thesis, display. While the team loves competing—they want to build a fast car and, obviously, want to win—that's not their primary motivation: We haven't really lost sight of the fact that it's an engineering competition, says Allmandinger. Listing Thesis. It's more about learning than it is explanatory synthesis, about making the fastest car possible. Listing Thesis. So we could skip a lot of steps and essay make a really, really fast car, but we would be losing a lot of the chain optimization - research paper whole design process and a lot of learning components for new members.

In fact, they often opt for learning over explanatory synthesis thesis winning because of financial considerations: You can spend money on listing thesis, the best components and all the best parts, admits Allmandinger. Some of the things we design ourselves, actual companies make, and synthesis essay probably make them better, but they're way more expensive. But just going out and buying a part wouldn't be the same as designing your own, actually going through the whole design and manufacturing process. That's where you learn the most. So just how much does money come into play? Is there a ceiling on how much teams can spend?

The answer is: no, the sky's the chain optimization limit. You could really spend until you ran out of explanatory essay, money, admits Bastanipour. So don't teams with a member whose dad is security essays, really rich have an unfair advantage? The answer is: yes—daddy can foot the bill. That's how all of racing is, says Harris. There's always the rich dad who bankrolls people.

But while motorsports may have embraced the old saying, Money makes the world go ‘round, (or the racing car), the guys say it's a good thing on synthesis thesis, many levels. For one, the financial incentive contributes to teams' interdisciplinarity…and networking: Teams that stretch out from just doing engineering to doing more PR and sponsorship outreach definitely benefit from it, says Bastanipour. He says teams can spend well into the six figures and have tons and national security essays tons of logos on the car, because one of their goals is to reach out; if they need to synthesis essay make or order a part, they try to chain - research paper get it for free. So, one of motorsport's unspoken rules is, The more that you can network with people and synthesis essay get stuff, recites Bastanipour, the driving better you'll do overall. Allmandinger says networking can net more than just free parts. Having really good connections with sponsors has gotten team members internships…then jobs. Then, in a further chicken-and-egg effect, having alumni in explanatory synthesis, companies ensures their getting first dibs on parts. For example, in August, their alumni at Ford, which has a really big lead time on parts, say, Hey, if you guys need anything made we can do it; just get it to us now.

So Bastanipour sends a list of range business, already-designed parts, and explanatory synthesis essay thesis Ford whips them up. So yeah, admits Bastanipour, it's definitely good to have ins with those big companies that can make stuff for you that we'd otherwise have to pay a lot of money to making process do here. Mike Bastanipour displays steering wheel they designed and built. So, assuming the previous year's car is explanatory synthesis essay thesis, still around, does the team start over making essay from scratch with their design (and parts), or build on the previous year's design? The only rule is that the explanatory synthesis essay car's structural frame (roll cage) must be new every year (for safety purposes). But otherwise, you can reuse everything if you want, says Bastanipour, but conscientiously qualifies that with: I think it would just be a little bit unfair if you took the car from last year and started testing on it immediately. They want you to actually have to build something new. So every year, SAE's leaders sit down and say, ‘Here's what we want to do better!' then assign projects and set goals. I think that's definitely the biggest part of this competition, and security how so much stuff gets designed.

We want to make it better, and make the car faster, and improve everything, divulges Harris. One constraint regarding how much to reuse vs. redesign is time. This is an engineering competition, admits Bastanipour, so we want to try to explanatory push the engineering as far as we can. But at listing thesis the same time, there's a lot of stuff that has to get done for this car to get on track. Essay Thesis. So they've had to balance their dream of creating an engineering marvel with reality: meeting deadlines. That's a big reason we don't remake everything every year, he continues. We just don't have the resources to redesign every part of the car every year, so we try to choose parts that will improve the performance a lot and then keep the ones that we know work the same. Though its members would probably do SAE just for the hands-on experience and the sheer joy of competing, there's an added bonus: course credits.

Freshmen and making process sophomores take one hour per semester of the Formula course, ME199. As students take on more significant roles and workloads (usually around their junior year) they up it to a 3-hour credit, because a critical part of the car is pretty much under your design control, and essay thesis so you're going to be spending more time on range, it, explains Bastanipour. Seniors also take 2 senior design courses; ME470 and synthesis essay ENG491. Getting class credit is actually a really nice part of our program here, admits Bastanipour. It's really rare, especially in competition, and national essays adds that other teams might get senior design credit, but nowhere near as much credit as at Illinois . It helps the grades too, he unashamedly confesses. It helps offset the fact that people spend time here instead of…uh…focusing on their classes 100%. Another benefit of thesis, SAE?

Members are practically guaranteed a job. We have 100% job placement, boasts Allmandinger. Coursework. Every alumni we've had has come out with a full-time job. It's something we're all really proud of, but it also reflects on the work that we do. And they do work hard. Explanatory. Besides the creative chicago tons of hours put in explanatory essay thesis, during the semester (and Thanksgiving and Christmas break), they've all had internships in industry since their freshman year. We've all had this opportunity because we've done Formula, says Bastanipour. We have experience, and we get to have that experience out in industry as well, which gives them insight about what real-world engineers actually do: I learned a lot about not just engineering, he continues, but how your degree will actually be applied once you graduate. Keith Harris changes a tire on the Formula SAE car.

Another benefit of making process essay, Formula SAE? It looks good on one's resume. According to explanatory synthesis Harris, companies are looking for students with experience. When recruiters see Formula on your resume, they prod you for range business plan, more about that. Online applications for essay, Chrysler and business plan Ford now say: Formula SAE experience recommended. Adds Harris, So it's definitely something that is in the minds of recruiters as an important and explanatory synthesis essay worthwhile thing to do. How many students participate in SAE? Because of their focus on recruiting and keeping members, their team has grown over the last couple of gcses, years, from15–25 to around 30–40 people who consistently show up and contribute. Harris acknowledges that the hardest time for students joining the team is the first semester of their freshman year. SAE designs everything in the fall, and the freshmen haven't had much formal coursework.

But they can still be involved. Essay Thesis. Put yourself out business there; start gaining experience and learning about what we do, he recommends. Second semester, we start manufacturing stuff; that's when they can really get involved and actually make parts that go in the cars. Allmandinger says lots of explanatory synthesis essay, things Aero team does are at a higher level technically, but to get more people involved, they break things up into smaller projects. They also train new members on the STAR-CCM+ software used for CFD (computational fluid dynamics), which he says is pretty technical software to pick up and learn…Aero started using the software for external aerodynamics simulation, says Alex, but now it's being applied to everywhere else on driving range, the car because it's such a powerful tool. So since team members spend so much time in explanatory essay thesis, the shop, do they have time to make friends and do regular college-student-type activities? Bastanipour admits that one of the listing thesis biggest issues of the team is that all your friends end up being team members. Synthesis Essay Thesis. So they try to meet up and supply - research paper have fun outside of the shop, he says.

They started formula football. Synthesis Essay Thesis. In the fall, they play football on the south quad, then watch a game together. They've also done tailgates, bar crawls, and gone go-carting as a team. They hope to attract more freshmen, but also help younger students to creative writing chicago get more comfortable with the older people on the team. Alex Allmandinger prepares to synthesis essay thesis use a Shopbot 5-Axis CNC Router , one of the making process essay machines in explanatory synthesis, their shop that they use in constructing their car. Allmandinger agrees that Separating the shop from not the shop has been an emphasis: It's a little bit easy when we spend 40 hours a week in the same room with each other to get at each other's throats at some points in time.

So they've started emphasizing having time outside of the shop when you don't to national talk about the race car or you put it to the side; it helps a lot in keeping things going at the shop as well. So do the synthesis relationships built during those hours and making process essay hours spent together in SAE last? Bastanipour says they know alumni who have gone and explanatory thesis worked for writing, the same company and are still very good friends: We spend 4 years here; a lot of these guys, I've spent countless hours working with them at the shop. I've been with them to Canada, Michigan, Nebraska. You spend a lot of time with each other here; I would hope that it transfers on to the future, especially if we end up working next to each other. To help build the explanatory thesis team and recruit, team members also try to process find time to visit high schools. Why give up precious Thanksgiving break time to visit high schools?

Says Bastanipour: That's how I was actually recruited for the team. What's their spiel? Why would highschoolers want join Formula SAE? Harris cites the experience: The amount you can learn just working on explanatory synthesis, a small project on the team or being in charge of the listing thesis whole team of subsystems is explanatory thesis, so much you won't get in classes. You learn how to network with corporate sponsors, strategize as a team, improve the performance of listing thesis, a high-performance vehicle. There are just so many opportunities that you are going to synthesis thesis get that you won't get to do otherwise in your life. Allmandinger's favorite part is, You get to coursework build a race car with sponsor's money! then adds, We do a lot of really cool things with a lot of really cool materials that we'd never be able to do once we graduate. Explanatory Synthesis Essay Thesis. He also says it helps students make friends with people who have similar interests. But Allmandinger also recommends SAE because of the career opportunities it opens up: I think if I was in high school, and you told me I would be working at Chrysler and at range business Ford and synthesis thesis these really cool big automotive companies, I would not even believe you.

I would just be, ‘No way; that's so cool!' But now we have options. We're picking between the two. We've put ourselves in really good positions through the formula SAE team. Harris appreciates the autonomy: The amount of independence you have when designing things and choosing what to do is way, way, way bigger than anything you'd actually do once you get out into the real world. It's cool to be able to figure out what you want to do, and how you want to do things. I think it breeds a different type of engineer who is creative writing art institute, more willing to push the boundaries and go outside the box.

Story and explanatory synthesis essay thesis photos by Elizabeth Innes, Communications Specialist, I-STEM Education Initiative. Left to right: Formula SAE team leaders: Alex Allmandinger, Keith Harris, and Mike Bastanipour, with the Formula SAE car, which is national essays, covered with sponsors' logos. I-STEM, 313 Noble Hall, 1209 S. Explanatory Essay Thesis. Fourth St. (MC 508), Champaign, IL 61820; phone: 217-333-9625 Contact the I-STEM webmaster.

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Three Things I Wish I Could Say to synthesis essay thesis, Every Young LDS Woman. Posted on December 8, 2014 by AMW. I recently moved into a ward that is quite diverse in making essay, the range of ages represented. There are a good number of young married women in the ward, and occasionally I’ll hear one of them make a comment about explanatory synthesis, school or work that makes me want to jump in with a piece of advice. Essay? Unsolicited advice, though, is rarely well-received, especially when it’s coming from someone you barely know.

Luckily I know of a place where I can give all of the unsolicited advice I want: it’s called the Internet. Essay? So I’m taking advantage of this platform to driving business plan, talk about three things I wish all young LDS women – and men – would consider. 1. Being a stay-at-home mom is a great life plan, but it’s not a career plan. Over the years I’ve heard the thought, “I don’t care about school/my degree/work; I just want to be a mom” iterated in many forms. I totally respect the decision to be a stay-at-home mom, but the fact is, you can’t be sure that this is even an explanatory essay thesis, option for you until you actually have a baby in your arms. Too many LDS women don’t plan or invest themselves in driving business, their education and careers. Explanatory Synthesis? Too many LDS women select a major based not on their interests and talents but upon a narrow definition of creative, subjects that they assume will best prepare them for motherhood. Explanatory Synthesis Essay Thesis? Too many LDS women settle for low-skill, low-paid jobs, assuming that their time in the work force will be short term, rather than investing themselves in careers that could be immensely satisfying and remunerative. It is much, much easier to listing thesis, scale back or off-ramp a career than it is to jumpstart one, so why not build a body of experience now? Building a career now will also give you many more options for flexible or part-time work, if in the future you decide not to work full time. So invest now in finishing at least one degree or credential and getting some legitimate experience on your resume.

Too many LDS women are closing doors and shutting themselves off from opportunities long before they need to synthesis essay thesis, make decisions about gcses coursework, balancing work and family. Which leads me to my second point… 2. Work and family is explanatory thesis not an either/or proposition. There are times and seasons in life. Ninety percent of LDS women will need or want to work at some point in their lives.

90% – that probably, almost definitely means you. Driving Range Business Plan? Even being a stay-at-home mom may be a season, so plan for how you’ll spend your time and dedicate your energies before and after raising your children. Too often we view work and career as plan B, an inadequate alternative to the “better” or “more righteous” lifestyle of a homemaker. Explanatory? We rightfully spend a lot of listing thesis, time preparing our young women to be wives and mothers, but we do a terrible job at preparing them to find work and careers that they’ll actually enjoy. We often fail to acknowledge that some women won’t have the option of staying home to raise children, and explanatory essay others will choose to continue pursuing a career while they grow their family. In LDS culture we often take for range business, granted that a woman will quit working or even stop studying once she has a baby. Explanatory Synthesis? We expect that financial resources should go to national security essays, a husband’s education, since he will be the one providing for the family. Essay? We assume that a woman will put her education or career on hold in essays, order to allow her husband’s career to explanatory synthesis, advance. None of these decisions is chicago wrong, but the assumption that these are always the right decisions is extremely problematic.

Prayerfully explore your options – all of them – as you make decisions about education and career. Finally, (and this really should be #4), have confidence in explanatory synthesis essay, your decisions! Too many of the supply - research, women I’ve spoken with recently, whether they’re working, in school, or at home raising children, are apologetic in describing what they do. If you’ve made your decisions prayerfully and explanatory synthesis essay thesis with the Spirit – which I hope you have – own those choices! I want to see your eyes sparkle when you talk about what you’re studying in school.

I want you to excitedly tell me what you’ve accomplished at work this week. Creative Writing Chicago Art Institute? I want to hear the explanatory essay, pride in your voice as you describe how you’re caring for your family. We are women of talent, power, and influence; let’s use those things in whatever circumstances we’re in! What do you wish you could tell young LDS women about driving business, work, education, and family? 43 Comments on explanatory thesis “ Three Things I Wish I Could Say to Every Young LDS Woman ” This is so true! Thanks for this. GREAT article! I want to echo all that you said, particularly considering all of our options. I really wanted to be a surgeon at one point, but the thought of fitting in a doctor’s life and gcses motherhood didn’t make sense to me — I was not married, but wanted and planned to be.

For that and other reasons, I chose an eductional path with more mom-friendly options. As it turned out, I didn’t marry till I was 33, and children didn’t come until I was nearly 40. Though I did feel guided in explanatory synthesis essay thesis, that alternate, mom-friendly career path, it still makes me wonder. I could’ve been a physician for many years before becoming a Mom. Follow your heart and be OPEN! Excellent, excellent points! I worry about the YW in our ward because the majority of women in our ward (including their mothers) are SAHMs.

I wonder if the YW are counting on being SAHMs themselves, and I wonder how many of them will actually get that dream. Where were you when I was 20? I did all things you mentioned. Worked at low paying jobs to put my husband through school, planned on being a SAHM while my husband supported the family. My husband does support our family and gcses I have a great life. But it turns out, I really like having a job, and I’m good at it. The problem is my choices are limited by my lack of investment in my career when I was younger.

Now at 56, I have a job I love, but will not advance, because it didn’t occur to me at explanatory 20 that investing in chicago, me should have been part of our plan, and no one else mentioned that to me. This post should be required reading for all women ages 12 to 30. Even if they don’t take your advice, just to make them think about themselves in this way. Thanks! I was thrilled last week when teaching the explanatory essay, Young Women in our ward the lesson “Why is it important for me to gain an education and develop skills?” ( that a suggested way to listing thesis, introduce the lesson was: “Invite the essay, young women to imagine that a friend from church tells them she is going to drop out of writing chicago art institute, school, explaining, “I’m going to get married someday, and explanatory thesis my husband will support me, so I don’t need to gcses, keep going to school.” How would the young women encourage her to continue to pursue an education? ” The lesson was really impressive – there was no hedging about maybe needing an education if your husband dies or something. Just straight up telling the young women that they need an essay thesis, education. It was so refreshing. Do you mean you wish you had gotten an business, education? I’m in my upper 30’s and feel like I’m at a cross roads.

My youngest is a kindergartner and I’m trying to decided if I should complete the last 2 years of college or just start working? My family could use the financial help, but I also don’t want to be taken completely away from my role as a mother. Explanatory Synthesis Essay? Is it really worth the time and expense to complete my degree? I’d love to driving range plan, learn from your experience. Yes! Definitely finish your degree! There are probably scholarships out there for women returning to school to finish degrees. Also, the contacts and opportunities you will get while in school will help you launch forward in a way that just finding a job could not do.

Good luck! But here is my advice. Make sure whatever money you spend, you will get back. As an example, if you live in an area with hundreds of accountants and you spend $20,000 a year to explanatory synthesis, get your degree, it may be hard to earn enough to pay back $40,000 in student loans. Security Essays? I have watched so many people get masters degrees when the area they live in doesn’t pay any more for synthesis, masters than bachelors. Just be wise. D. Kelly– yes, it’s worth the listing thesis, time and expense to complete your degree. Explanatory? I’ve been the hiring manager many times.

If you don’t have a degree, I’m not going to hire you. The salary you’ll earn with a degree (depending on listing thesis the degree, of synthesis essay thesis, course) will far out pace what you’ll be able to earn without a degree. It is almost always worth getting a degree or certification. Additionally, as a new graduate, you’ll have access to the recruiting and creative placement that comes with a university. Yes, it’s tempting to start earning immediately, but you’ll earn less, have less flexible employment, and explanatory thesis be limited in your advancement opportunities. Chain - Research Paper? It’s worth it (unless you are selecting an synthesis essay, extremely esoteric field, so don’t do that,) to get a degree. Thanks for coursework, your feedback. I’m hearing a lot these days about synthesis essay, avoiding expensive universities and going a more vocational education route.

But it seems like many of these jobs don’t allow for growth. It’s reassuring to hear that a college degree is still worth the investment. Now the national security essays, biggest choice I face is selecting a path that will allow me “grow into” a full time career and still give the flexibility to explanatory synthesis thesis, work part time while my kids are young and still need me. I would love to supply chain - research paper, hear from explanatory synthesis essay more women about their stories or suggestions on listing thesis career paths that allow you to essay, balance these rolls. D Keller- I am currently working towards going to medical school and I am in my 30s. Driving Range Business Plan? I have known of explanatory synthesis essay, people in their late 30s and 40s going to gcses coursework, medical school. You are never too old to do anything you want! D. Keller – I am 38 and synthesis essay was in your place 5 years ago, though my youngest is in kindergarten this year and making process essay my oldest is 16. Synthesis Thesis? I am now in national security, my last year of graduate school and synthesis essay thesis will be on the job market next year.

Here is what I did – I found two different online programs so that I could complete my degrees from home (I got a BS and will have an MPA). Both online programs were accredited and the tuition was very reasonable (my BS program accepted credits from previous college courses so I only had to complete 2 years of program specific coursework which kept costs down and my graduate program total tuition is listing thesis less than $20,000). I was also able to network and thesis find a flexible (paid!) internship in plan, my field, which is CRUCIAL to explanatory thesis, SAHMs like myself who have no real professional experience. If you live in a college town you can attend day or night classes as well, depending on your program requirements. But it is possible to listing thesis, do this and be there for your family. Your husband’s support of time and sharing duties is synthesis thesis also important, and the kids pitching in is good too, it teaches that the whole family can work together to process essay, help any family member progress. I am just going to point out explanatory thesis, that working outside the range plan, home does not “taken completely away from [your] role as a mother”. Through financial necessity, other than a couple of 9 week maternity leaves, I work full time and explanatory synthesis essay I am just a much a mother as a woman who is financially able to chain optimization, be with her children 24/7.

This is one of the first things that needs to synthesis essay thesis, change is the range plan, perspective that a woman is somehow less of a mother if she works outside the home. I applaud you in the fact that you are trying to thoughtfully decide between an education or working. Remember when it comes to synthesis, degrees they are not all created equal and it is usually more beneficial to study in a area that will lead to a satisfying career than to just get the piece of paper. It might be helpful to possibly work part time in creative art institute, the field you are finishing your degree in to make sure that is the synthesis thesis, path you really want to pursue. Good Luck. D. Keller: Yes, absolutely complete your degree. It is a wise investment and will ultimately pay off with higher earning power and making better jobs (better jobs = holiday pay, better benefits, less required night or weekend shifts, more flexibility). Synthesis Essay Thesis? Granted, as others have said, not all degrees and not all colleges or universities are equal.

I cannot stress enough how important it is to do your research on the institution. A degree from chain optimization - research a modest community college, state school or a reputable online program is worth the money. The high priced tuition from private schools that have huge marketing and advertising budgets may not be a wise investment. Do your research, finish your degree. (I’ve also been the hiring manager many times and when you have 100+ resumes for a single open position the first thing sorting criteria is a degree/no degree split. It will be worth it, I promise.) Thank you. What a breath of fresh air this was to explanatory essay thesis, read. I hope every young LDS woman gets an opportunity to read it. There’s so much I’d want to tell a young woman about education and career, beginning with how great it feels to security essays, find fulfilling work, where you can use your talents to explanatory essay thesis, make a contribution to the world. Creative Writing? It’s such an empowering feeling to know that other people need what I can give.

I strongly echo #4. I’ve spent too much time over the years apologizing for or justifying my decisions. Much too much. There are way better uses for this energy. More practically, one of the best pieces of career advice came from the bishop’s wife in one of my singles wards many years ago. She advised the women that we should prepare ourselves for a career we would enjoy, and that would enable us to explanatory, live comfortably, rather than marginally. Of course, earning power is one of only many factors to consider when choosing educational and career routes, but it’s worth considering.

As a teen and young adult, I was thoroughly convinced that I would never care how much money I made. Now that I’m paying off student loans and saving for retirement, I find myself caring very much. And lastly, I’d be remiss if I didn’t encourage young women to consider careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) fields. There are so many different kinds of driving range plan, interesting, fulfilling opportunities in these fields, and essay we need more women. Thanks everyone for your comments! Gina – I’m thrilled as well that such a question was posed in national security, a YW lesson.

Elizabeth – You said, “I work full time and thesis I am just a much a mother as a woman who is financially able to be with her children 24/7.” Yes! This is the listing thesis, message we need so much more of. I realize that I’m the odd man out here, but I don’t agree. Growing up in the church I was never lost on the counsel from the church to get your education and explanatory essay prepare yourself financially. Even in college, when I was weighing options, I realized that incurring education debt was one of the business, few types of debt condoned by church leaders. Women’s education and career prep has indeed been around for a long time: “According to current life expectancies, a 20-year-old woman can look forward to more than 50 additional years of life. Not all of explanatory, that time will be spent in creative writing chicago art institute, bearing children and raising families… A young woman’s education should prepare her for more than the responsibilities of motherhood. It should prepare her for the entire period of her life.” Elder Oaks said this in 1975! I see that his statement agrees with your article, but it’s not uncommon curriculum in the church, and I don’t see that message being neglected among YW even now. I also represent a (probable) minority of SAHM women who have a degree, love to explanatory essay thesis, work, and have chosen (I am grateful for the ability to choose) to stay home.

I can’t tell you what a challenge it is to resist entering the workforce, where I can actually have a yardstick with which to measure my daily achievement. With child rearing, there is creative art institute no daily achievement saying that the hard work you put in will ever produce results. Explanatory Thesis? And it certainly isn’t glamorous. Though I also relish my job (unpaid as it is), it is chain a job. It demands the essay, best of me, and it makes sense that the Church’s first concern is to listing thesis, prepare young women to be moms. There is explanatory essay no on the job training. Gcses? Neither are there certifications nor yearly evaluations to let you know where you could improve. And yet your influence is so deeply felt, you’re sure to cause some degree of irreversible damage just in the learning curve. No wonder women are apt to choose their degree based upon what prepares them for synthesis essay, motherhood!

So, though I agree with your counsel to young women, I don’t think it is unwise to prepare yourself for motherhood above a career. Yes, I believe getting a degree is a wise and valuable goal, but so is pausing your education/career to raise a family. There are always opportunities for chain optimization - research paper, education if you’re determined to make both happen. I was prepared to dislike this article. I went into it looking for explanatory essay, the backhanded compliments and typical feminist rhetoric, so I was pleasantly surprised. I liked it enough to share with my group and supply optimization - research paper have a discussion on it. Becky, I wonder what it is you don’t agree with. It’s wonderful that you always knew that education was important and that the church supported the explanatory synthesis thesis, education, betterment and gcses coursework employment of women. Thesis? That is not what is being emphasized in all YW lessons, by driving range, LDS culture in thesis, many areas, or, I assume by the comments I have heard girls make during their lessons, at chain paper home.

While being a mother is still and always will be an essential part of the thesis, education of LDS women, there are realities that an increasing number of gcses, women within the explanatory synthesis, church are learning the hard way. I have not had the opportunity to get married. Supply - Research? I am 36 and explanatory synthesis have been working many more years than I ever thought I would “need” to. While I know getting an process, education was always taught in thesis, my YW meetings, the supply chain optimization paper, first thing people would always say after they found out I was going to explanatory essay thesis, Rick’s College was, “You’ll be married in essays, 6 months.” There was such a strong focus on explanatory synthesis essay thesis the marriage part but very little on making the education and employment part, and synthesis essay it is hard for some young women – or many? – to see beyond the national, marriage push, especially when lessons focus on marriage and the role of women as mothers but not, for example, being a good employee. I have sat through a few YW lessons where girls talk about their dreams but that they are prepared to explanatory thesis, give them up to start a family and support their husbands – even things that they wouldn’t have to delay for a family, such as their love of playing instruments because they wouldn’t have time with kids…15 year olds already planning to give up things, including completing their education, before they’ve even graduated high school. It is listing thesis a mindset they already have at a young age because of the culture of the church. And because their leaders got married so young (the case in the ward I was in), they didn’t encourage anything different because that is exactly what they did too.

As I have had to support myself entirely on my own, something I NEVER would have foreseen when I was young, I wish I would have heard more encouragement about explanatory synthesis thesis, work and gcses coursework financial independence through that education. I wish more people had asked me about my college classes and if I considered studying abroad or internships instead of if I was engaged yet or if I was dating a lot. I didn’t know what I in all actuality really needed to be planning for explanatory synthesis, in my future, and I sit through my mid-singles ward full of never married and divorced women who are in the same situation. There are more of us than you may realize, but we were never taught that that may be something we needed to prepare for beyond the idea that “some may not have the chance to marry in listing thesis, this lifetime, but they will be rewarded with the blessings of explanatory essay thesis, marriage and children in the next life.” What 14 or 15 or 16 or 22 year old plans for that to national, be them? The education of women in the church should encompass all of the synthesis thesis, realities, not just be a support for women who get married and listing thesis stay married.

Having to figure out explanatory synthesis essay, how to support themselves and driving plan their young children after divorce – former students of mine, my sister, ward memebers, etc. – is thesis something more LDS women are having to figure out, and that is the worst time to have to figure out if their education was sufficient enough to support themselves when they thought that they had time to worry about it later. While talking with young women – in and out of high school – about creative writing chicago art institute, divorce may not be appropriate or may create fear, the reality is that I know too many beautiful, faithful women who banked on their husband, and their temple marriage didn’t save them from the reality of needing to have not only a “fall back” but a “move forward” in terms of skills for employment for themselves the their children. Explanatory Essay? “There are always opportunities for education if you’re determined to make both happen” is range true for young mothers if they have the synthesis essay thesis, luxury of a stable marriage. Unfortunately, many find out listing thesis, that they are again on their own after the bottom has dropped out rather suddenly. The stakes are a lot higher and the necessity of now doesn’t permit working on the education and being a SAHM. Getting an education should absolutely be for the betterment and ambition of the woman, which is what this article is about, and not about fear of divorce or the necessity because of being single. I did want to have a career, even if it was going to be for a short time early on. But “not agreeing” that this should be a new additional focus is synthesis thesis ignoring the fact that a lot of young women in the church truly do hear only the lesson that they should plan on marriage and their husband’s ability to driving plan, support them while they have kids, and they take no heed of the bretheren’s advice. I teach high school, and it is amazing to me how the synthesis essay, culture trumps the counsel of the leaders in this area – girls starting school or not starting at security essays all, getting married at essay thesis 18 or 19, and gcses coursework having no real skills for explanatory synthesis essay, the long run.

Yes, they can always do this later or at the same time as being a SAHM, but what if they need it for a now they didn’t know was coming? **girls starting school and process then quitting when they get married so they can work to explanatory essay, pay for his education. **girls starting school and then quitting when they get married so they can work to pay for his education or not starting at all, getting married at 18 or 19… Erin, My wife and I were married when she was 18 and she’s finishing her doctorate to essay, become a nurse practitioner 5 years later. Don’t assume marrying young means abandoning other options, that’s fallacious. Thank you for this! I agree with this lady’s many points especially the synthesis essay, one that stresses that we as women should prepare ourselves adequately and get a degree and making process bloom as individuals and in our careers as we prepare for motherhood and especially it’s better if we are more well-prepared and sharpened just in case motherhood won’t come our way too soon. However, if we are blessed with a marriage, a husband who can provide for our needs, and children from our Heavenly Father, I agree more with what the essay thesis, prophets say in this link: Thank you for this article!

I want to tell the gcses, young women in my ward these EXACT same things! I think many are surprised that I just had my first child and thesis I also decided to go back to school for a Masters. I really felt that both were right, and the right time for both was now. It’s a challenge, and I still don’t know how it’s all going to be done, but I have faith that God cares that we have a positive impact with our talents wherever we can use them! Thank you for sharing specific advice and essay opening an synthesis thesis, important conversation. I wish I’d heard similar thoughts when I was growing up! I married at 20, finished a BA in optimization paper, Public Relations, and despite a paid internship, I struggled to synthesis essay, find a related job in driving range business, Utah County during the explanatory synthesis essay, early 2000s. I took and left a temp job to take another internship in editing/publishing which led to a job for a few years before stepping out during a crash in business plan, the publishing market and explanatory thesis being over my head freelancing with two small children. After a great decade as a SAHM and homeschool mom too, we’ve had more changes and this fall I found myself with both kids in security, school.

I can see mistakes back then but would love recommendations (books, programs, experiences…) about how to find what I love and can balance with a family when my degree might not be “it” for essay, me and I’ve been out for art institute, a decade. I could go back to school for a Master’s in something (what?) but it seems like an expensive way to essay thesis, figure it out. Any advice for finding what you love/can do/transitioning back into something? Thanks! Emily, my recommendation is to find some volunteer opportunities that appeal to you on process essay an education track/career level. That is what I did when I was pregnant with my 4th, and 10 years late that volunteer opportunity has guided me to other volunteer opportunities and a training that opened my eyes to a whole new field that I had never considered before. That led me to a degree program, to a graduate degree program, to more volunteer opportunities that provided great networks in my field, and it just kept going. Think outside the box when you are looking at options – there are so many volunteer organizations out there for many different fields. Try some out and essay thesis see where they lead you!

A side benefit to my volunteerism was that I was often able to involve my older kids as well, and they got to know me as an coursework, individual, learn about their community, and see new perspectives, all experiences that I hope will enrich their lives and inform their decisions as they enter adulthood. I appreciate this post so much!! One thing I’d like to add about an education/career is synthesis what my mom told me, it’s a life insurance policy. Process? Cause you never know what will happen! This isn’t to say a woman has to explanatory, always work. My mom was a stay at business plan home mom but she was up to date on thesis her license for her career so if something happened to my dad and he couldn’t work, she could step in and support our family. I loved the article, thanks! I am extremely disappointed to driving range plan, see in the comments that a hiring manager would never hire a none college graduate. Thesis? What a shame, think of all the amazing people you didn’t give a second look to creative writing art institute, that could have bee amazing. Some of the hardest working and essay thesis most wonderful people I know don’t have a bachelors. I will say though the supply - research, article itself really spoke to explanatory synthesis, me!

I put everything thing I had (financially, emotionally, etc) into getting my first husband through medical school and residency. It was an chicago, investment to synthesis essay, me, thinking he was “doing all this” for supply chain, our future and future family. Then, two year into practice he was arrested and sent to synthesis thesis, prison for supply chain paper, 14 years. I had nothing. I had put him first on everything and now wished I had held my education and career development as important as his. Luckily I have a great job now and a great husband but you never know what life is going to hand you. I can see where you’re coming from, and I can only imagine the frustration that results when the youth in your classes neglect their future and explanatory planning because they are banking on supply chain a husband to support them all their lives.

That’s dangerous even if you have a husband. The part I disagree with is the essay, idea that these attitudes are a result of what is taught in process essay, church lessons to essay thesis, YW. It is cultural (as you mentioned), and probably human nature to assume that the future holds the best, and not address possibilities requiring hard work and preparation. I’m don’t think that we should encourage our YW to supply chain - research, look blindly toward motherhood with dewy eyes and explanatory essay thesis plan on it happening, especially since infertility and range business other factors come into play. But I also don’t think it’s right to take that out of their future goal planning, or even out of the spotlight. Most women do end up being mothers and raising a family, married or not. I suppose we agree more than we disagree, because I do think it wise to teach financial skills, job prospects and work preparedness. But it’s just as important to teach how to mother (even if you don’t use it for your own children) and how to support family life.

It’s not an outdated focus. Just to reassure you that I’m not ignorant to essay thesis, the challenges and surprises life holds, please know that my own mom was divorced and needed to support our small family. She already had a degree as a high school teacher, and didn’t want to go back to it. So she began again, doing what she had pursued as a SAHM: the dental field. She still works in making, it today. Essay Thesis? Her need arose, despite the preparation: she had already done the things that ‘would have spared her’. She had her degree, worked PT as a SAHM, and was financially savvy, and still she found herself beginning again.

What I’m saying is that life rarely deals according to our plans. But you just can’t prepare for everything. So my idea (as incorrect as it probably is) is to supply, go forward in life with hope, but with a determination to further my education as I go. I know several women in hard marriages who have continued their education. Sometimes because of it. I think if you are determined to do so, with faith and help (from places like workforce services, scholarships, and now the Church’s Pathway’s program) you can get your degree. I have so many do it. There are real possibilities there.

Also, for explanatory essay thesis, the other lady who commented wanting to know ways to increase your resume for being a journalist, I’d check out HARO: where you can register to answer requests for small articles on varying topics. It increases visibility to blogs, and allows you to listing thesis, put your articles on your resume. Publishers from LDS news to Elle magazine draw from HARO. Good luck. Thanks for your suggestions! Sorry that “amen” was a reply to explanatory synthesis thesis, a commenter not the article… didn’t realize since the reply button was below the comment and the post comment was below everything that the reply would show up independent of the creative, comment… maybe something with the mobile view? I appreciate this article and agree with the synthesis essay, message. Might I suggest perhaps reconsidering the picture, though?

I see no diversity in this photo, just lots of caucasian faces. Coursework? It may seem a small thing, but I think it’s important to be as inclusive as possible. Valid point. As the person who usually selects the images for our articles, I want you to know that we do try to select images across our website that reflect diversity. In this particular instance, I didn’t have the synthesis essay thesis, 30-60 minutes that it often takes to find and select an image that did not include young women in tank tops or short shorts/skirts (which is something some object to), that did not make the young women look silly, that we could use legally, that did not cost us $15+, and that also reflected racial diversity. So I went with an image that we already had–perhaps a poor excuse, but that is the back story. Your comment speaks to the larger issue regarding the creative writing art institute, poor quality of stock images available that depict women. Explanatory Synthesis? Getty images is trying to correct that–others need to join that camp, too. I think if you have a job and national a husband you love you did something right. #128578; I usually ask teen girls what their plans are if they end up not getting married till they are 34 years old.This was my case.

And when marriage happened for me if was part of the stream of explanatory synthesis essay thesis, …graduated college, met my husband, got married, and had a baby, all in the space of 23 months. I also tell them to trust the Savior, and listing thesis believe his promises of all his blessings. I think this is an awesome article! I’m a college student currently studying Pre-Med and aspire to be an OB/GYN. So many people, specifically in the church, always say after I tell them my plans is “Oh, you don’t want to do that! You’d be happier as mother” and it would always upset me. Truth is, I do want to be a mother but when the time is right for my future husband and I. I wish more people would understand it’s possible to have a career and be a mother, just more difficult.

Don’t get discouraged! A lot of LDS girls shy away from medicine because so many of their local church leaders and family members freak them out that they’ll never get married or have kids if they become doctors. Well guess what? I did payroll for a physician group at the U and there were plenty of mommy MDs that worked 2 nights a month in the ER and made just as much or more than a nurse in 20 days. They had a lot of explanatory synthesis thesis, money and chain - research paper the rest of the explanatory essay thesis, month to making process, enjoy their kids!! (Medicine not my thing but money is so I majored in explanatory essay, business and I work full time with 2 kids under age 2) and boy I did get ton of the “that’s going to interfere with motherhood” fodder during college and beyond. For any girl thinking about motherhood and creative chicago a career: You can do more than you think you think you can. You will never know unless you try.

You can work harder than you believe you have the synthesis thesis, ability to work. You can be a great mom and listing thesis be a great lawyer, astronaut, doctor or CEO. You can give it all you got with your studies, your career and with your family. You can do whatever it takes. You can achieve more than anyone else thinks you can ever achieve.

You can achieve all of your goals without sacrificing or compromising. So stay focused in college! Work hard! And have fun!! I’m no longer LDS, but this article resonated with me. Ironically, it was after I became a mother I realized I wanted a more secure future for her, so I went back to synthesis essay, school while my husband works. No child is driving ever worse off for having TWO educated parents. But even with a degree it’s very hard to find a job, at least from my experience. My husband and I are planning on moving after he graduates, so that I can finally start my career. Explanatory Essay Thesis? The job market is - research paper so competitive where I live now, and there aren’t enough jobs to go around.

I have a low-paying job just to make ends meet, because nobody else would hire me. It’s frustrating at times having a job with such a low pay and essay no benefits, because I am stuck and I can’t progress financially. I hope to be a writer and a well-known author one day. I agree with the article. National Security? Women should do all they can to have a good career. Otherwise, how will your family make a living? In these days, you need both parents working, otherwise there isn’t enough money to make a living.

It seems that nowadays it’s rare for a family to make enough money with just one parent working. My husband’s in school, so I’m the one who works. I’m attending graduate school so that I can find a better job in the future. Becca Holton on Preparing to synthesis, File Taxes: 5 Things You Can Do Now Tyler Meredith on Preparing to File Taxes: 5 Things You Can Do Now Stephanie on gcses coursework Paying for thesis, Child Care with Tax Advantageous Dollars Carol Hammond on Career Day: Optometrist A Happy Hubby on Career Day: Optometrist. Copyright 2017 · All Rights Reserved · Aspiring Mormon Women.

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Explanatory Synthesis Introduction and Body Paragraph Examples

30 Types of Freelance Writing Jobs and How to Get Them. Essay! We talk about listing thesis writing for web and print as if there are only two forms of freelance writing magazines and newspaper (print) and explanatory, web content (web). This isn#8217;t the case. Listing Thesis! There are so many ways to support one#8217;s self as a freelance writer and synthesis essay thesis, the aforementioned print and web opportunities are only creative chicago art institute a part of synthesis essay thesis it. Today I#8217;d like to explore some of the different types of opportunities available to freelance writers, and offer a few hints as to how to land some of these jobs. While this report is nowhere near being #8220;in-depth#8221; I did do a bit a research. I#8217;m hoping this can be used as a starting point for further research. I give you: 30 Types of Freelance Writing Jobs and How to Get Them. Associated Content, LovetoKnow, Constant Content, , Demand Studios, WiseGeek, and many others are looking to business, hire writers to stock content for explanatory synthesis essay thesis their websites. National Essays! Many of these content sites request their writers rely on keywords and top search terms to bring in explanatory synthesis essay thesis traffic and listing thesis, pay either a flat fee or a fee plus page view or traffic bonuses.

Some web content places pay very little so do read all the fine print before signing on. How to Get it: To work for web content sites, visit the website and look for a #8220;Write for Us#8221; or #8220;Jobs#8221; link and apply. Some places like and LovetoKnow are strict in their acceptance policies. Others, like Associated Content, accept all who apply. Explanatory Essay! College : No Experience: Depends on the content site. National Security Essays! Web copy refers to explanatory synthesis essay thesis, writing sales, promotional, or other copy for a website. Coursework! The difference between this type of writing and the content writing mentioned above is that most web content sites are looking specifically to stock their websites with content in explanatory synthesis essay order to bring in revenue.

Those who are looking for copy for their individual websites usually have another purpose in mind, to bring in traffic and foster interest in security essays a product or service. How to Get it: The most popular way to find jobs writing copy for website is to look on the job boards. Many site owners and web masters advertise at places such as Freelance Writing Jobs, Craigslist and others. You could also contact web owners directly and offer a letter of introduction asking them to keep you in mind for their writing projects. Essay! 8 out of 10 of the making process essay, potential clients may say no, but it#8217;s the 2 who say yes who really matter.

College: Not always but knowing something about proper grammar usage can#8217;t hurt. Experience: It helps. Blogging jobs abound online now. Not only are individual bloggers doing well, but many blog networks are hiring too, but those aren#8217;t the only game in synthesis town. Individual web property owners are looking for bloggers as are businesses. As many companies realize they need a web presence, expect to see more blogging jobs in the future. Writing Chicago Art Institute! How to Get it: Blogging gigs are some of the thesis, easiest jobs to find right now. Plenty of listing thesis websites such as ProBlogger,Blogging Jobs, Performancing, Craiglist, Freelance Writing Jobs and explanatory synthesis thesis, many more advertise blogging gigs. Keep in mind that most networks are low paying but some do offer traffic bonuses as incentive. The blogging jobs offering the most money are for private clients and coursework, corporations. College: No Experience: Not always.

Not for most networks. Reporting for newspapers, magazines and even television might seem glamorous but it#8217;s very hard work, often for explanatory little pay. You#8217;ll be expected to creative writing, sniff out stories, break news and even work on pieces that may not be so attractive. You might also be expected to travel on weekends and holidays and explanatory thesis, even go to listing thesis, dangerous places, it all depends on thesis your contract with the newspaper or network. How to Get it : Apply directly to creative chicago art institute, newspapers and television stations and read the essay thesis, want ads. College: A degree in journalism or communications is usually required.

Experience : For a small local newspaper, no. The more prestigious the news outlet, the more experience necessary. As a former newspaper columnist I can assure you the pay most columnists receive won#8217;t keep you in fancy shoes or pay the rent on an Upper West Side apartment like Carrie Bradshaw. Most newspaper columnists don#8217;t earn much money at all. It#8217;s a rewarding, fun gig, however, and can lead to bigger and gcses coursework, better things. How to Get it: Pitch your column directly to the newspaper. Explanatory Synthesis Essay Thesis! College: Depends on the newspaper and the type of column Experience: Not for a small, local paper. The big guns may want to see a resume. Features writers write articles for newspapers, magazines and other news outlets that will be #8220;featured#8221;, in other words, it will get a cover, cover line, or other type of prominent display.

There are many types of features, for instance, a celebrity interview or background to national security essays, a major news story. As you can imagine, these gigs are coveted and usually go to folks who have long established themselves or have a good relationship with an essay thesis editor. Also, many outlets employ staff features writers. Still, it#8217;s not unheard of for a new freelance writer to pitch an idea with success. Feature writing is lucrative too many feature writers are paid upwards of $2,000 a piece. How to Get it : Pitch your query to magazines. College: Helps Experience: Most of the time. Getting your foot in the door of a magazine can only lead to bigger and better things.

If a freelancer does well with a first assignment, this can land many more regular assignments. Once a writer is featured in one magazine, this leads to writing assignments within other magazines and publications. Breaking into print journalism is many writers#8217; dream. This isn#8217;t always easy because so many writers are vying are pitching queries and most magazines only national security have a couple of open spots for freelancers each month. If a freelancer has a relationship with the thesis, magazine and its editors he has the best shot of landing the gigs. Still, new writers can and do land assignments and - research, are encouraged to synthesis essay, keep trying, despite rejection. How to Get it: Troll the various magazine markets online or pick up a copy of the Writer#8217;s Market (also available online.) Learn what each magazine expects from querying authors before sending your pitch.

Not knowing who to pitch to or the proper format will result in essays rejection. College: No Experience: No, but it helps sometimes. Synthesis Thesis! When I was an editorial assistant at a graphic design studio we did a lot of catalog work. For big jobs we brought in process essay freelancers to help write descriptive paragraphs to sell products in explanatory synthesis essay the catalogs we designed. In many cases this was boring, boring work. The upside was that we got to keep some of the items sent for us to write about. Ask me about hair in a can or the flowbee sometime. How to Get It: Align yourself with catalog designers, graphic design firms and advertising agency by sending your details and following up with some cold calling. Every now and plan, then you might see these gigs advertised, but it#8217;s rare. Most catalog designers go with freelancers from their own pool. College: No.

Experience: Helps. Businesses often employ freelance copywriters to write brochures, promotional copy, employee manuals and more. Expect to synthesis essay thesis, see more of national security essays this type of hiring as the current economy will prevent many businesses from hiring a staff writer. Corporate Copywriters should be well versed in business writing and corporate business practices. A job well done often brings the promise of more work and referrals to other clients. How to get it: Look for ads in newspapers and online. Cold call businesses and send introduction packets to advertise your services. College: Yes.

Experience : Helpful but if you#8217;re a good writer the work can speak for itself. As with the Corporate Copywriting gig mentioned above, many advertising agencies hire freelancers because they don#8217;t have to pay the overhead required of a full time staff member. Advertising copywriters help to create the explanatory synthesis, text for ad campaigns, brochures, promotions and more. How to Get it: Most ads for freelance advertising copywriters are advertised in newspapers or advertising trade publications. You could also try cold calling and sending promotional material to process essay, a potential client. Explanatory! College: For Sure Experience: Yes.

You know all those Location!Location! Location! ads you see in newspapers and flyers? Someone has to write them. Optimization - Research! Many times they#8217;re written by Realtors, but in busy offices they hire out. If you can make a hovel seem like a mansion and know how to write a description that sells, you can have a shot at writing real estate captions. How to thesis, Get it: Contact your local Realtor offices. College: Not really, but real estate knowledge helps. Experience: No. Grant Writers research and write proposals so non profits and other organizations can receive funding from various government agencies.

The proposal involves writing an application, discussing the reasons for the funding and describing the coursework, applicant and its intentions. The grant writer is also expected to explanatory essay, handle all follow up. While many businesses do employ full time grant writers, grant writing jobs for freelancers abound. How to Get it: Look for the ads, or research businesses that have received grants in the past and send them your details. College: Absolutely Experience: It#8217;s a good idea. Non-profits often needs writers for art institute grants, proposals, promotional material and fundraising events. Writing for non-profits looks great on a resume and gives one the warm fuzzy feeling of doing something great for mankind. How to synthesis thesis, Get it: Cold calling, send details to the agency#8217;s human resources department, respond to newspaper and Internet ads.

College: For sure Experience: Mmm hmmm. Ghostwriting is non-bylined writing or writing a book or article but someone else takes the credit. This is different from using a pseudonym because your pen name still gets the credit. Listing Thesis! With ghostwriting, you do all the work but someone pays you an agreed amount for all rights in addition to removing your name from the explanatory, project and replacing it with someone else#8217;s. How to Get it: Look for ads on chain optimization paper the Internet and in newspapers.

College: Not necessary if you#8217;re a good writer. Synthesis Thesis! Experience: It#8217;s all a matter of preference. Writing essays for making process essay the back of a magazine or to include in an anthology is fun and rewarding. These gigs aren#8217;t always easy to come by, however. Many essayists are vying for one or two monthly spots in each publication and synthesis thesis, your essay has to stand out above the others to be considered for inclusion. Moreover, if the publication already has a famous name attached to its regular essay section, your chances are slim. Having essays included in an anthology is easier but again you#8217;re competing with many others for gcses coursework a few open spots. Plus, some anthology editors don#8217;t pay their contributors so you#8217;ll have to weigh the pros and cons.

How to Get it: Query magazine editors or look for ads on freelance writing jobs boards. College: Nah. Experience: No, just the synthesis thesis, ability to listing thesis, paint a picture with words. Business plan writers are much in demand. With new startups seeking funding every day, an experienced business plan writer can earn a lucrative income.

Business plans are also necessary for synthesis thesis owners seeking assistance from the listing thesis, government or a bank loan. Many business owners prefer to hire a professional to essay thesis, handle their business plan writing because it#8217;s an important document and they don#8217;t want to risk messing it up. In short, if you know nothing about writing a business plan or have no experience in gcses the business world, this probably isn#8217;t the explanatory synthesis, writing job for you. How to Get it: Check the art institute, freelance writing job boards, newspaper want ads, and network with business people in your community. Research startups and new businesses and contact the owners to discuss writing their business plan. College: Most business owners would like to see some sort of education on synthesis essay a resume. Coursework! Experience: Yes. Press releases are needed by businesses and individuals alike. They#8217;re used to introduce new hires, product lines, services or just announce the news. There#8217;s a certain art to a press release as they have to give all the synthesis thesis, necessary information in an easy to read format.

The purpose of a press release is to get folks interested enough to report on the enclosed news or spur people into action. How to Get it: Contact businesses to find out if they can use your services. Don#8217;t just go for PR firms, every business needs a press release writer at one time or another. There are also plenty of ads for press release writers on the job boards. College: No, just a flair for the dramatic. Experience: Helps but if you rock a good sample you don#8217;t need it. Listing Thesis! Technical writing can mean many things, for instance it can involve writing a manual to use a certain product or a short how-to at a blog or a website. Technical writers need to be spot on with their information and detail oriented. Explanatory Essay! Technical writers must also have the ability to stay focused as some of the coursework, writing can be tedious.

It#8217;s a lucrative career, however, and many technical writers have more work than they can handle. How to explanatory thesis, Get It: Send details and cold calling places that hire technical writers, or look for chain optimization paper ads on the job boards and in newspapers. College : No doubt. Experience: You betcha. By now you know ebooks stand for explanatory essay #8220;electronic#8221; books and just about anyone with anything to say or sell has written one.

For many online personalities, they#8217;re a lucrative form of passive income. Driving Range Plan! The beautiful thing about e-books is that you can either write your own and synthesis, earn for years to come, or you can write them for someone else, and listing thesis, earn as you go. You can even do both. Explanatory Synthesis Essay! You don#8217;t have to deal with publishers or agents, either. If you#8217;re writing your own e-book there#8217;s software and templates available, and if you#8217;re writing for someone else, they usually handle the details. If you know your topic well, e-books are enjoyable and easy to write and a great source of income. How to Get it: If you#8217;re writing your own e-books, just start writing. To write e-books for others, check out the online job boards. College: No Experience: It helps to know something about the topic. Chain! You don#8217;t have to synthesis essay thesis, have your own ideas to write a book, sometimes publishing houses and individual hire writers to write books on certain topics.

Many individuals have neither the time nor inclination to write thousands of words, but wish to have someone more seasoned expand upon their ideas. Writing or collaborating on art institute book projects can be quite lucrative. How to thesis, Get it: Respond to ads on job boards and gcses, trade publications such as Publisher#8217;s Weekly. College: I#8217;m thinking people who want a book written are looking for college. Experience: You#8217;ll need to show you#8217;re the best person for the gig. Law offices often employ freelance writers to draft contracts, stock legal websites, write legal briefs, research papers and more. Many law offices are also hiring bloggers for the #8220;blawgs#8221; too. Explanatory! Getting in writing chicago with the right firm or website can guarantee lots of return work. Also, great word of mouth referrals. Thesis! How to Get it: Ads on job boards, in legal trade magazines and cold calling potential clients. National! Education: You must have a legal background Experience: Helps.

In today#8217;s job market there#8217;s bound to be competition. Synthesis Essay Thesis! Many employers are able to listing thesis, take their time and synthesis thesis, choose the best candidate from a large pool of applicants. One#8217;s cover letter and resume must stand out national above the rest. In fact, job seekers are willing to pay good money for resumes if it will make an synthesis essay employer take notice. How to Get it: Apply to resume writing firms, answer job ads and advertise as a resume writer. College: No but having a background in career counseling, human resources or business is a great starting point. Experience: Not necessarily but it#8217;s a good idea to know how to format and coursework, word a resume for optimal results. Serious musicians and bands are always on the hunt for bio writers. These bios are needed for explanatory thesis demo packages to driving range business, send to record companies.

A good bio also helps band management when it comes to booking gigs. A good band bio writer has a love of music and interest in helping musicians succeed. How to explanatory synthesis thesis, Get it: Print up some business cards and listing thesis, flyers and pass them out at explanatory synthesis essay clubs and concerts, contacts a record company#8217;s AR Department and look for ads on supply - research job boards, musician and entertainment newspaper #8220;help wanted#8221; ads and leave flyers and promotional material on music studio bulletin boards. College: No, man. Expereince: No, just the explanatory synthesis thesis, ability to rock the keyboard. Websites, forums and businesses all need FAQ#8217;s or #8220;Frequently Asked Questions#8221; written and chain, answered for their online resources. This can be a simple QA or something technical depending on explanatory essay your clients needs. Public companies communicate to their shareholders with an annual report. These reports discuss the state of the business, the budget, changes in personnel at more. Annual report writers must be well versed in business terminolgy and be able to driving range, speak to shareholders in explanatory synthesis essay a language they#8217;ll understand. It#8217;s also important for them to know the nature of the business and proper annual report formatting.

Very lucrative one annual report can pay several thousand dollars. How to Get it: Advertisements on supply chain paper job boards and in newspapers, write and cold call publicly owned companies. College: Yes Experience: Without a doubt. You know those complimentary magazines tucked in the back of each seat on airplanes? Those are called in-flight magazines and they#8217;re very willing to synthesis essay, publish articles for freelancers. In flight magazines accepts essays, humor, puzzles, travel pieces and more. They also pay quite well, sometimes a dollar a word. How to art institute, Get It: Query each individual magazine but research and read each one first. College: No Experience: No, but you will need to show good samples of your writing.

If you#8217;re well versed in essay thesis a particular hobby or no a particular business inside and out, you might consider working for a trade magazine. For some, the trades are a little dull. I mean, who wants to write day in and day out for Button Maker Digest or Yarn Dying Monthly but for others they#8217;re good steady work and a great way to make money. Plus if niche is right up your alley it#8217;s another way to establish yourself for an expert. Some trade magazines pay very well even $1.00 a word.

How to get it: Query the magazine College: No but you should know the trade. Experience : See above. Plus you should have good writing samples to show. Instructional designers write courses and manuals for essays various businesses. Most businesses that use Instructional Designers have full timers on staff.

However, some industries do employ Instructional Designers on synthesis a freelance basis. These jobs are rare though I do see several advertised per year. Most pay very well. (Side note: My mother was an Instructional Designer. She wrote courses and textbooks for making essay accountants.) How to Get it: Check the job ads or research which businesses might use Instructional Designers and give them a jingle. College: Yes. Experience: Yes. Research writing can mean many things to many businesses. Explanatory Essay Thesis! It can mean putting together a trends report for a business or writing an chain - research paper in-depth article on a particular topic. With this kind of writing, #8220;research#8221; is the key word here. You#8217;ll have to explanatory synthesis thesis, interview experts, read reports and articles, books and more.

This isn#8217;t your usual Google and range business plan, write type of writing. How to Get it: Look for ads on the job boards. Research which companies need research writers and cold call or send your details. College: Yes Experience: Yes. Many of the folks you see standing behind a lecturn didn#8217;t write their own material. Essay Thesis! They hired speech writers. Speech writers need to have a flair for national the dramatic and the ability to draw in listeners and keep them tuned in throughout. Synthesis Essay Thesis! They know when to driving range, add humor or tenderness and must write with each particular audience in mind. Explanatory Synthesis Essay Thesis! Jobs and reputations depend on well-written speeches. How to gcses, Get it: Look for ads or send your details to and cold call public speakers.

College: Not necessarily. Experience: Yes. Hat Tip: The inspiration from this post came from my friend Lorna Doone Brewer over at Freelance Parent. Explanatory Essay Thesis! She recently posted a great list of niche writing gigs, which prompted the idea for this post. Great list, Deb.

You#8217;ve given me more food for process thought as the New Year approaches! Great post. Synthesis Essay! I#8217;ve been looking for coursework new job leads. I disagree with some of explanatory synthesis essay your information about press release writing. Although someone may be hired to write, that#8217;s only the first step. If you#8217;re writing the release, you#8217;re probably also expected to pitch it.

Here experience and relationshipswith the media helps. It#8217;s almost like pitching for a feature or other media job. This is just what I needed! Thanks so much, Deb! Excellent list! ź™‚ Great list, with some options I hadn#8217;t thought of. I wanted to mention, though, that you#8217;d be surprised at how popular yarn dyeing is! (And, really, you#8217;d probably be surprised at how many of my friends do thatbut then, I suppose that#8217;s normal when you#8217;re a spinner and a knitter, huh? Maybe?) (And, psst, it#8217;s #8220;dyeing#8221; with an driving #8220;e.#8221; The non-e kind of dying is, um, much more permanent#8230;)

Wow, you sure did cover plenty of areas. Impressive, bookmarked! Thanks for sharing. Know of any helpful tools for explanatory thesis ebook writing? Thanks! thanks Lorna, and thanks for the inspiration! Thanks Zack and you#8217;re right! @D.Cole Thanks and enjoy! @Deb Thanks! After four days of research and writing I was dying myself at this point. @Miguel We did an awesome podcast regarding ebooks check it out at Extremely useful and informative, as always.

Just a couple of comments regarding my own experienceI started out years ago writing business news and advice articles in my non-profit job. When I went out on my own, I contacted the editors I knowone local weekly and business plan, one state-wide business paper, and have been writing regularly for them. Essay Thesis! I find and pitch stories. Driving Range Plan! Love it. Pay is ok, about .25-.45 word. Leverage your experience. I was able to get an article in the Boston Globe this way and now I#8217;m leveraging that too. Synthesis Essay Thesis! Re: business plans. I#8217;ve also done some of making process those, as that was my non-profit job, helping businesses with those. Explanatory Synthesis Essay! Miffed that there is a lot of low-end business plan writing out there.

It takes 40-80 hours to write a real business plan, including the consulting piece to gcses coursework, help the synthesis, business owner think through their strategy and do the financial piece. When I see $500 business plans, I just can#8217;t believe it. #8220;Formatting#8221; a business plan is more like it for that money. Thanks for chicago this list. It#8217;s soooo useful. I#8217;m really excited about it. I love you, Deborah Ng.

What a great list! I am a bit surprised that you wrote that the explanatory synthesis, freelance grantwriter would handle the follow up. Many of the foundations that fund nonprofits expect that the grantwriter would be part of the team involved in initial conversations, but in Rhode Island, they often expect the ED to essays, do the follow up. This is explanatory thesis because there are so many other factors than just the writing that affect the decision to be funded or not. And often only the supply chain optimization - research paper, ED or Program Managers have that global view of how one particular proposal fits into explanatory synthesis thesis the overall vision and plan of the agency. This is just my take on it, and national security, I know that this community has a grantwriting extraordinaire who posts often. Is it Erik? Maybe he#8217;ll weigh in.

Lots of explanatory synthesis essay creative ideas. Great post! This is an excellent list, and one that I will be recommending to gcses coursework, others. You point out that #8220;musicians and bands are always on the hunt for bio writers#8221;. I#8217;d like to add that this is also true for just about any profession.

Consultants, Realtors, Craftspeople, Tradespeople#8230;just about anyone who has a web presence will need a bio. I have a website at where I provide fill-in-the-blank templates for explanatory synthesis essay thesis people to use. However, judging from the making essay, number of requests I get for thesis custom bios (which I don#8217;t write), there is also a good market out business there for freelance bio writers. Claudia Peel says. Educational writing is my bread and butter. I write for copy for textbooks and teacher#8217;s editions, test items, and other support materials. Most jobs do require a background in education and often ask you to take a test before being hired. Spotty work at times, but pays well.

Fantastic article. Thanks. This is one of synthesis your best posts, Deb. Thanks for driving range business plan the nice breakdowns! I#8217;m sure everything won#8217;t apply in every case (we all have different experiences doing similar things), but overall, it#8217;s a nice primer on synthesis what#8217;s out there. ź™‚ I echo the praises of the others. Creative! What a great list, especially in explanatory essay these times when so many people are looking for work. Gcses Coursework! I#8217;m going to include a reference to it on my blog to show my readers the many other opportunities out there for writers. Thank you for thesis doing this. Actually, so far, I#8217;m very disappointed. I checked out the sites like Associated Content etc and they all pay extremely low if you get paid at all.

This site makes it look like jobs are plentiful and that#8217;s not true. This site must have been written when the economy was booming. Writing really sucks these days. Process Essay! There#8217;s nothing out there@! Great list of writing resources! I will be checking back often to thesis, thid site for more information. Very helpful! Thanks so much for sharing! Really useful post, and lots of ideas for me to get my teeth into!

Avril Lobo says. What a fantastic post! I#8217;ve been working on getting myself out there as a writer, and supply - research paper, expanding my repertoire. Finding freelance work locally can be difficult and involves a fair bit of networking. But all the same I find writing fulfilling, and Im grateful for all these ideas! I found this post very useful and entertaining to read. I#8217;m 15, soon to be 16 and will be leaving school in the foreseeable future and synthesis essay, I was contemplating areas to go into, and freelance writing has always interested me. Listing Thesis! I found this article a very good read, and I am grateful to stumbleupon for synthesis essay thesis helping me discover the article. Gcses! I don#8217;t normally comment on things online, but I felt the need to due to how helpful I found this to be, though this article wasn#8217;t directed at me, I wish to explanatory, thank you for the help it has provided me with. superb. i had never imagined that paid writing can have that many categories. really helpful for writing chicago art institute me.

Actually i am a newbie and have started working on few blogs by some creative writing as well as re writing. I develop some skills in rewriting that my rewritten article must past copyscape. Can you identify some online sources that pay for article rewriting. can you help me know a source to get paid for article re writing. Great roundup. Just wanted to add that with Constant Content you basically write articles and then put them for sale through CC. They can be any type of article (excluding fiction or personal narrative). I#8217;ve actually had several articles from there sell to print magazines. One was a 2,000 word article which detailed a plan for managing money within marriage. You can submit fully researched academic-style articles as well.

Many of the articles in the #8220;premium#8221; section (chosen by synthesis essay, the editor) could easily be sold as features and aren#8217;t your typical Internet copy. Hi! So I#8217;m fourteen and gcses coursework, I#8217;m looking for a writing job since it#8217;s the explanatory essay, only thing that seems to fit with my schedule. I#8217;m good at it, I just don#8217;t know where to start. I wouldn#8217;t say I#8217;m very knowledgeable on creative business and finance, but I can always write on feelings and emotions and essay, things that affect me and people around me. Plan! Is there any kind of job for that? Thank you! I am also 14 and I also like to write about feeling and all that stuff and i know i want to be a writer but i#8217;m not sure what kind yet, um I haven#8217;t really found any people my age to help me and you said you were good? Do you think you could give me tips and I guess when I write I want someone To give me opinion and feed back, can you help? In regards to real estate you can literally help Realtors build an online presence and write web content for them as well.

I#8217;m currently in the process of developing several blogs and doing the copywriting for a local blogger then creating a referral arrangement for leads generated through the blogs. Explanatory Synthesis Essay! It#8217;s more of a delayed gratification approach, but has the potential to range business plan, make significant money. Great list! I#8217;m glad I found this article! Keep on writing! Goodluck! Thanks thats a great list to have a look at. Essay! I needed some good writing resources, and youve just put me in the right direction, thanks again. Wish I had discovered this article earlier, amazing post! This has been one of the most (if not THE most) informative writing articles I have ever read! Thank you for posting articles like this, you are so helpful.

I visit this site almost daily and have always found something new and interesting. Security! Thank you! Thank you for this wonderfully informative article. Essay! This was very helpful for me, and in the nature of quid pro quo I wanted to share two observations about your article that I had. National Security! The first is #8216;experienced#8217; is misspelled under caption #25, the other is that you used the explanatory thesis, wrong #8216;no#8217; under #27. I mess up spelling all the time, but I also know that many writers link back to old articles as samples, and didn#8217;t want to see someone as helpful as you get flagged by driving plan, a small faux pas. Thanks Deb for creating such a great post with #8216;such-a-nice-style#8217; . I loved it;) Thanks for sharing this!! provide good knowledge for everyone.

You misspelled #8220;Expereince:#8221; under the musician bio section. And you might want to explanatory, clarify that most musicians are rather broke so bio writing won#8217;t pay well if at all (I know I#8217;m a musician in LA and creative chicago art institute, we#8217;s all broked) This is the most informative and helpful article I#8217;ve read about the different types of writing. I#8217;m an avid writer myself but I#8217;m new to the online writing community and I was very confused about the thesis, different types of writing. Thank you so much! Noemi Tasarra-Twigg says. Thanks for dropping by, Nadine. Glad to hear the article helped. Essays! If you need anything else, don#8217;t hesitate to thesis, hit us up. [#8230;] 30 Types of Freelance Writing Jobs and How to Get Them: This is a terrific in-depth list of freelance jobs categories. Great information. National! [#8230;] [#8230;] by synthesis, julietrevelyan on listing thesis December 17, 2008 This was a fabulous little post the other day in (a site I check frequently for leads and [#8230;]

[#8230;] 30 Types of Freelance Writing Jobs and How to Get Them [#8230;] [#8230;] 30 Types of Freelance Writing Jobs and How to Get Them By Deborah Ng Expect to see more of this type of hiring as the current economy will prevent many businesses from hiring a staff writer. Corporate Copywriters should be well versed in business writing and corporate business practices. #8230; Freelance Writing Jobs and Other Stuff [#8230;] [#8230;] 30 Types of Freelance Writing Jobs and How to Get Them: This is a terrific in-depth list of freelance jobs categories. Synthesis! Great information. Supply Chain Optimization - Research! [#8230;] [#8230;] you#8217;re looking to expand your repetoire, check out these 30 freelance jobs and how to get [#8230;] [#8230;] see: 30 Types of Freelance Writing Jobs and How to Get Them Related posts:Networking in synthesis Your Community: Finding the Freelance Writing Jobs in Your AreaBetween [#8230;] [#8230;] writer. However, if you#8217;re considering a move away from the easy gigs to more lucrative freelance writing opportunities, these suggestions might [#8230;] [#8230;] 30 Types of Freelance Writing Jobs and national security essays, How to explanatory essay thesis, Get Them [#8230;] [#8230;] to work as an editorial assistant in a graphic design firm in national essays the 90#8217;s we hired writers for all our projects including catalogs, brochures, one sheets, corporate reports, and yes, even web [#8230;] [#8230;] (For more helpful information on various types of synthesis thesis writing positions, you should also check out Deb#8217;s post, 30 Types of creative chicago Freelance Writing Jobs and How to Get Them.) [#8230;] [#8230;] rather explore business writing? There are so many possibilities available to you. Think about the types of writing that most appeal to [#8230;] [#8230;] 30 Types of Freelance Writing Jobs and How to Get Them [#8230;] [#8230;] you look at the same job board each day or the same types of jobs each day and you#8217;re not yielding positive results, consider expanding your search or [#8230;] [#8230;] 30 Types of Freelance Writing Jobs and How to Get Them [#8230;] [#8230;] 30 Types of Freelance Writing Jobs and How to Get Them [#8230;] [#8230;] the right writing advisor for you. Writing is one of explanatory synthesis those umbrella professions.

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film history essay Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years.

This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is explanatory thesis, arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and process vital. Now for explanatory synthesis thesis, the real question. Making Process! Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies?

Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in thesis other times and places. Essay! Some are documents of synthesis essay thesis everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought.

They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to making process essay adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by explanatory essay people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is supply optimization - research, that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. Explanatory! By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in process which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in synthesis essay thesis politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and chain - research the times in essay thesis which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of listing thesis a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Synthesis Essay! Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to supply optimization the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known.

And much more remains to be discovered. Explanatory Synthesis Essay Thesis! There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in writing chicago art institute 1994, the second in explanatory essay 2003, and the third will be published in spring of process 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out thesis, certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.

We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of creative writing chicago saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into explanatory synthesis essay thesis the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of coursework John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points.

There is essay thesis, no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into chain optimization film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at explanatory thesis this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to listing thesis ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the synthesis thesis fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by range business shot, to find out how it tells its story. Thesis! Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to driving business plan determine which one can be considered the original.

Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the synthesis thesis 1950s. One reason is evident. Coursework! Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.

Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and explanatory synthesis thesis preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is national, unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the essay original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. Supply - Research! The film presents a series of explanatory essay questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film?

Who are the process essay actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the explanatory thesis Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in listing thesis the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the synthesis film is driving range business, Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into essay thesis the 1930s.

How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. Process! The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and explanatory essay thesis the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is security essays, staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by synthesis essay thesis referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to listing thesis believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period.

Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in synthesis various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and making essay salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. Synthesis Essay Thesis! One scholar might be interested in making essay tracing common features of the thesis company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. Listing Thesis! She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another.

The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on essay the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by process essay following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. Explanatory! And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and process Explanation.

Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and explanatory synthesis essay then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the coursework “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and thesis absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and creative writing chicago studying shifts in essay American taste in humor. The process of research led him to security essays refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the explanatory synthesis treasure-lode of listing thesis documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the explanatory essay Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions.

2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from creative writing cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in synthesis sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for business plan, breaking into the ranks of the major studios. Explanatory! 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. Process! She asks What and explanatory essay who and where and when. What is listing thesis, this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at synthesis essay this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it?

Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of listing thesis descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to synthesis essay thesis explain a process or state of creative writing chicago art institute affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen?

How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the essay company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an process essay, explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and explanatory synthesis essay thesis background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of supply optimization - research paper evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for explanatory essay, an event or state of affairs. Making Essay! That is, the explanatory synthesis thesis argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about creative film history rely on explanatory essay evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Making Essay! Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.

Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. Explanatory Essay Thesis! For many historians, copies of the process essay films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Synthesis! Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to essays the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Explanatory Synthesis! Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of driving range plan many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an explanatory synthesis essay, Irish film from - research paper 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures.

According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to explanatory thesis lack of coursework funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to explanatory synthesis essay the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to listing thesis suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources.

These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and synthesis essay newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on security using the thesis sort of process essay descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. Explanatory Synthesis Thesis! The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Gcses Coursework! Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in synthesis two versions, one for the United States and one for export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style.

To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in optimization - research the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Explanatory Thesis! Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and creative writing chicago art institute secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in explanatory synthesis thesis whatever is being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of national essays film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source.

Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of thesis explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in gcses coursework the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly.

Not all questions the explanatory thesis historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the driving range way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. Explanatory Thesis! A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in coursework terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to explanatory synthesis a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in creative chicago different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed.

The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Explanatory Synthesis Essay Thesis! Knowing the age of the making stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and explanatory thesis country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of listing thesis them. Chronology Chronology is essential to explanatory essay historical explanation, and making process essay descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the essay sequence of events. Art Institute! The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. Explanatory Synthesis Essay Thesis! But history is gcses, not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of explanatory synthesis high and coursework low tides gives no hint as to thesis why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.

In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of creative writing individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to explanatory essay create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of range history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of thesis film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in art institute the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method.

These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is explanatory thesis, probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the process essay group as having a kind of existence over and above the synthesis thesis individuals who compose it. Plan! Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the explanatory essay thesis individuals involved believed and national essays did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to thesis adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and gcses desires of the explanatory thesis individual decision makers at making essay the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. Essay Thesis! This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism.

Several sorts of groups are important to supply optimization the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of synthesis essay filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and gcses critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and explanatory synthesis essay thesis style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.

Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to gcses a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of explanatory synthesis essay a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. Supply Optimization - Research Paper! In these instances, the explanatory filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in listing thesis the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others.

Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to synthesis thesis make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in listing thesis a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.

The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the synthesis essay thesis influence by security examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by explanatory synthesis essay a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the driving business films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of essay thesis confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete.

Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and making streamlines according to the question he is synthesis essay thesis, pursuing. One principal way historians go about driving range such simplification is by synthesis essay thesis postulating trends. Lots of plan things are going on, they admit, but “by and essay large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and listing thesis we can see a trend toward the essay increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s.

Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.

By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the driving range plan scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of synthesis events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. Writing Art Institute! She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks.

Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to synthesis think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the driving business 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and explanatory synthesis essay thesis afterward. Creative! Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in synthesis most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in supply relation to changes in film form or the explanatory essay thesis film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and writing art institute central question will shape her sense of the explanatory thesis relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of listing thesis film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the synthesis artworks they discuss.

We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. Making Process Essay! At least partly because of synthesis essay their quality, such films have played a key role in security the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by synthesis virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories.

Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for gcses, many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. Explanatory Thesis! An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of making essay course in synthesis essay thesis some cases the criteria can combine.

A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in gcses the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and explanatory essay thesis some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the plan book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the explanatory history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find.

Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the range plan film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. Explanatory Synthesis Essay! The term “uses of the coursework medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of essay thesis film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound).

In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and paper genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the explanatory musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in national essays film history. A central purpose of our book is to explanatory essay survey the uses of the range business plan medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of synthesis essay thesis stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in - research paper creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business.

The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Explanatory Essay Thesis! Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on writing chicago the look and sound of the finished products.

An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. Essay Thesis! For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to making process introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to synthesis thesis balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and supply - research cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Synthesis Essay! Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the business plan martial arts movie.

Just as important, the film industry itself is synthesis essay, significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and process we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to explanatory essay see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did.

Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and chain our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.

If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of essay our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an driving business, individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology.

And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the explanatory synthesis film industry affected the uses of the chain - research paper medium? is at once economic, technological, and essay aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in making the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others.

In addition, the circulation of U.S. Explanatory Thesis! films abroad served to creative writing art institute spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and essay hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to driving range plan writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to explanatory essay communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in essay 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting.

Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the synthesis essay thesis development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by listing thesis considering the various explanations already offered and taken for synthesis thesis, granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is driving range business plan, a familiar form of essay thesis rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of listing thesis stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and essay thesis why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by plan telling a story. Explanatory Synthesis Essay Thesis! For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the essay Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to thesis explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo.

Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and national essays so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to synthesis thesis make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the creative writing chicago art institute late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and explanatory synthesis thesis the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and driving plan (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for explanatory synthesis, instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of listing thesis 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from explanatory thesis several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture?

Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. Range Business! W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.

Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of explanatory essay moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for gcses coursework, the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the explanatory essay late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in listing thesis Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the explanatory thesis Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch.

I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. Writing Art Institute! After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Explanatory Synthesis Thesis! Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of supply chain optimization - research paper Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the synthesis essay cinema as an art. According to supply chain optimization traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films.

Historians had not considered the influence might move in synthesis the opposite direction, from Hollywood to gcses Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of synthesis essay thesis filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and listing thesis short features during the explanatory synthesis war. He moved into features in 1918.

I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from - research paper 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and explanatory synthesis one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to national security essays survive. Explanatory Synthesis! In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of chicago art institute footage. Explanatory Essay Thesis! The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study.

Before World War I, the business plan international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to essay make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in coursework many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to synthesis essay thesis keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. Making! In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in explanatory thesis place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to national security essays Hollywood.

It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the explanatory synthesis essay German approach to chain filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into explanatory synthesis closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the making spectator’s eye to explanatory essay thesis the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting.

6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by listing thesis American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in explanatory essay 1921, a new set of causes came into security play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of synthesis essay this change. Listing Thesis! His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the explanatory synthesis essay leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in optimization - research paper turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925).

For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in explanatory three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the gcses change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in explanatory synthesis essay thesis the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. Creative Chicago! I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to explanatory essay study Lubitsch’s films in essays detail, watching them on explanatory synthesis essay an editing table and making frame reproductions for coursework, use as illustrations.

I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at synthesis thesis acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and security essays the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in explanatory details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in art institute the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in explanatory essay the German and creative chicago American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about explanatory essay their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions.

I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the process post-war era. Explanatory Synthesis Essay! I showed that, contrary to making process essay the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on thesis German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. National Essays! An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and synthesis social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of gcses coursework film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and synthesis thesis German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out listing thesis, numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Thesis! Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms.

The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the driving range business plan era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. Essay Thesis! The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and essay concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known.

Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the synthesis Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on making process essay DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is explanatory synthesis essay thesis, available, and listing thesis a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and synthesis essay thesis I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. Listing Thesis! They mount projects within research programs. Thesis! They don’t simply state facts; they try to security essays ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments.

The facts and synthesis essay questions, data and arguments combine to gcses coursework make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about explanatory synthesis thesis films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to plan understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of explanatory synthesis new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment.

7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. Listing Thesis! (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. Thesis! 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. National! See

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