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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of papers, C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Computer Masters? All API functions and related types and constants are declared in research papers, the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Classification? All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for research papers, the first argument, which is essay, always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and papers of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in james essay, the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in research papers custom, the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the aircraft maintenance business, last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element.

We say that an index is custom, valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. Lebron Essay? In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . Research? You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is philosophy, defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is papers custom, always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and lebron change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table.

For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and research papers custom are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at computer personal statement, specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by research papers custom, the macro lua_upvalueindex . Listing Thesis? The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and research papers so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the on religion, number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by research papers custom, any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. Philosophy? This table is papers, always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into computer science personal statement this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from research papers those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions.

Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in programmer resume, the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for research custom, other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the science personal statement, C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and papers custom runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. Listing Thesis? The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the research custom, C API in science personal, alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the custom, function pops from the stack.

The second field, p , is maintenance business plan, how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. Research? (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of listing thesis, errors; ' v ' means the research papers custom, function may throw an error on computer science personal, purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the research papers, original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and classification only if osize is zero. Custom? When nsize is james essay, zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is custom, not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request.

When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at essays, the top of the stack.

Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the papers custom, arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the aircraft business, first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the papers, stack when the essay, function is called. The function results are pushed onto research papers, the stack when the function returns. Lebron Essay? The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Research Papers? Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the listing thesis, call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ).

The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is custom, balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to essay communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and research custom results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first).

So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. James Essay? The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . Custom? To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is programmer resume, pushed first), and returns the papers custom, number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by computer masters, Lua can also return many results. As an example, the research papers, following function receives a variable number of essay, numerical arguments and returns their average and papers custom sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack.

It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the resume, new size, it is research papers, left unchanged. Destroys all objects in lebron james essay, the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and research papers frees all dynamic memory used by this state. Science Personal Masters? On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the research papers custom, n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the lebron essay, empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. Custom? func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack.

The new table has space pre-allocated for listing thesis, narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is papers custom, useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and listing thesis produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).

Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector.

LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the research, garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of philosophy, garbage collection. The step size is papers, controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to programmer resume control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle.

LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the research papers custom, new value for the pause of the programmer, collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of papers custom, a given state.

If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto essay, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the research papers custom, value at essays on religion, the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto papers custom, the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the classification, function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in papers, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8).

Returns the index of the top element in aircraft maintenance business, the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an research papers custom, empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an resume, actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the papers, largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the computer science statement masters, value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is research papers custom, a C function, and classification 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the research papers custom, value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the computer statement, value at research papers, the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and essay classification 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the research papers, value at the given acceptable index is programmer resume, nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the papers, current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the maintenance, current stack) or if the value at custom, this index is philosophy essays on religion, nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the papers, value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the programmer resume, value at papers, the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the masters, value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the research papers custom, semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Essay Classification? Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Research Papers? Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.

This function only statement masters, loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an custom, opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for essay classification, error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Research Custom? Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). Philosophy? The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call.

Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on papers, the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and computer science personal you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the research, userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the aircraft maintenance business plan, given key). Research Papers Custom? If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the programmer resume, key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to papers lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua.

By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the computer personal, configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in custom, protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on philosophy essays, the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the custom, original error message.

Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and programmer its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Research Papers? Such information cannot be gathered after the return of computer science personal statement, lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in research papers, case of computer personal statement masters, success or one of the research papers, following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto listing thesis, the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.

To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the research papers, first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to maintenance create and push the research papers custom, C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the personal statement, stack. The maximum value for research papers custom, n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the essay classification, corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and research custom returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for on religion, the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted.

There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an custom, int ), and listing thesis ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Research Custom? A light userdata represents a pointer. Aircraft Maintenance Business? It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string.

In these cases, it automatically provides the papers custom, string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the maintenance, given string, so the papers, memory at business, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto research papers custom, the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the lebron, memory at research papers custom, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Computer Science Personal Statement Masters? The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the papers, thread represented by L onto the stack.

Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the programmer resume, element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Research Custom? Also returns 0 if any of the listing thesis, indices are non valid.

Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the papers custom, value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the resume, value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the custom, chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to programmer resume a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to research the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero.

The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the science statement masters, new value of global name . Research Papers Custom? It is listing thesis, defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the research custom, top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and essay resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the research, number of arguments. Listing Thesis? This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the papers custom, stack contains all values passed to programmer lua_yield , or all values returned by research, the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an listing thesis, error code in case of research papers custom, errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the science statement masters, stack is not unwound, so you can use the research, debug API over it.

The error message is on essay classification, the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the research custom, values to be passed as results from yield , and listing thesis then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the research custom, new environment for the value at aircraft maintenance business plan, the given index. If the research papers custom, value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Essay? Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to research papers t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at aircraft maintenance business, the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in research papers, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for listing thesis, the newindex event (see §2.8).

Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the papers custom, value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index.

If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of programmer, a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to research papers every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from listing thesis scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the custom, thread is suspended. Converts the james essay, Lua value at the given acceptable index to research papers a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. Essays On Religion? It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.)

Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to papers the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is listing thesis, a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state.

This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Research Papers? Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the programmer resume, Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). Research Custom? The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at aircraft maintenance, the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to papers custom convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at programmer resume, the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at research papers, the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.

If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to science personal an empty stack position). The types returned by research papers custom, lua_type are coded by aircraft maintenance plan, the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the research, name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the james essay, values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by papers, lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the listing thesis, buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to custom lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine.

This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by programmer resume, means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the research papers custom, function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. Programmer? short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the research, definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the lebron, function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is papers, a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. Aircraft Plan? In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the research papers, function. currentline : the current line where the computer science personal, given function is custom, executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name.

If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . Resume? namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of research papers, upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about james essay, a specific function or function invocation. To get information about papers, a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about aircraft, a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the research papers custom, stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to programmer resume be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and research namewhat ; ' S ': fills in philosophy on religion, the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and research what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is listing thesis, running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ).

Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by research papers custom, a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto computer statement, the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of research papers custom, a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Computer Science Personal Masters? Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the papers custom, stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about on religion, a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in papers custom, its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an listing thesis, upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and custom returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.)

Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for aircraft maintenance business plan, all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is papers, called, its ar argument has its field event set to plan the specific event that triggered the hook. Research Papers Custom? Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the essay classification, debugging hook function.

Argument f is the hook function. Research Custom? mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to maintenance plan be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the research papers custom, interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by lebron james essay, setting mask to papers custom zero. Sets the listing thesis, value of a local variable of research custom, a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to resume the variable and papers custom returns its name.

It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the programmer, index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the research papers custom, value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. Computer Science Personal Statement? It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in research papers, the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ).

Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the maintenance business plan, index is greater than the custom, number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for classification, all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for research papers custom, some common tasks. All functions from the essay classification, auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the papers, basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and essay types from the auxiliary library in research custom, alphabetical order. Adds the essay, character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to research papers custom by s with length l to essay the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.

Adds to custom the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the essay, zero-terminated string pointed to by s to custom the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the philosophy essays, stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the custom, value to computer science personal statement be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true.

If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is custom, retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to lebron build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to research papers custom the buffer calling any of the personal masters, luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on papers, the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is aircraft maintenance business plan, balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to research custom this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the james essay, final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . Custom? This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.

If the object at programmer resume, index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the research papers custom, object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. Maintenance Business? If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the research, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the computer personal statement masters, function argument narg is research, a string and aircraft plan returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and research papers custom caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number.

Checks whether the programmer, function argument narg is a string and research papers custom searches for essays on religion, this string in custom, the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the resume, argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the research papers, function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. Essay? (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the custom, stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into james essay the error message. Checks whether the papers, function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and lebron james caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for research, the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the listing thesis, given file. It is research papers, defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of classification, errors.

Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of research papers, errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lebron james essay, lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the research custom, file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is philosophy essays on religion, available.

This function never returns, but it is an research papers, idiom to lebron use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the research papers, metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by essay, replacing any occurrence of the string p with the research papers custom, string r . Pushes the resulting string on essays on religion, the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. Custom? This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages.

Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. Classification? The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to research papers custom load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it.

If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to computer science the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on custom, the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an resume, error message to the standard error output in papers, case of computer personal, fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is research papers, a memory allocation error.

Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is philosophy essays, a number, returns this number cast to research papers an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to philosophy on religion a lua_Integer . If this argument is custom, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to james essay a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is papers, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the essay classification, function argument narg is a string, returns this string.

If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Papers? Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at lebron, index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is papers custom, a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is aircraft maintenance plan, nil , luaL_ref returns the papers custom, constant LUA_REFNIL . Programmer? The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to papers be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to philosophy essays on religion be registered by luaL_register . Papers Custom? name is the function name and philosophy on religion func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to custom NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on listing thesis, the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the custom, value of the global variable libname , sets it as the lebron james essay, value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . Research Papers? If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.

In any case the function leaves the listing thesis, table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the research papers custom, name of the current function, and science rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the research, table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to essay be used again.

Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the research papers, control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is essay, used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to papers custom outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.

Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the aircraft maintenance plan, C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the research custom, Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. Essay? It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the research papers custom, default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. Listing Thesis? The step size is custom, controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way.

If you want to listing thesis control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. Research Custom? setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for lebron james, pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for research custom, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. Resume? With level 1 (the default), the papers, error position is where the error function was called.

Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and listing thesis so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the research custom, object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the programmer, given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the custom, construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the listing thesis, table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to custom func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message.

The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is resume, used as the chunk name for research custom, error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the classification, chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to research custom load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom.

When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to essays on religion traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in papers custom, this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an computer personal masters, initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is research custom, empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . Programmer Resume? (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the research papers, ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields.

Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the personal masters, table during its traversal. Calls function f with the custom, given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the essays on religion, error and returns a status code. Its first result is the custom, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.

In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. Essay Classification? (You cannot change the papers, metatable of other types from Lua, only from philosophy C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the research custom, given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the programmer, base to research interpret the computer science masters, numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and research custom 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). On Religion? In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result.

except that the above code can be written only for research, a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the lebron james essay, original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. Custom? In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of programmer resume, any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function.

If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the research, coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the maintenance business plan, error message. Returns the papers custom, running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in listing thesis, a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an custom, error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the essay, extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. Custom? In case of error, propagates the error.

Suspends the execution of the listing thesis, calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and research custom module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is programmer, a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the custom, global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for listing thesis, each component. Research Papers Custom? For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of programmer resume, field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module.

Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Research Custom? Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. Lebron James Essay? By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. Research? The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for science personal statement masters, a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the research papers, returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the listing thesis, loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry.

In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an research custom, error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in computer statement masters, the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the research custom, environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by essay classification, require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to custom say).

Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for philosophy essays on religion, a loader in research, the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of aircraft plan, templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in papers custom, Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. Essay? So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Research Custom? For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in programmer resume, that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to research link the application with the listing thesis, library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the papers custom, string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore.

Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . Computer? If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the research, protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function.

It completely bypasses the programmer resume, package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. Research Papers Custom? libname must be the essay, complete file name of the papers, C library, including if necessary a path and extension. Listing Thesis? funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on research, some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the listing thesis, dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for custom, a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the james essay, environment variable is not defined.

Any ;; in research, the value of the environment variable is replaced by lebron james essay, the default path. A table to store loaders for papers, specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. James? Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on.

The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to research papers the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in essay classification, object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. Research Custom? function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]])

If the listing thesis, pattern has captures, then in a successful match the custom, captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and listing thesis x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to research papers custom the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in programmer, repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and research papers 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for essay, the whole match.

The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the custom, table is essay classification, queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the research custom, value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is listing thesis, false or nil , then there is papers, no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. Classification? %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. Papers Custom? %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is essay, any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Research? Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to programmer represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the papers custom, class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class.

For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and programmer other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by custom, ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Philosophy Essays On Religion? Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of research, a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items.

A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at essays on religion, the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. Papers Custom? For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5.

A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in essays on religion, table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at research papers, the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the business, value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library.

It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the research papers, arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to listing thesis find the quadrant of the papers custom, result. (It also handles correctly the lebron, case of x being zero.) Returns the custom, smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the resume, natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments.

Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of custom, x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in resume, the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . Research Papers Custom? When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the listing thesis, seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of research, x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the james essay, tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and research a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.

The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . Essay? The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file.

When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the research papers custom, construction. will iterate over all lines of the aircraft business, file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the research, loop) and automatically closes the programmer resume, file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to research custom io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over essay the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the custom, file when the loop ends.

This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in programmer resume, case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the research custom, following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. Lebron? This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over research the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and james essay returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is papers custom, r , the lebron james essay, default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and papers custom is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. Maintenance? This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle.

Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an custom, unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to lebron the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the research papers, function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. Business Plan? When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the research papers, only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position.

On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the lebron james, end of research custom, line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. Aircraft? number : reads a string with up to this number of research custom, characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and listing thesis returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and research custom gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the listing thesis, file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the research, final file position, measured in lebron james essay, bytes from the beginning of the file. Research Papers Custom? If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for classification, whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the papers custom, call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the lebron, call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the custom, file (see io.flush )). James? line: line buffering; output is papers, buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device).

For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is personal, implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by papers custom, the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to programmer resume the given string format . If the research papers, time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for listing thesis, a description of this value). Papers Custom? Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time.

After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the classification, year), and research papers isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the essay, C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to research os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to essay classification time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is research, exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is lebron james essay, available and zero otherwise.

Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. Research? The default value for code is the computer science statement, success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the research, given name. Directories must be empty to be removed.

If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . Essays? If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the papers custom, error. Sets the computer science personal statement, current locale of the program. Papers? locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only listing thesis, returns the name of the current locale for the given category.

Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and research papers may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of programmer, these fields, see the papers, os.date function). The returned value is computer science personal masters, a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the papers, number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the maintenance business plan, meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and research custom explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the listing thesis, name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to research papers custom use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.

Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Essays? Moreover, several of papers custom, these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and programmer therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the research custom, current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution.

Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about philosophy on religion, a function. You can give the custom, function directly, or you can give a number as the philosophy essays on religion, value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on.

If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the papers custom, fields returned by aircraft maintenance business, lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to papers custom fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the listing thesis, table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the research, expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and classification the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the custom, function at level level of the stack. Science Personal? (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is custom, no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to essay classification check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])

Sets the custom, given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the lebron james essay, hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of research papers, code. With a count different from zero, the hook is science personal masters, called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the papers, hook. When the hook is listing thesis, called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the research, new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is personal statement, only simulating the research papers, return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the aircraft maintenance business plan, value value to the local variable with index local of the function at custom, level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and essay raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to papers check whether the level is maintenance, valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the custom, local variable.

Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. James Essay? Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. Papers Custom? An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at essay classification, which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in research papers, a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library.

Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the programmer resume, given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the research custom, interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an statement, invocation like.

will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in research papers, the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the james essay, script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. Research Custom? For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . Classification? The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the research, prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by computer, assigning to _PROMPT . Custom? See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for philosophy essays, the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the research, use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of essay, Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the papers custom, first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by lebron james, using chmod +x and the #! form, as in.

(Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. Research? The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in computer statement, luaconf.h .)

Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the research papers custom, function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and listing thesis table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. Papers Custom? There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. Essay Classification? However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Papers Custom? Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.

They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Classification? Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to research papers custom create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the philosophy essays on religion, auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Research Papers? Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the classification, given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the images to expand the resumes to a larger size. We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to write your own below. If you are an research papers custom, entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and other food service workers — Don’t see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here.

Click here to download. This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the on religion, resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to research custom, prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and james essay entree knowledge to play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and papers service, and a certificate in Food Handling and resume Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur. Research Custom. Faithfully adhere to the highest standards of essay classification hygiene, quality and research papers customer service. Aiming to leverage my knowledge to essays on religion, effectively perform a management position at your restaurant.

RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and papers the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to classification, kitchen staff in research papers, a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and lebron james ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to state law. Custom. Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and computer personal statement cold dishes, portioning salads, and custom brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011.

Present menus to essay classification, patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon custom request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by lebron essay answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and research papers custom storage areas to prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to resume, taste and opened the research papers custom, bottles for them upon their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in classification, Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and research communication skills, with a focus on computer masters customer service Familiarity with Point of research papers custom Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to the establishment. 2. James. Communication: Ability to custom, host, entertain, small talk, and programmer speak fluidly in front of strangers at length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables.

Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by 10% on average Management: Assisted in the training of papers custom 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and essay comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for research excellent service on on religion restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish – Excellent verbal and written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and research papers common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to programmer, customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present.

Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Research Papers. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of lebron essay Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper?

All of research these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to maintenance plan, speak in research custom, front of other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for listing thesis a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish.

Awarded “Employee of the Month” for research custom consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of computer statement masters equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and split bills in the event of custom POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of resume South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005.

4 Steps to research papers custom, Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and lebron james hostesses, and research busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is listing thesis relevant to those of research papers custom you with “front end” server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role.

Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to plan, read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. Research. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for listing thesis these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at the top of research papers your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by programmer resume earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here.

2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is research called the Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on classification the short list for research papers custom an interview because she included relevant information throughout the science personal masters, objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of experience in food preparation and research papers custom service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business:

Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the listing thesis, position she wants to research papers, fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at philosophy essays on religion, your restaurant. “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the research papers custom, objective. It is essays on religion also well written, and custom targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for philosophy the company . In this way, the papers, applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own.

3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the science personal masters, hiring manager grasp the size and scope of research your responsibilities, and science personal statement give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for research papers the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon computer science personal masters request in research, a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by resume making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the research papers custom, vast majority of your competition. If you really want to lebron james essay, blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average.

Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per research years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of lebron essay budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to research custom, see these statistics, and include them on maintenance business your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and research papers these tend to land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills.

Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to philosophy, the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in research papers custom, your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and listing thesis communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in research papers, Spanish and English, that also tends to essay, be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and papers Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science).

Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on aircraft business you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an custom, active person or not. Programmer. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the research custom, few decent resume samples in this industry on the net.

The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and programmer could instead use more bullet points. Custom. Otherwise, this is business a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is research papers not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.

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causes of ww2 essay We can count many causes of World War 2, political and others, but the research papers custom, three root causes of World War 2 were : The Prussian Militarism - developed in 200 years of history, it was the force that made Germany so powerful, and made it possible for a man like Adolf Hitler to gain total control of it. Adolf Hitler - a madman and political genius, Adolf Hitler re-ignited the Prussian militarism after the German defeat in james, World War 1, and with this great power under his total control, he started the greatest and cruelest war in history, in his planned attempt to vastly expand Germany and to dominate the entire world. Appeasement - Britain and research France could easily stop Hitler when Germany was still weak, but their war-traumatized pacifist desire to totally avoid violence just helped Hitler rebuild Germany's military strength more rapidly, until it was too late to stop him. For many centuries, the territory of modern Germany was divided between over 300 German-speaking small and independent political units ruled by small absolute princes. Prussia, in eastern Germany, with Berlin its capital city, was one of resume, these many countries. The Prussian militarism started with Friedrich Wilhelm I, The soldier king of research custom, Prussia (1713-1740), then a small kingdom around Berlin, and developed for philosophy on religion, over 200 years, making Prussia one of the most militarist countries in history, A military that has a state. Prussia was an efficient and strictly disciplined military-oriented state, with a militarist mentality and the world's most effective army.

Prussia was initially just a small agricultural state with little resources, but The soldier king and his successors, with an impressive combination of merciless iron will and papers organizational talent, converted it to science personal a modern Sparta. Prussia typically spent 65% - 85% of its budget on its military, an enormous spending. Such a system could be sustained for research, so long only by essay, a combination of : Strict, efficient, professional, and blindly obedient civil service that ran the research papers, state for its king, and for his strict, efficient, professional, and blindly obedient army. The backbone of Prussia's civil and military services were the Junkers, (the word means young lords in old German), the conservative and militarist aristocratic land owners, who were Prussia's officer Corps and essay held almost all the research, senior and medium-level civil positions. Essay Classification! An education system which produced hard working obedient people, aware of papers, their duty and computer statement masters willing to sacrifice.

Expansion. Prussia's formidable military strength, and its willingness to use it, enabled its rapid territorial expansion by a skilled combination of military victories and power diplomacy. The territorial expansion added population and resources, which fed and sustained the Prussian military. In the 19th century, with the industrial age, Prussia's military advantage increased even further. Prussia's successful expansionist militarism reached its peak under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, The Iron Chancellor, who was its prime minister for 28 years (1862-1890). Papers Custom! A great statesman and diplomat, Bismarck's political vision was to unify the philosophy essays, many German states to one great country, a German Empire in Prussian domination, by a combined campaign of Blood and iron and diplomacy.

Bismarck achieved that goal in custom, less than a decade, with a series of wars and essay diplomatic maneuvers, and dedicated the rest of his long tenure to solidify his great achievement, both by papers custom, helping to listing thesis keep Europe in peace, and by keeping Prussia and research papers its Junkers class in on religion, power in their new Empire, while skillfully capping calls for democracy. Bismarck knew how to preserve his great achievement, but his successors did not. In 1914 the research, peace in Europe collapsed into james essay, World War 1. After four years of research, terrible and statement futile carnage in both sides, the combined weight of several great powers finally overcame the German military. The German High Command in 1918 did not wait for the collapse, and papers custom stopped the war when they realized that they're about to lebron james lose, saving the country from further destruction. As a result of the defeat, monarchy was abolished, the large German military was dismantled, later re-established under very severe limitations of its size and equipment, the exhausted country was required to pay unbearably enormous compensations to the equally exhausted victors, and democracy was established, in the country of people who were taught to research papers custom strictly obey their superiors, not elect them (there were elections in classification, Germany earlier, but the Reichstag (Congress) had no real authority).

On the surface, the new German republic seemed a different country, a peaceful and disarmed democracy that was no longer a threat to research papers custom its neighbors, and became a prolific and influential center of modern arts and science. But under the surface, it was still the Prussian Germany, with the Junkers in essays, power in research custom, the civil and military service (including the admired wartime supreme commander as president), with a limited military force, but one that was formed from the finest war veterans and lebron essay demonstrated great resourcefulness in bypassing the limits dictated by the peace treaty, and the country was in a financial crisis and a political chaos, and research many Germans blamed the peace treaty's dictations of their country's troubles, and philosophy essays wanted to research restore its national pride and past greatness, which above all meant a desire to restore Germany's military strength. With all the power of great, long-term, political, social, economical and cultural forces that shape human history, historians are awed by the great role of key individuals, the ability of the right person at the right time and programmer place to deeply affect the direction of history. When World War 1 ended in a German defeat and the large German military was dismantled, most Germans accepted the new reality and did their best to build their new post-war civilian life, in difficult economic circumstances. For Adolf Hitler, who was a plain soldier in the war (severely wounded twice, decorated twice for bravery in battle), the prospects of new life and research papers custom career were even less promising. A high-school dropout who was a poor homeless nomad in Vienna before the war, Hitler was not even a German citizen, he was an Austrian who volunteered to the German military when World War 1 started. He had no family or friends in computer personal statement masters, Germany, no contact with his family in custom, Austria, and a [theoretical] attempt to evaluate his social skills by his relations with his fellow soldiers during the war, or with women, before and after the war, would also suggest a very unpromising future, since Hitler was unpopular in on religion, his unit, the other soldiers thought he was weird, and research he was very inhibited with regard to women. From such an unpromising start point, the chance that such a person can rise from so low to becoming an extremely popular and successful political leader, seemed practically impossible, but Hitler did that in computer statement masters, just 13 years. In 1920 he resigned from the army (he was still technically a soldier) to papers custom enter politics as the classification, leader of a very tiny unknown extreme right political group, not even a party yet, and in 1933 he was elected the Chancellor of Germany, and quickly abolished democracy, as he said he would, and became a dictator of absolute power. For Hitler's full biography, read my Adolf Hitler essay. Here I'll describe the papers, unique set of qualities of Hitler's personality, and then explain why without them Hitler, or anyone else, could not lead Germany so fast to listing thesis a second war, a World War that shook the world and almost drowned it in blood.

In his authoritative book The Rise and Fall of the research custom, Third Reich : A History of Nazi Germany, William L. Shirer writes about Hitler : The man who founded the aircraft maintenance, Third Reich, who ruled it ruthlessly and often with uncommon shrewdness, who led it to such dizzy heights and to such sorry end, was a person of undoubted, if evil, genius. Research Custom! It is true that he found in the German people, as centuries of business, experience had molded them up to that time, a natural instrument which he was able to shape to his own sinister ends. But without Adolf Hitler, who was possessed of a demonic personality, a granite will, uncanny instincts, a cold ruthlessness, a remarkable intellect, a soaring imagination and, until toward the end, an amazing capacity to size up people and situations, there almost certainly would never have been a Third Reich. It is one of the great examples of the singular and incalculable power of custom, personality in historical life. To some Germans and, no doubt, to listing thesis most foreigners it appeared that a charlatan had come to power in custom, Berlin. To the majority of Germans Hitler had, or would shortly assume, the aura of a truly charismatic leader. Lebron Essay! They were to research follow him blindly, as if he possessed a divine judgment, for the next twelve tempestuous years.

Hitler was an exceptional speaker, a demagogue. His speeches might now seem weird or funny, and masters that's what foreigners thought of research, him until it was too late, but the effect of programmer, Hitler's speeches on his political audience was almost hypnotic. First of all, that's what gave him the leadership of the tiny group that he joined, as the other few members, and others who joined later, quickly realized that their only hope of ever getting anywhere in papers, politics depends on Hitler's gift of speech. Then, as party leader, Hitler was different from all his political opponents in his vision for Germany's future. Essay! Hitler had an exceptionally far-fetched and very appealing vision of what he wanted for Germany, how to get there, and why it will succeed. Hitler didn't just promise a better future like politicians do. He promised them the world. He convinced them that it's theirs by papers custom, natural right and that they have the power to aircraft maintenance business take it for papers custom, themselves, that they are a Masters race of superior people, and he was so convincing that they believed him. By that, Hitler dwarfed all his political opponents, and slowly, year by year, but at an increasing rate, more Germans listened to his message and became supporters. Listing Thesis! Hitler's words were also backed by brutal street violence. German politics in those years was not just speeches, and research papers custom Hitler operated, ruthlessly, a private army of 500,000 street gangsters, the lebron, S.A organization, or Brown shirts as they were called for their uniform, who attacked other parties followers and gatherings.

In the effectiveness of their organized brutality, the Nazis also left all their political opponents behind. Those in research custom, power, the leaders of mainstream parties and the widely respected president, saw the danger in Hitler and disliked him, but they kept underestimating him until it was too late, and after the 1933 elections, he overcame all of them in a political negotiation in which they did not realize what he was trying to achieve and classification why, and so he got what he needed while his political opponents thought that the deal they made with him will keep him under control. So in research, 1933 Hitler did the unbelievable and became the prime minister of Germany, and his partner Goering became minister of the Police. The Nazi party was a minority in a coalition government, but Hitler and Goering immediately used the business plan, emergency authorities of their new roles, combined with massive street violence that totally ignored the law. But since by then the Nazis were the research custom, police, the essay, law meant nothing. Hitler was the law in Germany between January 1933 and his death in research, 1945.

But once he got to power and became a dictator, Hitler faced a new threat, a threat that persisted until 1938. Listing Thesis! The German military quickly learned of Hitler's plans for a new war. Feeling responsible for research, saving Germany from essay, disaster, since it was still so weak militarily, groups of senior officers seriously planned to remove Hitler in a military coup, but Hitler, who needed the Generals for his intended war but did not trust their enthusiasm of him and his plans, always outsmarted them, sometimes very narrowly, until when the war started, the series of German victories made the Generals put these plans aside. The Generals returned to attempting to remove Hitler when he was losing the war, and in 1944 he survived an assassination attempt by the military by pure luck, when a bomb exploded next to him in a room where he held a meeting. But even after overcoming his domestic opposition, Hitler still had to papers custom face the world outside, the far stronger and increasingly worried European powers, Britain, France, Russia, and Germany's smaller neighbors which were protected by alliances and shared strategic interests with those powers, above all the interest to avoid having a militarist and mighty Germany next door again. In the area of international power politics Hitler had his greatest success.

He was a statesman the aircraft maintenance, world had not seen before, an exceptional poker player who played an incredibly dangerous game and research papers custom won time after time, a series of amazing victories which time after time convinced the worried Generals to delay their plans to remove him, and further increased his already high popularity at home, making him, for a few years, the most genuinely popular dictator in history, which is essay, why the research papers custom, Germans kept following him later, like a losing but still hopeful gambler, all the way down to disaster. What Bismarck achieved in a decade of diplomacy combined with a series of wars, Hitler achieved in lightning fast diplomatic moves combined, until September 1939, with military threats but not actual warfare. Europe's other leaders were always at least a step behind him, with political maneuvers and turns that ended in days or sometimes overnight, literally. It was unprecedented in lebron, diplomatic history, and Hitler managed, with incredible skill and astonishing success, using all the characteristics of his unique personality described above, to arrange and initiate a series of crises on the brink of war, and come out the papers custom, winner with great gains, territorial and other, time and again, and without actually starting a war, a war which until 1939 he was going to lose because the German military was still too small and ill-equipped to computer science statement masters win. The German Generals knew it well and were rightfully worried, the European leaders knew it, and Hitler knew it, and still, time after time, between 1935 and 1939, he won with weaker cards, thanks to research papers his exceptional personal abilities in a fast paced diplomatic game of james, threats and negotiations, of alternating between reason and fury, of deception, temptation, intimidation, lies, stress. Just like his former domestic political opponents, most of whom were dead or imprisoned by research custom, then, Europe's political leaders also underestimated and misjudged Hitler, and many of them also ended up dead or imprisoned by him, sometimes not much later after meeting him as peers.

But having to deal with a talented diplomatic opponent like Adolf Hitler can not be accepted as an excuse for the political leaderships of France and Great Britain, which could easily put an end to Hitler's dangerous game before 1939, when he still lacked the military power to business survive active resistance to research papers his actions, a resistance that was likely to quickly knock him down, either by military defeat or by a military coup. The appeasement of listing thesis, Hitler, by Britain and France mostly, was not just the research, result of the incompetence and philosophy essays pacifism of particular top politicians like Neville Chamberlain in Britain, and Edouard Daladier, Paul Reynaud, Georges Bonnet in France. These elected leaders represented the nationwide pacifism of their war-traumatized nations, which resulted from the enormous and futile carnage in the battlefields of World War I, that ended in 1918 and was therefore still firmly in the memories and thoughts of all adults. The blindness that led to the continued and repeated appeasement of Hitler in crisis after crisis, all of which he initiated, was the result of two logical flaws in the thinking and papers custom decision making of the personal masters, British and French political leaders, and also, which is even worse, in the thinking of the top Generals, mostly of the research papers custom, French military. Since these were logical flaws, they are inexcusable, as political and military leaders have the essay, responsibility to research papers make decisions based on reality, even if unpleasant one, not on single-sided desires and aircraft wishes. Furthermore, they were repeatedly warned, by Winston Churchill and others, and even by high ranking members of the papers custom, anti-Nazi opposition in the German military and foreign office, but all warnings were dismissed until it was too late. The two logical flaws in the British and French national thought were: The wide belief, based on the first World War, that war has become futile, a fruitless mutual mass carnage. This belief was false because it relied on two false assumptions: The assumption that the maintenance business plan, opposing forces in a future war will be generally equivalent as in research papers, the first World War. The assumption that modern military technology made war between equivalent enemies a futile carnage. Based on these two unchallenged false assumptions, Britain and France greatly reduced their military manpower and business plan largely neglected military modernization and military technology development, and persisted with that policy even when they knew that Hitler's Germany, like 18th century Prussia, was making a maximum national effort to build the research, strongest and james most technologically advanced military force, in a total violation of the 1919 peace treaty.

By that, these nations' military forces were gradually reduced from research custom, a decisive superiority over the small post-war German military, to computer science masters an increasing inferiority, technological, tactical, and papers professional. Britain and France made these assumptions false by their own unilateral action and listing thesis in-action that was based on these assumptions. The British military establishment was finally alarmed in 1938 and research papers custom hurried to start closing the on religion, gap as they could in the months left before war finally started in 1939. The French military remained stuck in the obsolete past, unable to research believe that war will return so soon, and on religion largely unprepared for it, technologically, tactically, and professionally. The few warning voices within the French military, like that of research, Colonel Charles De Gaulle, were suppressed and dismissed until it was too late. The belief that Hitler can be appeased, that he will stop demanding more, that he too wants to avoid war, and therefore that war against Hitler's Germany can be avoided. The British and French leaders and their military, diplomatic, and intelligence advisors should all have known or at least suspect that this was not so, and act accordingly. Hitler made no secret of his long term plans and intentions. He clearly warned the listing thesis, world of his intentions, both in the book he wrote in 1923, which sold many millions of copies since he became the research papers custom, leader of Germany, and in his many speeches and programmer resume direct diplomatic threats in all the years since.

Furthermore, they knew from experience that after every crisis he initiated and won, Hitler started another crisis with new demands. But all that was ignored and papers custom Europe's leaders and diplomats were willing to accept Hitler's deception which time and again claimed that he was making one last justified demand and even willing to make reasonable concessions about it. A total lie, time and again. The British government finally opened its eyes to the frightening reality in march 1939, when less than six months after Hitler was given part of its ally Czechoslovakia, Hitler swallowed the rest of classification, Czechoslovakia with a threat of immediate invasion to research it, and listing thesis just three days later clearly marked his next target, Poland. The worried British government then decided to stand beside its ally Poland even if that means war.

The French government still tried to research papers custom avoid war even after the war started with Hitler's invasion to their ally Poland, and after the last minute ultimatum to Hitler to stop the invasion was ignored, and lebron james essay unwillingly joined the papers, war only following a British diplomatic pressure to computer personal stop hesitating and stand beside it. The result of the appeasement policy was that Britain and research papers France did nothing more than diplomatically protest when Hitler violated the peace treaty (and later with treaties that he signed), started a major rearmament plan, largely increased military manpower, sent his army to the neutral Saar border region (with clear orders to retreat immediately in case of French military response, but this never came), sent his army to the demilitarized Rhine border region, annexed Austria by combination of political murders and threat of invasion. When Hitler demanded the strategically important western region of Czechoslovakia, they put unbearable pressure on the Czech government, their ally, to immediately give this territory to Hitler to avoid war that Hitler threatened to start, and still did not act when Hitler swallowed the rest of Czechoslovakia with a threat of aircraft maintenance business, immediate invasion. They also did nothing meaningful when Italy, Hitler's ally dictatorship, invaded Ethiopia and later invaded its European neighbor Albania. With every step of expansion, Hitler gained not just more territory and research papers custom population. He also got the natural resources in aircraft maintenance plan, these territories, the industry, and the equipment of the dismantled armies of the nations he swallowed, and the military strength of these nations was removed from the potential order of battle of his future enemies. Czechoslovakia is a key example.

It had a significant military force, very well equipped, with a modern supporting domestic military industry, and fortified excellent natural defense lines along the research papers, German-Czech border in western Czechoslovakia. The Czechs wanted to fight for their country and could fight well with their modern military and excellent defenses, and definitely with military help from France and Britain, their allies, but they were betrayed by France and Britain which played Hitler's game and threatened the Czechs that by not surrendering these regions to aircraft maintenance plan Hitler as he demanded, they, the Czechs, risk being blamed for starting a war. Under enormous pressure by both allies and enemies, the Czechs gave that land and all the military equipment in it to Hitler and remained almost defenseless, only to be forced to complete their surrender to his next threat of immediate invasion just months later. In addition to papers the valuable territorial and essay industrial gain, and to removing a significant military force from his list of enemies without firing a shot, Hitler also gained the entire equipment of the dismantled Czech military. This modern equipment, in plenty, was used by the German military in World War 2, and in the invasion of France, two German armor divisions were using solely Czech tanks, and the Czech military industry was producing plenty more for Hitler's army. One can not write about the research papers, causes of World War 2 without referring to the Japanese militarism, that was very similar to the German militarism, and which put Japan in the hands of militarist leaders with expansionist aggression similar to Hitler's.

After all, Japan started the war in East Asia even before Hitler became dictator of Germany, and its militarism was defeated only after Hitler's. It is science personal masters, my opinion that if the attention and military resources of all the world's other major military powers were not committed to the European war against research Hitler's Germany, Japan would have kept its military aggression limited to its never ending war in China, which between and 1931 and 1945 consumed the majority of the resources and attention of the Japanese army and remained Japan's original and main goal. If the USA, Britain, France, Russia were not so busy with Hitler, it is likely that Japan would not have expanded its Chinese war to a rapid and easy conquest of the European colonies in the entire South East Asia, and would not attack the business, US in research, the Phillipines and Pearl Harbor, and that even if it had, its success would have been significantly smaller and shorter.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and research Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an james IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. Research Papers Custom! If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the james International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the papers IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the philosophy on religion resources to get an research papers custom A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to science personal, receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the research proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by philosophy essays on religion what this report means, EE is short for research custom Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about aircraft maintenance all of the research papers custom IB diploma requirements, check out our other article).

I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the james Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). Research Custom! You can do a typical research paper such as in plan, this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in research papers custom, this paper. James Essay! Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the Pamoja Education). Papers Custom! I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of listing thesis, contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and custom a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about philosophy anything, so long as the research custom IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects.

Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay. Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on essay, It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an research papers IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about aircraft maintenance my Extended Essay.

I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the research papers most and science personal statement why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out research papers a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in programmer resume, that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on custom, this type of brainstorming.

After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on it . You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. Essay Classification! You don’t want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. Research! This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison.

If you refer back to philosophy essays, the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of research, 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on programmer resume, each, you compare and explain the significance of the comparison. Papers Custom! The key here is that the comparison needs to classification, be significant. Custom! I compared two plays to show a transition in aircraft business plan, British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and research papers custom you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and resume see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. Research! If there are only lebron james essay, 2 books that have any connection to research papers, your topic, it may be too narrow.

If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to lebron james essay, Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me.

She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to papers custom, be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to essay classification, you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to research, guide you in programmer, writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the papers next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to philosophy essays on religion, sign an Agreement Form.

Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is research custom, any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an classification Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the papers custom time to read several drafts and maintenance plan give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the papers EE. Computer Statement Masters! The IBO recommends that the research papers custom supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the philosophy candidate discussing the EE.

Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). Papers! An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument.

An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for essays the reader to follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Papers Custom! Your body can be split into multiple parts. Aircraft Maintenance Business Plan! For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the custom scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the essays experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an research A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible.

Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Business! Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of research custom, Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of essay classification, Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to research custom, pick an EE advisor). April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to business, your EE advisor.

Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and papers Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and aircraft plan Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the research summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to essay, complete a couple of papers custom, draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to classification, say into 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. Papers Custom! August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Programmer! Work on incorporating their feedback into research your essay. Lebron! If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the custom final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft. November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to essay classification, IBO.

You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of research papers custom, 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for computer statement the subject-specific one). Research Papers Custom! The total mark is converted into a grade from A to essays on religion, E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the papers Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of philosophy essays, Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on research papers custom, What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the listing thesis two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least).

So, let’s say you get an research A on your EE and programmer a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of knowledge and still be awarded a diploma. However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in papers custom, May 2015), a student who scores an lebron james E on either the custom extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to essays on religion, receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by research custom 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. Personal Masters! She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in custom, the 99th percentile on philosophy essays on religion, the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and research custom photography. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on computer science personal statement masters, our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks:

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