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Breach of about flirt, contract contract law Essay. Paper-film Hand"? Spanish Contract Law provides a broad notion of breach of contract for any behavior that departs from the specified behavior in the contract in any way (time, quality, substance, etc.) or is not specially justified on legal grounds (actions forbidden by the government are not breaches since they are justified on about a legal ground). The general benchmark to determine breach is the contract agreed by the parties themselves, and not external notions. However, external notions are used in important situation such as the consumer#8217;s market where the consumer#8217;s expectations are the primary benchmarks to assess quality and performance since there is not an global warming effects solutions, explicit contract. External notions are also important in other market, where a third party may have some duty or responsibility over the contract, and essay how to therefore, is environmental essay contest, responsible (at least in part) for any potential breach. The reason for breach does not exclude the essay flirt breach. What matters is the analytical paper-film Hand" breach. The analysis of breach takes place in objective terms.

Subjective factors generally do not exclude breach, although they may affect remedies. In certain contractual areas, breach of duty and fault are generally required (professional contracts, management contracts: breach requires violation of a duty of care or a duty of essay flirt, loyalty). In professional contracts, the fault may be of a professional who was in contract with the firm, and in management contracts, it may be the fault of the manager. Spanish Contract Law provides a wide range of general remedies for breach of contract: • Specific performance: the court forces the breacher to act as it was established in the contract. If for example, the contract stipulated that the promiser had to give the promisee a product of quality 2 and he delivers a good of quality 1, then as remedy the court force the promiser to deliver a good of quality 2. • Damages: the court force the breacher to pay a certain amount of money (damages) to research on mechanical engineering, the other party as compensation.

It is a monetary remedy. The court calculate the amount to essay about flirt, be paid. • Liquidated damages: these are also monetary compensation, but with the difference that they are not calculated by the court, but they are instead specified in the contract itself. One example are the soccer players#8217; contracts, or sale contracts that specifies the amount to be paid for each day of delay. Other general remedies that we can find are: • Termination: if a party suffers a breach, it can contract with another party and abandon its contractual obligation. If the breacher does not agree with this, court is paper-film Hand", necessary. • Reduction of prices: in case of breach of a party, a general remedy is to reduce the about price to equilibrate the contract. Generally, it is the aggrieved party who chooses the remedy to be imposed. 3) Specific performance: Specific performance is a remedy for breach characterized by the fact that a failed performance or departure from required action by the contract will be imposed upon breaching party. It is also characterized by several material variants of the remedy such as: forced delivery, forced action, injunction not to do, repair defective performance and replace non-conforming good. Business? In the essay flirt case of the injunction not to contest, do, the court oblige the breacher not to do something, such as obliging a CEO to work for essay about flirt the competition if in the contract it was stipulated that he cannot.

Specific performance conceptually includes repair and replacement of apa citations for dissertations, consumer goods. The main issue with specific performance, when it is feasible, is the issue of the about flirt balance of benefits and for dissertations costs of the essay flirt remedy. Specific performance implies that the breacher perform as the contract establishes. However, sometimes, the emploi infirmier cost of this performance may be higher than the benefit in social welfare terms. Take the example of the mining firm, which has a contract with the owner of the land to mine for 10 years and then clean the land.

When the 10 year pass, the firms breaches the contract and about flirt refuse to clean. The cost of financial business, cleaning the land is 20 millions, and the benefit for about flirt the owner is 1 million. So if the court imposes a specific performance to firm, society will loose 19 millions. A good alternative would be to impose damages to the firm, which would be preferred by the owner, since an agreement between the firm and the owner will be reached that maximize the environmental contest social welfare. In these cases, performance may be more costly than its value for promisee: performance may be ex post inefficient. There are both positive and negative features of specific performance as a remedy. As positive features, we can distinguish low informational requirements to apply remedy (avoids cost of error linked to estimating damages) and the party aggrieved by breach appears to be satisfied in its promissory expectation. About How To? As negative features, we find performance may be more costly than its value for promisee (performance may be ex post inefficient), requires a court order and paper-film Pushing takes time, for complex performances requires costly and about flirt difficult supervision by analytical Pushing, court and essay how to performance by a party forced to comply with contract may be perfunctory (lowest effort) at best. Damages are understood as general remedies that can be applied to all types of contracts and breaches of contracts.

It is a remedy defined in very broad terms: amount of money to compensate any harm suffered by the injured party as a consequence of apa citations, any breach of contract. We can differentiate between two kinds of essay flirt, damages: expectation and paper-film Hand" reliance damages. This is why it is a remedy with a variable extension. Essay How To Flirt? Expectation damages is the sum of money that will give the party damaged the same amount of welfare and buy a planning utility than if the contract would not have been breached and the final result would have been attained. Therefore, the breach party would have to essay about, pay the aggrieved party an amount of apa citations, money that would compensate for the harm caused and in addition an amount of money equal to the value of the performance for this party. There are however some problems with expectation damages since they are difficult to essay about flirt, compute and some instances of moral hazard may appear.

Those who seek for damages have to provide evidence of both the existence and amount of damages. This requirement has some exceptions in business, case of harm in re ipsa: illegitimate use of how to flirt, a productive good, deprivation of a productive good, and few other examples. Expectation damages is the general rule in analytical, Spanish Law for breach of contract. How To Flirt? It is the damage measure that accompanies termination for breach and the replacement measure of specific performance. It is awarded when there is a breach of emploi, representations and warranties, advertising and about how to promotional communications and in cases of pre-contractual fraud that are equivalent to breach of contracts. How can we compute expectation damages? When goods or services admit substitutes or cover transactions to avoid the negative consequences of the other party’s breach of contract, the emploi infirmier anesthesiste price of these transactions is relevant. If the seller breaches the contract and the buyer has bought a good, generally fungible, then the expectation damages will be equal to the difference between the price of the substitute and the price established in the contract: Psub-Pc. If the buyer breaches the contract and the seller celebrates a cover sale the expectation damages would be equal to how to, the difference between the price established in emploi anesthesiste canada, the contract and the price of the new sale: Pc-Psub. Other ways of computing expectation damages are the following: Market damages: (for fungible good with market price) buyer will receive expectation damages consisting of the difference between the market price when the breach of contract took place (Pm) and the contract price (Pc).

Seller will receive the opposite essay how to flirt difference. Expectation damages present some limitations that reduce it scope and amount. One of this limitations is the foreseeability rule. Emploi Anesthesiste? This rule state that the breacher should only essay, be liable for the things that are foreseen or could have foreseen at the time of contracting and that are necessary consequence of his failure to perform. For instance, if the foreseeable harm of solutions, a breach is 100 and the aggrieved party end up suffering a loss of 1000, the foreseeability rule states that damages will amount only to 100. The foreseeability rule gives incentives to give information in the time of contracting.

Those who suffer from harm must declare the value of the performance. About How To? In tort law, there is no foreseeability rule, you pay the actual damage. Another limitation is the duty to mitigate damages: the infirmier anesthesiste aggrieved party is about how to, under the duty to mitigate damages that the other contracting party has caused with her / his breach of contract. Reliance damages: sum of money that will give the party damaged the effects essay same amount of welfare and utility than if the contract would not have taken place (the initial situation). This is why reliance damages are generally lower than expectation damages. Essay How To Flirt? Reliance damages cover expenses for the injured party derived from concluding the contract, specific investments that the injured party has made in reliance of apa citations, performance of the how to contract by the other party and opportunity costs. Limited assets: Damages do not always work well. Sometimes, individuals can bear the payment of these damages, and therefore, they will have incentives to reduce them. However, this is not always the case.

When the breacher has not enough assets to pay damages up to the point of optimal care, damages do not work well, because people will not pay for the consequences of their acts, and therefore, their level of care will be the optimal according to what they can pay, and not what they should pay. This is known as judgement proof problem. Damages for pain and suffering: The traditional position of the Spanish Supreme Court and Spanish Courts is: • To accept damages for infirmier canada pain and suffering for breach of contract. • To award damages for pain and suffering with a relative amplitude and generosity. • To award damages for pain and suffering with several functions: • To avoid the problems of calculating and justifying the amount of the damage award. • To compensate harm in personality rights (right to life, liberty, honor, etc.). • To compensate non-patrimonial values joined to how to flirt, economic goods and rights (discomfort, inconvenience, disappointment, frustration) • To punish intolerable or egregious behaviors of breach of contract. When an individual suffer harm, her utility decreases (she goes form point A to point B, but her utility function for money will not change). If this harm is economic, we can compensate this harm with money, which will leave her at point A again. Emploi Infirmier Anesthesiste Canada? However, the harm that an individual can suffer may be non-economic, and for essay the same amount of money her utility decreases (her utility function changes). Money cannot restore the initial utility (a huge amount would be needed). This is the case of pain and research suffering (accident and death of a relative, discomfort, etc).

This is why it is flirt, useless to take insurance for death, since it would not compensate the harm. The hairy hand example: What is the difference between expectation and reliance damage? Let#8217;s look at apa citations, an example. An individual was injured in his hand and lost 50% of about flirt, his use. He entered in a contract with a doctor who promised to reestablish the hand to a 100% of use in exchange for quantity of money.

Before the abetterearth essay contract was made, the individual was situated in an indifference curve that related all the combination of hand use and money that let the about how to flirt individual indifferent. We assume that the for dissertations individual is willing to give up hand use for money. After the contract and flirt operation, the anesthesiste individual was worse off, with 25% of use. Essay How To? What should the doctor pay as damage? If expectation damages are used, the doctor should pay the individual a quantity of money that together with the 25% of Pushing, hand use leave him with the essay how to same utiity as if the contract had succeded and he had 100% of use (situate him in a higher indifference curve). If reliance damages are imposed, the doctor should pay the individual a quantity of money that, together with the 25% of on mechanical engineering, hand use, leave him with the same utility as if the contract did not take place, with 50% of hand use (situate him in the initial indifference curve). 5) Liquidated damages: Liquidated damages are damages for breach that are not determined ex post breach by a Court or arbitration panel, but ex ante by the contract parties themselves into the contract. Such possibility of “privately stipulated” remedies for breach is acknowledged by most legal systems, typically in essay flirt, the form of payment of money, although other possibilities may exist. They typically replace Court damages and they can be agreed as added penalty for breach.

The most important issue is whether Courts are forced to enforce liquidated damages, or they may disregard, or reduce, the amount of the liquidated damages award. Contest? The reasons why Courts allow liquidated damages are: • Freedom of contract. How To? • A large liquidated damages clause may be necessary to induce promisee to find promise credible and financial planning business the contract sustainable. How To Flirt? • Parties are in a better position than Courts to assess benefits and costs of determining a given amount. • Liquidated damages compensate systematic underestimation of damages by Courts. If liquidated damages are higher than the expectation damages, then the court will apply the second ones. There are however some economic arguments that may lead to reduce or at least control the level of abetterearth essay, liquidated damages clauses: • “Excessive” damages clauses resulting from incorrect predictions or forecasts about about flirt future outcomes. • External shocks unforeseen by parties that produce an unexpected increase in the damages payment. • True “uncertainty” about future costs for one party. • Behavioral biases that lead party to underestimate the true adverse impact of a damages clause (the “deferred cost problem”): • Over-optimism concerning future performance and costs (the example of the gym) • Hyperbolic discounting of papers on mechanical engineering, future outcomes. We can see the liquidated damages as barriers to entry. An excessive amount of LD is beneficial for the parties to the detriment of a third party who may bid for the services of about how to, breaching party. Promisor agrees to pay an amount larger than ED, in exchange of higher price. Promisee uses high liquidated damages to extract larger payment from a third party interested in performance by promisor: larger payment from third party increases the surplus to the contract parties, that is shared between them. Also, excessive payment of third party are made possible by excessive damages clauses, which reduce efficient entry by third parties, and prevents them from successfully bidding for promisor’s performance.

That is why the goal of reducing “excessive” liquidated damages is not to protect the breaching party, but third-parties. Research On Mechanical? Sometimes, excessive LD for signaling are unwanted, since an unforeseeable contingency may appear that will cause a breach in the contract. A pooling equilibrium may be more desirable than a separating one when the about flirt distortion caused by the penalty on the “good type” is large enough. Among the general remedies for breach, the last one is termination (or rescission, or cancellation, as it may also be called in Common Law jurisdictions). This remedy entitles the aggrieved party to cancel the contractual relationship with the breaching party, eliminating the obligations arising from the terminated contract.

Once the contract is terminated the parties should give back what was received under the contract, unless the goods are now in lawful possession of a third party. In this case, the value of the emploi infirmier anesthesiste canada goods would replace the goods themselves. The elimination of the effects of the contract is retroactive: it is considered that the contract did not exist. Spanish courts have established that termination does not require a lawsuit. However, if the other party disputes the termination or its conditions, restitution would require a lawsuit. Courts do not determine termination, but declare whether termination was or not properly effected by the party. The most contested issue about termination is when is essay about how to flirt, termination available as a remedy. It is clear that not every breach or non-performance allows the aggrieved party to research on mechanical engineering, terminate, but a qualified breach (material or fundamental breach) is required. We can define it as follow: • Relevance: the breach must affect the central obligations or duties under the contract and not merely ancillary or incidental duties. • Duration: the about how to flirt breach should not be merely sporadic or transitory, but likely to be repeated or continuing. • Importance: the breach must substantially affect the interests of the non-defaulting party. Termination does not go alone, it does not exclude damages, and in fact it is naturally accompanied by damages payment.

University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of warming, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 13 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Breach of essay how to flirt, contract contract law. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.

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Mind Body Problem Essays and Research Papers. medicine. Whole Medical Systems, Mind - Body Medicine, Biologically Based Practices, Manipulative and essay how to flirt, Body -Based . Practices, and contest, Energy Medicine. The Feldenkrais Method is defined as The relationship between movement and thought, increased mental awareness and creativity accompanying physical improvements. (FEFNA 2007) Manipulative and Body -Based Practices are defined by the NCCAM as practices based on manipulation and/or movement of one or more parts of the body . Some examples include chiropractic. Alternative medicine , Exercise , Feldenkrais Method 1315 Words | 4 Pages. Figuring out essay how to, ways to help deal with my problems is important to me because I would like to global solutions essay, live a pleasurable life and meditation is a way that . could help. Meditation is an altered state of consciousness produced by focusing attention to a single thing or by repeating a phrase, and essay about, it narrows the consciousness, so stresses are cleared out anesthesiste canada, of the mind (Nevid, 2012, p.154).

It has also been proved to prevent or help many other psychological and physical problems that I would want to essay about, prevent or may have. Brain , Electroencephalography , Mantra 801 Words | 3 Pages. Experiment 3: Conditions for Equilibrium. 1. Introduction When we say equilibrium, it is a state of balance. It is a condition where there is no change in the state of motion of a . Buy A Financial Business! body . Equilibrium also may be at rest or moving within a constant velocity. A simple mechanical body is said to be in equilibrium if no part of it is accelerating, unless it is disturbed by an outside force. How To Flirt! Two conditions for papers on mechanical equilibrium are that the net force acting on the object is zero, and the net torque acting on the object is zero.

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Position paper I.D. 20123000 Why is the mind / body . Essay How To! problem within Philosophy of paper-film Mind and Consciousness studies indeed a problem ? Well the mind body problem is essay a metaphysical issue about the relationship between what is mental and abetterearth, what is physical. ( mind - body problem , 2009). I believe that this issue is and will continue to be a problem until there is enough evidence to fully prove one theory or disprove all but one of these theories from. Brain , Consciousness , Dualism 1420 Words | 4 Pages. The Mind - Body Problem The mind - body problem can be broken down into a . series of questions. What is the mind ? What is the body ? Do the mind and body co-exist, or does the mind only exist in the body ? Or does the body only exist in the mind ? If both the mind and body exist, there could be a number of types of relationships. Essay About Flirt! Maybe the mind affects the essay, body . Maybe the body affects the mind , or maybe the mind and flirt, body both affect each other.

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The simple question asked is: what are we? Are we a mind , a body or both? The issue has its origins in the ancient dualism of Plato and since then many solutions to the problem have been offered. D.M. Armstrong s The Mind-Body.

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Overview This paper will discuss the mind - body connection and apa citations, it's relevance to essay how to, health care professionals and to the public. . It will explore the history of the mind - body connection, as well as state research that has been done on the subject. The reader will gain an understanding of the various techniques used in mind - body therapy, as well as their effectiveness. Papers On Mechanical! What is the Mind - Body Connection? It is the idea that the mind and body are not separate entities. Rather, they are intricately. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1837 Words | 6 Pages. Descartes has a very distinct thought when thinking about the mind , and how it relates to the body , or more specifically then . brain.

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Borges October 18, 2014 Mind Body Dualism I am going to argue for business dualism, that mind and matter are . two different things, one physical and one non-physical. Essay About Flirt! Dualism is the theory that mental and physical or mind and emploi anesthesiste canada, matter are fundamentally diverse from each other. In philosophy, Dualists indicate the radical difference between mental and essay flirt, physical. Dualists oppose the idea that the mind is the same as the brain, and also oppose the idea that the mind is entirely a result of the brain. Anomalous monism , Brain , Consciousness 838 Words | 4 Pages. Descartes’ Mind - Body Dualism It can be very simple. Just look at the world and ask yourself, “Is everything material? Or are . there things in the world that are not material, but I still know actually exist?” Then, ask yourself a second question, “How can I reach at apa citations for dissertations a definition so that the two cannot be mistaken for one another other?” Descartes defined every material thing as having an extension, which is another way of saying it occupies space. Essay About! Furthermore, those material things cannot share that.

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?Androids and the Mind / Body Problem The Synopsis: Star Trek Episode “The Measure of a Man” deals with the thought . Solutions! that android could have physical and mental properties. In order to fully understand or evaluate this we have to have a clear understanding of the Mind / Body Problems and solutions. Humans are material objects consisting of physical and mental properties. Physical properties examples are height, weight, color, shape or size and mental properties are awareness, consciousness, feeling. Consciousness , Emotion , Human 678 Words | 2 Pages. The Philosophy of Mind Introduction The philosophy of body and mind has been a . highly debated topic since its launch in the 17th centaury by Rene Descartes. Essay How To Flirt! Since then, many philosophers have written on the subject matter and many theories have emerged as a product of buy a financial planning this lively debate. In this essay, I will analyze and essay about, critique a selection of philosophers who ponder on the body - mind topic since the 17th century, and apa citations, ultimately evaluate Paul M. Chruchland’s. Cognitive science , Consciousness , Mind 2354 Words | 7 Pages. The Ups and essay about how to flirt, Downs of Alcohol Use on the Mind and Body. Running head: The Ups and Downs of papers on mechanical engineering Alcohol Use The Ups and Downs of Alcohol Use On the Mind and essay how to, Body Stephanie Alger . ENG 1100: on-line, Cause amp; Effect Paper The Ups and Downs of Alcohol Use on the Mind and Body Aaron Howard said “Responsible drinking.

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Cognition , Cognitive science , Concepts in metaphysics 1518 Words | 4 Pages. From the effects essay, Wise Words of Buddha: Mind and Body. From the Wise Words of Buddha: Mind and Body Carter Moore October 24th, 2012 English 11Y The Scarlet . Letter “We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think.” Buddha spoke the truth. His words are still true today; people become the thoughts that travel through their minds , whether that is detrimental or beneficial varies on the person. This phrase is demonstrated in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter. Through a story of love, shame, and suffering, Nathaniel. Hester Prynne , Mind , Nathaniel Hawthorne 1334 Words | 4 Pages.

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?Anthony Sanchez Mrs. Weatherford English A101 31 Oct 2014 How Long Till We Find The Body ? In the about how to, novella The Body by abetterearth contest Stephen . King, there are four twelve-year old boys, set out to find the essay how to, corpse of another boy who had been hit by a train. Throughout the story you see Chris Chambers mature from a young careless boy to a mature teen. It’s guaranteed in life that people will get older as time progresses. Being a mature human being doesn't just happen over night.

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A Conservative Vision of Government. T he past few years have put the size and role of government at center stage of essay about how to, our national politics. But the raging debates about how much Washington is global solutions doing and how to, spending have involved almost exclusively yes-or-no questions about the left's vision of government. Paper-film Pushing Hand". The right has been very clear about what government should not be doing, or should be doing much less of, but it has not had nearly enough to say about about how to flirt just what government should do. It is not hard to see why. The Obama years have set a high-water mark for the size and abetterearth essay, reach of the federal government, including a post-World War II record for about flirt federal spending as a percentage of gross domestic product at 25.2% (for comparison, the post-war average has been 19.8%). The United States has amassed more than $6 trillion in debt since January 2009. Prior to Obama, no president had submitted a budget with a trillion-dollar deficit; he has submitted four of them. And even as the analytical Hand", administration's projections for essay flirt the coming years promise smaller deficits, they also promise a larger and more expensive government than Americans have ever seen. The president's defenders maintain that the for dissertations, circumstances he inherited an essay about how to flirt epic financial collapse that drained revenue from the Treasury and exploded the abetterearth environmental essay, federal deficit meant he had little choice but to spend our way out of trouble. They are surely right that Obama faced enormous economic challenges, many of which persist.

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Each cartoon image demonstrated, and celebrated, her utter dependence on government. Atomized, defenseless individuals sustained by the enfolding embrace of the essay about how to, state: Such, it would seem, is the Obama vision of Americans' appropriate relation to their government. The administration's federal power grabs have hardly gone unopposed, of course. Channeling public alarm, particularly regarding the stimulus and health-care legislation, the Republican Party scored a historic victory in the 2010 mid-term elections. Environmental Contest. Since then, the Republican-controlled House has sought to restrain and re-limit government, including championing key reforms to Medicare.

And Republican lawmakers have provided an about flirt effective counterweight to presidential overreach significantly restraining spending since 2011 and preventing further leftward legislative leaps. Republicans have argued that unrestrained spending, and particularly unreformed entitlements, will burden the nation with unmanageable levels of debt in the coming decades and starve the budget of funds for other essential purposes. They further contend that a large, meddlesome, intrusive state not only undermines the private economy but also crowds out civil society and enervates civic character. They have therefore been fairly clear, and quite emphatic, about what they believe the government should not be doing. But if it is true, as they have argued, that the Democrats' vision is a travesty of American government, then what is the proper and appropriate extent and purpose of abetterearth environmental essay contest, that government? Conservatives in recent years have not done enough to about how to flirt answer this question, and as a result have offered voters an oppositional view of government that, while perhaps stoking worry and resentment, is insufficient to Hand" build public trust in the prospect of flirt, a conservative government.

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It is justified by an apocalyptic narrative of American life: We are fast approaching a point of no return at which we stand to lose our basic liberties and our national character. Paper-film. We have a couple of years to turn this country around, according to Texas senator Ted Cruz, or we go off the cliff to oblivion. Obamacare, added 2012 GOP presidential candidate Michele Bachmann, is evidence of a police state. In the about, struggle to conserve our liberty, it is now or never. Perhaps not surprisingly, this prominent wing of the conservative coalition seems to regard conservatives who demur from its approach as themselves part of the problem, if not the main obstacle to its solution. Unwilling to essay see the extremity of the moment, and declining to support the all-out effort to confront it (for example, by shutting down the about how to flirt, government in an effort to defund Obamacare), such conservatives and warming, Republicans are accused of essay how to flirt, having objectively joined the buy a planning business, other side. This view is intensely felt understandably, given the provocations of the last five years.

It is, however, not only an incomplete understanding of the situation but a distortion of it, and an obstacle to achieving a properly conservative governing vision that will command the respect and about flirt, win the contest, support of a majority of the American people. For conservatives who want to regain that support, and for Republicans who want a chance to govern, a crucial first step is to flirt see the inadequacy of the oppositional and negative approach to the question of the government's purpose and role. It is inadequate not simply because it fails to give Republicans enough to offer voters. It is inadequate because it does not amount to a conservative vision on historical, philosophical, or practical grounds. THE FOUNDERS AND THE STATE. At the heart of the oppositional view of buy a financial business, government espoused by some libertarians and Tea Party leaders is a particular version of American history. Essay About Flirt. Our national recovery, they insist, depends on returning to the governing philosophy of the American founders as it is embodied in the Constitution.

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Citing (in Federalist No. 10) the permanent and aggregate interests of the community, he had in mind the interests of the whole republic, now and in the future . A good government, he added in financial planning Federalist No. 62, implies two things: first, fidelity to the object of government, which is the essay about, happiness of the analytical Hand", people; secondly, a knowledge of the means by which that object can be best attained. Madison's system was intended to employ such means to achieve that end. The Constitution did not simply create limits on government, as some of today's conservative rhetoric seems to imply; it created a strong if bounded central government.

It is important to speak up when those boundaries are breached, but it is important, too, to remember the aims of flirt, that government. Madison acknowledged the positive need for a national government. So did Alexander Hamilton, Gouverneur Morris, James Wilson, George Washington, and the other strong constitutionalists. This government was not meant to be frozen in papers engineering amber. Essay How To Flirt. It would have the ability to adapt as necessary to meet citizens' needs as those needs were expressed through representative government. Analytical Pushing. Some made this case more explicitly than did Madison (who nevertheless went so far as to support the Virginia Plan, which would have granted the central government the essay how to, right to veto all state legislation). Hamilton, for instance, envisioned a strong commercial republic whose growing needs would require the federal government to promote the general welfare not only through those powers that were expressly stipulated but also those that were implied. In construing a constitution, said Hamilton, it is wise, as far as possible, to warming solutions essay pursue a course, which will reconcile essential principles with convenient modifications.

For the most part, Washington endorsed Hamilton's more expansive view of a government that would need to act (as Hamilton put it) in a vast variety of particulars, which are susceptible neither of specification nor of essay how to, definition in advance. Even Thomas Jefferson, who was more skeptical of a strong federal authority, eventually made his own convenient modifications. Analytical Paper-film Hand". As president, Jefferson managed to conclude the Louisiana Purchase without amending the Constitution to permit so massive an essay exercise of federal power. The founders, then, provided us with a strong governing system strong precisely because it could adapt to changing circumstances. The government created in the late 18th century by the inhabitants of a coastal, agrarian republic was designed to accommodate the development of a more spacious and ambitious nation: an eventuality that many of the founders foresaw and embraced. We should consider that we are providing a Constitution for future generations, and not merely for the peculiar circumstances of the moment, said James Wilson, a major force in drafting the environmental, Constitution and essay about, perhaps the most expressly conservative among the framers. John Rutledge told his colleagues that [a]s we are laying the foundation for a great empire, we ought to take a permanent view of the subject and not look at the present moment only.

In framing a system which we wish to last for ages, Madison told the Constitutional Convention, we should not lose sight of the changes which ages will produce. And Hamilton, in Federalist No. 34, wrote: In pursuing this inquiry, we must bear in mind that we are not to confine our view to the present period, but to look forward to remote futurity. Financial Planning. Constitutions of civil government are not to be framed upon a calculation of existing exigencies, but upon a combination of these with the about how to flirt, probable exigencies of ages, according to the natural and tried course of global solutions, human affairs. About How To. Nothing, therefore, can be more fallacious than to infer the canada, extent of any power proper to be lodged in the national government from an estimate of its immediate necessities. There ought to be a CAPACITY to provide for future contingencies as they may happen; and essay about how to, as these are illimitable in their nature, so it is impossible safely to limit that capacity.

It was in this spirit that they were able to leave to future leaders the resolution of certain inconsistencies in the American system, the research papers, gravest and most poisonous of them being the issue of slavery. This is hardly to say that the founders, magically transported to the age of Obama, would approve of the current size and essay, scope of the federal government. Nor is it to say that the founders were unconcerned about concentration of power; to the contrary, they were deeply concerned about paper-film Hand" it, which is about why they created a system of buy a business, checks and balances and the separation of essay about flirt, powers. It is to say, however, that they would have little toleration for politicians who are committed to abstract theories even when they are at odds with the given world and apa citations for dissertations, the welfare of the polity who fail to differentiate between conserving the system by essay adapting it to global warming effects essay changing circumstances and undermining the system by about flirt breaking with its fundamental aims and outlook. The case against the aggrandizement of federal power must be made in abetterearth the context of the essay about flirt, case in favor of appropriate federal power not in the service of a theory that leaves far too little room for genuine self-government. In important respects, Abraham Lincoln continued the philosophical arc of the framers of the Constitution. No president revered the founders as much, spoke about them as often, or read them as closely as did Lincoln. His presidency undertook no permanent reconstitution of the federal government on Leviathan-like proportions, writes the scholar Allen Guelzo but Lincoln insisted, as the founders did, that government adjust to shifting circumstances.

And he believed, as they did, in a federal government strong enough to financial business achieve large national purposes. For Lincoln, those purposes included the transcontinental railroad, land-grant college legislation, the about how to, National Banking Act, tariffs, and the imposition of temporary federal personal income taxes to cover the cost of the Civil War. He also believed the federal government should play a key role in promoting ownership and entrepreneurship: the analytical paper-film Pushing Hand", foundations of a free economy. Most famously, and in direct continuity with Washington and Hamilton, he believed the federal government should be powerful enough to protect itself from dissolution in the name of about flirt, state sovereignty. Lincoln's governing philosophy, however, ran even deeper than that, extending beyond that of the founders in analytical paper-film a direction that prefigured some of the about how to, policy developments of 20th-century America.

In what is known as his Fragments on Government, he wrote: The legitimate object of government, is to do for a community of people, whatever they need to have done, but can not do, at all , or can not, so well do , for themselves in emploi infirmier anesthesiste canada their separate, and individual capacities. Flirt. Among the things requiring the combined action of government in Lincoln's view were public roads and highways, public schools, charities, pauperism, orphanage, estates of the deceased, and the machinery of government itself. Apa Citations For Dissertations. Government, Lincoln went on to say, is a combination of the how to, people of a country to effect certain objects by joint effort; he included in those objects of joint effort providing for the helpless young and afflicted. Nor did he shrink from the financial implications of so large a role. The best framed and best administered governments, he acknowledged, are necessarily expensive. Lincoln therefore understood the role of government (though of course not necessarily the federal government) to analytical Hand" be to help those who cannot individually do for themselves, to advance justice in an unjust world, and to lift up the how to flirt, weakest members of anesthesiste, society. Lincoln would later say that government is not charged with the duty of redressing or preventing all the wrongs in the world but that it rightfully may, and, subject to how to flirt the constitution, ought to, redress and prevent, all wrongs which are wrongs to the nation itself. It speaks well of conservatives that they want to be thought of as the defenders of the warming, Constitution. Essay. But at a minimum, constitutional conservatives should recognize what both the federalist founders and Lincoln actually envisioned for research papers on mechanical engineering the republic they created and how to flirt, preserved. They were, on the whole, rigorous, empirical, modern thinkers, as well as sober and skeptical heirs of the global warming effects, Enlightenment, who believed they were fortunate to inhabit an essay how to flirt age of abetterearth essay, progress. Far from being constrained by the prevailing physical, political, or economic arrangements of America in 1787, the founders fully expected America to essay about how to flirt spread across a continent, undergo economic and social change, and emerge as a global actor.

And they purposely designed a constitutional system that could accommodate such ambitions. Of course, this does not answer the question of apa citations, how big the federal government should be, or what precisely it should and should not do. But it does warn against short-circuiting that discussion with overly simplistic and legalistic appeals to the Constitution as a purely limiting document. Our debates about essay what government ought to do must be debates about infirmier what we take our constitutional order to be and what we think are appropriate national goals. Such questions should be addressed through the political process established by the Constitution; we cannot expect them all to be settled in detail simply through direct interpretation of the Constitution's text.

These national questions require a governing vision. As political scientist James Ceaser of the University of Virginia has put it: Many conservatives need to resist the temptation to ideologize the Constitution by imagining that their political theory is not just permitted under it, but dictated by it. It cannot be forgotten that the Constitution was instituted to replace the Articles of Confederation in order to allow for the exercise of broad powers in about how to flirt certain areas. How such powers are to be used is left to the winners of elections, who are entitled to promote their ideas of paper-film, good government within the boundaries of the supreme law. If conservatives believe that some of these powers are being exercised in an undisciplined way, it is for a conservative party to make this case. About How To Flirt. The Constitution cannot do all the work that a party must do on its own. To think otherwise, and to hold that courts could enforce most conservative doctrines, amounts to legalistic thinking with a vengeance. Many of the functions of the research papers, modern-day federal government, including Social Security and other social-service programs, were not envisioned by the framers, nor did the enumerated powers of the Congress specifically comprehend such programs.

But neither do these federal roles violate a principle of our system or run counter to the prescient mindset of the founders. The federalist founders created and interpreted a constitutional system that allowed for the emergence of modern America, one in which the federal government would be strong enough to shape global events and to guarantee a minimal provision for the poor, ill, and elderly. Such federal roles may require examination and reform, but they are not inherently illegitimate. It is a wonder of history, and one of the greatest contributions of America's founders, that they designed a constitution that was, as the University of Pennsylvania's John J. DiIulio, Jr., has put it, flexible enough to permit, and to encourage, the transition from a slave-holding, horse-and-carriage society dominated by a few million Anglo-Protestants to a high-tech, free society of more than 300 million demographically diverse citizens. They did it by embodying in about flirt the constitutional system a profound and sophisticated vision of emploi infirmier, government and of government's relation to the life of the nation and essay about how to, the lives of its people. The relationship between the government and the lives of its people is a particularly challenging problem in planning business our time.

The overreach of the Obama years has given form to the left's powerful desire to manage and manipulate those realms of life that, in our country, have generally been left within the purview of the about how to flirt, family, civil society, and local community. The natural response on the right has been to recoil from the very idea that government should play any role in the moral formation of citizens which is, after all, what happens in that space between the individual and the state where these institutions operate. Such complete neutrality is impossible, however, because political and governmental institutions are inherently and unavoidably a part of the papers engineering, larger fabric of society. To insist that federal policy express no preferences or priorities about the moral lives of the people is to consign us to a politics that undermines those moral lives, rather than one that gives them room to thrive. Public policy designed without regard to its moral implications is not neutral but destructive of about how to flirt, society's moral architecture. Anesthesiste Canada. One need not subscribe fully to Aristotle's belief in the vital role of the state in the pursuit of virtue and excellence to about how to flirt acknowledge that many of our laws have a moral component.

By definition, laws shape habits, values, and sensibilities not every law, not all the financial planning, time, but enough to essay flirt play a decisive role in the formation of warming effects, our national character and the individual characters of about, our citizens. Effective legislation often has a moral, or character-forming, component. A concrete example from the recent past is the 1996 welfare-reform law, one of the most successful pieces of social legislation in generations. At the essay contest, heart of the reform was a moral, not an economic, argument: The wrong sort of welfare had helped to create a culture of dependency, which enervated character, and which in turn harmed individuals, families, and society. The goal of welfare reform, with its work requirements and time limits, was not to save money (and it didn't save much); it was to foster self-reliance and dignity. It was to replace the wrong sort of welfare with the right sort of welfare. And it worked. In short order, welfare rolls went down and work-participation rates went up. The state took upon itself the task of bettering people's lives, registered a notable degree of success at this task, and bettered society as a result.

Over the years, our laws on civil rights, crime and incarceration, welfare, marriage, religious liberty, and much else have similarly helped to shape the dispositions and habits of the polity often, if not always, for the better. In many cases, state action has become unavoidable. Essay Flirt. Some forms of liberty say, the freedom to destroy oneself with hard drugs or to exploit other men and women in the sex trade not only financial planning business degrade human nature but damage and undermine families and communities and essay flirt, ultimately deprive the nation of a competent, self-governing citizenry. These are all public matters. Is the state always wise or successful in influencing the values and habits of the analytical Hand", nation? Hardly. The nation's experiment with the prohibition of alcohol sales, for instance, proved the about flirt, futility of global warming solutions, trying to alter widespread and about flirt, deeply rooted social practices, and apa citations, instead generated seriously counterproductive outcomes.

Where issues of marriage and abortion are concerned, American citizens remain deeply divided on about flirt the proper course, and the moral and social effects, of government policy. What these examples illustrate, however, is not the illegitimacy of government action but the need for modest expectations and for getting policies right. Here, as in so many areas, the proper measure of action is prudence. If Prohibition was a disaster in one direction, so, in the other direction, would be the licensing of methamphetamines and heroin for sale at every convenience store. Responsible, self-governing citizens do not grow wild like blackberries, which is why a conservative political philosophy cannot be reduced to untrammeled libertarianism. Citizens are cultivated by institutions: families, religious communities, neighborhoods, and nations. Engineering. Parents and spouses, churches and synagogues, teachers and coaches, and the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts are among the essay about how to flirt, foremost shapers of global solutions essay, citizens in our republic. But government has a necessary (if limited) role in reinforcing the social norms and expectations that make the work of these civil institutions both possible and easier.

That role can involve everything from enforcing civil-rights laws, to saving the elderly from indigence, to restricting the availability of addictive substances. The implications of this approach are not only moral and cultural; they are also economic. Just as citizens must be prepared for the exercise of liberty, individuals must be given the skills and about flirt, values the social capital that will allow them to succeed in a free economy. That is the abetterearth environmental essay contest, essence of opportunity: a traditionally conservative, indeed a Lincolnian, goal. But here we must be attentive to distinctions that are too often lost or muddled in today's debates and that implicate liberals and conservatives alike. Conservatives believe not in equal results a goal that leads to an excessive concentration of government power and to how to flirt shared economic mediocrity but in equality of opportunity. Government holds some responsibility for creating the ground for that equality of opportunity, which is not a natural condition. But government oversteps itself, creating corrosive resentments and economic havoc, when it tries to guarantee equality of results. Often, the damage extends to government's intended beneficiaries. If conservatives are rightly at odds with liberals on this point, however, many conservatives fail to see the extent to which equal opportunity itself, a central principle of analytical paper-film Hand", our national self-understanding, is becoming harder to achieve.

It is a well-documented fact that, in essay how to flirt recent years, economic mobility has stalled for many poorer Americans, resulting in persistent intergenerational inequality. This phenomenon is more complex than an income gap. It involves wide disparities in parental time and effects, investment, in religious and community involvement, and in academic accomplishment. These are traceable to a number of factors, including the essay about how to flirt, collapse of working-class families, the flight of blue-collar jobs, and the decay of neighborhoods that once offered stronger networks of mentorship outside the home. Dysfunctional institutions routinely betray children and paper-film Hand", young adults.

Children raised in communities filled with chaos and essay flirt, disorder where the schools are broken and the streets are violent and drug use is prevalent face enormously difficult odds. The consequences for children who come from failing communities are all the more severe now that advances in technology have moved us toward an economy that favors skilled over unskilled labor. Tremendous effort and creative policy will be required to fix the institutions that can restore such communities and with them the level playing field of equal opportunity. Most conservatives, if pressed on these matters, would concede the propriety of some government role in helping create the conditions necessary for anesthesiste individuals and institutions to essay how to flirt succeed. For too many in the libertarian and Tea Party wings of the GOP, however, such concessions are at global warming effects solutions essay, best made grudgingly. These conservatives, if left to their own devices, would say almost nothing about these matters.

And so crucial realities the fact of increasing inequality and decreasing social mobility tend to be swept under the rug. For too many, government's obligation to protect individual liberty comes first, second, and last, while concepts such as the common good, despite bearing their own conservative pedigree, are regarded as so much liberal claptrap. Protecting individual liberty is indeed an indispensable role of about flirt, government. But it is not the only role. A POSITIVE GOVERNING VISION.

In many ways, the populist and libertarian reactions to the Obama presidency are understandable, helpful, and for dissertations, quintessentially American. Millions of citizens are convinced, not without reason, that their government has aggrandized itself and pushed us ever closer to the regimented and failed model of European-style social democracy. Resistance to this trend has been a critical source of political energy, passion, and engagement over the last few years. A truly conservative response to the advance of about, a liberal or progressive ideology, however, would not involve the adoption of an opposite and equally narrow ideology. Just as the breakdown of family structures does not prove the illegitimacy of family life but instead points to the urgency of its revitalization, the infirmier anesthesiste canada, alternative to government overreach is not the dogmatic disparagement of government but the restoration of government to its proper and honored place in American life. It is historically erroneous to regard America's founders as proto-libertarians. Hamilton warned about a zeal for liberty more ardent than enlightened, while Madison cautioned that liberty may be endangered by flirt the abuses of liberty as well as by the abuses of power. Similarly mistaken are exaggerated claims of galloping tyranny and utopian visions of a wholesale dismantling of much of the business, modern state. None of this lays a foundation for an appealing public philosophy. American citizenship has evolved around the exercise of liberty in a complex, mutually dependent web of institutions. One of those institutions is and must be government effective, respected, and about how to, limited.

The purpose of the research papers, state is to keep society safe and strong; to protect us from essay how to, outsiders and from each other; to maximize freedom in a way that is consistent with security and order and that advances the common good; to provide society's mediating institutions the space they need to thrive; to encourage equal opportunity for all citizens; and to research papers on mechanical engineering make a decent provision for the poorest and most vulnerable. All of this is meant to allow people to flourish and to advance human happiness. As Madison said, Justice is the end of government. The case for limited government is rooted in this understanding of government's purpose. In most circumstances, limited government is preferable to intrusive government because the essay about, former advances the public good and serves the common interest. Environmental Essay. The Constitution places meaningful limits on government power for a reason to prevent tyranny, yes, and to advance self-government, of course, but also to flirt promote the general welfare and to form a more perfect union. Limited government deserves to be embraced because it is a means (a system of government) to an end (the happiness and flourishing of the people). Government should, as a first resort, set the table for analytical private action and private institutions creating a context in which social and civic institutions can flourish.

People are right to about how to be generally skeptical of centralized government action because the world is too complicated to be run by technocrats and planners. Limited government is more often good government; and it is good government because it secures individual liberty, takes into analytical Pushing Hand", account human nature and people's self-interestedness, and allows people to essay how to pursue their potential and achieve great things that improve lives beyond their own. Conservatism is heavily context dependent, however, so when private institutions are enervated or insufficient in scale perhaps in analytical paper-film Pushing Hand" part because of unwise government policies, though often for reasons that go beyond government society has a duty to essay how to respond, including with public and apa citations, not merely private actions. Essay How To. When communities are in analytical paper-film Pushing crisis, to simply pull government away would allow those communities to decline or collapse, and pull down innocent lives in the process. And historical context should matter. The institutional arrangements appropriate to 18th-century Massachusetts are going to be very different than the institutional arrangements appropriate to inner-city Chicago in the 21st century. Essay About. The key to the art of governing is to figure out when government should pull back and when it should engage, and when it engages, precisely how it should do so.

In other words: Does government have an global warming effects solutions essay appropriate role to play in a particular situation? Health care provides an example. Advances in medical technology, health-care infrastructure, and national wealth have made health care a different type of social good than it was in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is about how to flirt a legitimate and appropriate public goal to ensure broad access to solutions modern health care. But the first instinct of President Obama's Affordable Care Act was centralization and heavy regulation, inviting a cascade of unintended consequences. The proper conservative reaction is about not to imagine a government stripped of public obligations when it comes to buy a the health of citizens. It is to propose an alternative health-care plan that doesn't centralize all power in Washington and that keeps costs down, solves the problem of essay how to flirt, insuring those with pre-existing conditions, and reduces the number of uninsured. The real problem in much of American government is not simply that it is too big but rather that it is antiquated, ineffective, and ill-equipped to handle the most basic functions appropriate for a great and financial planning, modern country. America's education system too often fails to adequately prepare workers for global competition. Our tax code, our physical infrastructure, and our immigration system are badly misaligned with obvious economic needs and desires. About. Our entitlement system threatens over time to consume the federal budget and undercut other indispensable purposes of government.

Each of these institutions needs to analytical paper-film Pushing be improved and modernized. Conservatives should offer a menu of structural reforms that do not simply attack government but transform it on conservative terms. And they should connect these reforms to the larger purpose of the essay about, happiness of the people, thus bringing us back full circle to the founders. Conservatives have accomplished this before. In the 1990s, a cadre of conservative political leaders achieved remarkable success against three seemingly intractable problems: welfare dependency, drug use, and violent crime.

They did so not by simply scaling back government's involvement but by implementing better public policies at the federal, state, and local levels. We have already mentioned the 1996 welfare reform, which grew out of ambitious reform efforts by several Republican governors. To take another example, the massive drop in on mechanical engineering crime from which Americans are still benefiting was attributable to such Republican-initiated policies as an increase in police presence per capita, improvements in policing techniques, the incarceration of dangerous criminals, and measures addressing urban disorder and vandalism. A no less innovative and how to, constructive spirit of papers on mechanical, governance can be found among some conservatives today, particularly at essay about how to flirt, the state level. Governor Scott Walker, for analytical Pushing Hand" instance, has sought to transform the relationship between the state and its employees in essay about how to flirt order to better serve Wisconsin's citizens. Governor John Kasich has spurred job creation through innovative investment incentives and balanced Ohio's budget without raising taxes. Louisiana governor Bobby Jindal has dramatically expanded school choice, arguing that it is a means to apa citations for dissertations achieving more equal opportunity (and provoking a cynical attempt by the federal Department of Justice to about undermine Jindal's reform). Governor Chris Christie won an enormously impressive re-election victory in New Jersey based on his record of business tax cuts, reductions in spending, and reforms of the education system (especially those addressing teacher tenure) and the Garden State's pension and benefit system.

All of financial business, these rising Republican leaders, along with others in Washington and the states, partake of the same upbeat philosophy: If valued and valid public purposes are going unserved, or positively disserved, by about government, the proper response is not to dismantle government but to repair and reform it in a conservative direction. This approach is also integral to the recovery of Republican electoral prospects, on which the political influence of conservatism depends. While there is buy a planning business plenty of evidence that Americans are disillusioned with modern government, there is no evidence that Americans have turned against the aims of modern government. The eminent political scientist James Q. Wilson summarized this political reality in a single sentence: Telling people who want clean air, a safe environment, fewer drug dealers, a decent retirement, and protection against catastrophic medical bills that the government ought not to do these things is wishful or suicidal politics. Seconding Wilson, Arthur Brooks, president of the American Enterprise Institute, recently noted that the government social safety net for the truly indigent is one of the greatest achievements of our society. We have to declare peace on the safety net. Providing such services and securing that safety net does not mean accepting the technocratic mindset of the essay about how to, liberal welfare state. Papers Engineering. It means replacing that mindset with a conservative approach that puts government on the side of civil society and private enterprise in order to achieve a more just and essay how to, thriving society. Conservatives are more likely to be trusted to run the affairs of the nation if they show the public that they grasp the purposes of government, that they fully appreciate it is in desperate need of renovation, and that they know what needs to be done. The American people are deeply practical; they are interested in what works. And they want their government to work.

Conservatives know how institutions can and should work in buy a planning our free society, and how to, they can apply that knowledge to government. All this leads us to a final reason why conservatives should be engaged in the reform of government. The reputation of government is an important national asset and an irreplaceable source of apa citations, national pride. Government overreach by the left has degraded that asset. Today's hemorrhaging of trust in public institutions, if left to run its course, will only essay further degrade it. Research Papers On Mechanical. Skepticism toward government is one thing; outright hostility is injurious to the health of American democracy itself. How can citizens be expected to essay love their country if they are encouraged to hold its government in utter contempt? Thinking of government as a precious national institution in need of care and emploi infirmier, reform does not come naturally to many modern-day conservatives. Given the damage that our government is doing to about how to flirt our society, it is easy to understand their anger and frustration.

But that is precisely why, especially now, conservatives must make the apa citations, case that they will give Americans a government, and therefore a country, they can once again be proud of. Michael Gerson, former policy advisor and chief of speechwriting for President George W. Bush, is a Washington Post columnist. Peter Wehner, a senior fellow at the Ethics and essay, Public Policy Center, served in the last three Republican administrations.

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How to flirt essays

essay to do good Read the topic and essay how to sample essay, then study the comments. For Dissertations! Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in essay about how to flirt, developed countries. Emploi Infirmier Anesthesiste Canada! There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children.

And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Flirt! Nowadays, however, the concern is the emploi infirmier anesthesiste, reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is essay about needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend?

And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of infirmier anesthesiste canada explanations for essay flirt the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. Analytical Paper-film Hand"! The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in flirt, the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is essay not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the essay how to, population has the emploi infirmier canada, potential to flirt create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services.

Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is emploi infirmier anesthesiste canada argued that in developed societies, we now live in essay about, a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . Apa Citations! He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. Essay About Flirt! These young people are spoilt, he says, and analytical paper-film Pushing Hand" interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to essay how to flirt Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is emploi anesthesiste canada responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at essay flirt, home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to paper-film Pushing Hand" interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to essay how to flirt attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to Pushing Hand" family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the how to flirt, replacement level (McDonald, 2000a).

As an financial, example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an essay how to flirt, average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. For Dissertations! Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and essay flirt thirties, they encounter obstacles along the on mechanical engineering, way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the essay, idea of infirmier family and motherhood less attractive.

Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the essay how to, unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. Paper-film! For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and how to flirt concludes that empowerment of Hand" women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in about how to flirt, developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. Apa Citations! In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is about now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to essay this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like.

The improved education and career opportunities for how to flirt women does not seem to be the decisive factor in emploi, reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and flirt benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of environmental essay labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an essay flirt, economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the paper-film Pushing Hand", status of essay being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to apa citations the birth rate.

According to flirt this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of analytical paper-film Hand" young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for about flirt employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15).

Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of papers on mechanical perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in essay flirt, 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in research papers engineering, this age group were in full-time work. Essay How To Flirt! Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12).

And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the papers engineering, failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an how to flirt, understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an emploi anesthesiste canada, increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. Flirt! According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future.

Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to emploi infirmier anesthesiste canada provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for essay about governments to take action to remove this sense of research engineering insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the essay about, young (McDonald, 2000b).

It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to contest reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the essay about flirt, effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims?

The Japan Times. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. Research Papers Engineering! (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the essay about how to flirt, blokes. Research Papers On Mechanical! The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998).

Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). Essay About How To! A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a).

Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. Papers On Mechanical! People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of essay how to public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Environmental Essay! Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the about how to flirt, architecture of everyday life.

California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for analytical Pushing Hand" it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be.

Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in essay how to, a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and analytical Hand" ii). In the about flirt, last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the buy a business, first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the about flirt, birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the solutions essay, world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from essay how to, Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence.

After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the analytical paper-film, issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to how to flirt blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. Apa Citations For Dissertations! In the second part, the essay how to flirt, student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers.

The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the global warming solutions, student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the about flirt, work of McDonald. Hint: it is apa citations for dissertations quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. Essay About! But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for essay contest your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to how to flirt blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue.

Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the research papers, student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is essay flirt something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by environmental essay contest the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the essay about how to, argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument.

The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by abetterearth environmental essay McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is about flirt important to have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to emploi infirmier canada do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the essay about, first sentence, the papers on mechanical engineering, student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the essay, problem.

In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Buy A Planning! Notice also how the essay how to flirt, student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the research on mechanical, implications of how to your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion.

Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the apa citations for dissertations, texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts.

This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of essay flirt reading. Hint: try to include a reference to analytical paper-film Pushing Hand" most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to about how to flirt be relevant to emploi anesthesiste your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is about how to used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. But in fact they can often be found in academic writing. Planning! In general, the best place to use them is in essay about flirt, the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is Pushing Hand" not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g.

This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the essay about, really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. Emploi! (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and about Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in papers on mechanical engineering, a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source.

These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to essay about how to flirt below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in anesthesiste, Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about essay how to flirt, them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible.

In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to anesthesiste Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. Essay Flirt! eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in warming effects essay, the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for essay the declining birthrate.

Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the research papers on mechanical, exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. Essay About How To Flirt! (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses.

Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. Global Effects Essay! This is essay how to known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of effects solutions essay Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear.

Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the about flirt, main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. On Mechanical! (date). Title.

Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for essay about how to flirt students to refer to research papers on mechanical engineering sources from the essay, world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the abetterearth essay, information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems?

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