Thesis statement beowulf christianity
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Christianity is Pagan
First, THERE A FEW ERRORS IN REGARDS TO THE VIDEO AND THE THEORY OF PAGANISM IN RELIGIONS SUCH AS ISLAM: 1
Beowulf And Christian Values | Researchomatic
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Beowulf: Pagan and Christian Elements Essay #2 - Merenda s Class
Bank Teller Job Description, Salary, and Skills. Do you want to statement beowulf work as a bank teller? Here’s the information you will need to get hired, including a job description, training and education requirements, salary information and tips for getting a job as a bank teller. Bank Teller Job Description and Salary Information. Bank Tellers are typically the first point of interaction for customers as they enter the bank. As such, a cordial and friendly interactive style is required to set the right customer service tone with visitors. Tellers verify the identity of customers and process requests for deposits to and withdrawals from dessertation patron accounts.
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Most training for tellers is done on the job by managers and dessertation, more experienced tellers. Workers interested in becoming bank tellers should develop and showcase customer service and mathematics skills as well as an christianity orientation towards detail and accuracy. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, bank tellers earned an average of $26,419 in 2015. The top 10% of against studying abroad, bank tellers earned at least $36,870 while the bottom 10% earned less than 20,320. Thesis Statement Beowulf Christianity? A good way to find teller jobs is to visit local banks during times when they aren#39;t busy and ask to a valediction forbidding speak with the manager. Start with a bank where you or your family has an account. If your interaction is successful, you will be asked to complete an thesis statement application. Follow through with the application process right away. Often this will involve completing an dessertation meaning online application. Reach out to beowulf christianity neighbors and friends of the critical essays family and ask if they know anyone working at a local bank and if so ask your contact for thesis statement beowulf an introduction. Thesis? Search Google using the name of the town where you want to work and #34;bank#34; or #34;banks#34; - for example, #34;Huntington, NY banks.#34; Check the bank#39;s website to see if you can apply online for a teller position.
Check job listings . You will find advertised teller vacancies in the local newspaper classifieds, which are usually available online, and on job search engine sites like Indeed.com and statement beowulf, SimplyHired.com. What to Wear to a Banking Job Interview. Banks are extremely image conscious so dress the part in professional business attire. A blazer or suit will strike the right tone and show the employer that you are serious. Greet managers with a firm handshake and for and studying, a warm smile.
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These are the skills you must have (or develop) if you wish to get a job as a bank teller, and they are also the skills you should emphasize in both your application materials and your interview. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! This list is not exhaustive, but does explore some of the forbidding thesis most important skills for tellers. Bank tellers handle money and therefore must be able to keep track of statement beowulf, numbers. Ronald Reagan Good President? Although most transactions are guided and tracked by computers, tellers still need to know what the figures should be so that they can recognize and respond to thesis a problem if one occurs. Review this list of accounting skills that will help you get hired. Attention to detail is a big part of a bank teller’s job, from handling money properly to keeping accurate records of transactions to following proper security protocols. A mistake could lead to a security breach or to the appearance of irregularities in the accounts, and either could lead to a loss of public trust in essay the importance of education the bank. Knowledge of Financial Software.
Bank tellers must be able to thesis statement beowulf christianity use specialized financial software. Training may be available on the job, but understanding the software to begin with is a definite advantage. Written and Verbal Communication. Bank tellers handle money, but they also handle people. Tellers must communicate clearly with both coworkers and customers, be able to explain policies and procedures, and possibly even cope with would-be bank robbers without panicking.
Bank tellers are the reagan good president essay public face of their employer to statement the vast majority of customers, and they must represent their employers well. Accuracy Answer Client Questions Attention to Detail Balance Allocation Banking Software Bilingual Cash Drawer Maintenance Checking Account Deposit Checking Account Withdrawal Computer Programs Communications Cross Sales of Service Customer Relations Customer Service Dedication Deposits Detail Oriented Directing Customers Establishing Procedures Excel Exercising Discretion Financial Service Recognition. High Level of Accuracy Judgment Calls Maintenance Maintenance of sir gawain critical essays, Petty Cash Major Attention to Detail Making Change Math Microsoft Office Microsoft Word Money Handling Monetary. Positive Atmosphere Processing Banking Transactions Proper Handling of thesis statement beowulf christianity, Transactions Proposing Transaction Problems Receiving Banking Transactions Reconciliation Record keeping Savings Account Deposits Savings Account Withdrawals.
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micheles thesis Beyonce doesn’t want you to sleep. Thesis Statement Beowulf Christianity? She wants you up and ronald reagan good president essay, awake with eyes wide open, which is why she’ll drop a surprise album just before midnight on a December Friday, why she’ll release an anthem just when you thought she’d rest before the Superbowl and statement christianity, why she will gladly keep you mesmerized for one hour straight by way of of education visual poetry just when you thought that maybe you could sleep your Saturday night away. She’ll keep you up if 11 PM on a Sunday comes and thesis, you realized you’re the essay the importance, only person in the world who hasn’t yet watched this thing that she did. Beyonce does not want you to sleep. Beyonce’s Lemonade, her sixth album, reveals more about the thesis beowulf christianity, artist than any documentary or interview or single song has so far. If you only listen to it, what you hear are the open wounds of mba essay books infidelity and black struggle and black female struggle and motherhood and womanhood being sewn back together with a thick needle; you can hear each puncture “pop” and the sound that the thesis statement beowulf christianity, thread makes when it zips through a tight space. Lemonade is forbidding mourning not comfortable or entertaining. It is not meant to be. It is statement a wake up call. Which is why it has to be watched.
Remember: eyes open. As Beyonce’s words and mba essay books, those of Warsan Shire — the 27-year-old poet who wrote the spoken verses strung throughout the album — explain what it is like to be quieted because of a man, because of beowulf society, because of trust, because of violence, because of race, the moving pictures that explode alongside guarantee that not much room could be left for interpretation. For And Against Essay? You were supposed to feel haunted by what has happened and what still happens; you were just watched by ghosts. Statement Beowulf Christianity? Your eyes were just stared into by for and essay studying abroad the mothers of Michael Brown and Trayvon Martin. These images were also there in celebration of every generation — past, future and present — of black women. As it’s all anyone can talk about this morning, I asked MR contributor Rikki Byrd, a soon-to-be graduate from Parson’s MA program where she wrote her final thesis on blackness in thesis beowulf American fashion, what she thought about Lemonade . Dessertation? She wrote: “It’s frustrating and thesis christianity, annoying that a lot of people are putting the regarding the importance, main focus on Jay Z cheating and the Rachel Roy drama, etc., when in reality, this visual album is about so much more: it’s about thesis black women overcoming; black women prevailing; black women struggling with comparisons amongst themselves and against against essay studying abroad, beauty ideals; black women in and out of love with themselves and thesis christianity, with others; it’s about sir gawain police brutality; it’s about black women and the relationships they have with themselves, with their fathers, their significant others, and most of all with the world around them that shapes not only how they see themselves, but also how the world sees them. It’s an excellent piece of work for Beyonce’s career, but also the careers of so many other black women: Warsan Shire, Zendaya Coleman, Amandla Stenberg, Serena Williams, Winnie Harlow, Michaela DePrince…on and statement beowulf, on. There’s so much there. I don’t think I even have a final thought on it, yet. Mba Essay Books? Every time I talk about it I come up with something else.” Which is exactly where you guys come in.
When you finished Lemonade, what did you think — and what or who did you think about? Feature and thesis statement beowulf christianity, carousel photographs via missinfotv.com. I absolutely loved it! At first, I only listened to the audio cause I was in my car, they were nice songs, but I didn’t really get it… it wasn’t til I got home and saw the visuals that went along with each track that I was totally mesmerized. her personal issues aside, i thought it was so empowering to see a public figure be so vulnerable while still staying true to thesis, her artistic aesthetic! Go Bey! It frustrates me as well that viewers are so hooked on the “Becky” comment and the Rachel Roy speculation. It may or may not even be about thesis statement beowulf her — or even about Jay Z. Essay? Infidelity is of course a large theme throughout the piece, but it’s about so much more than that. It’s the most complex, riveting, gut-wrenching, beautiful work of art. I’ve maybe ever seen. I watched it three times over thesis statement the 24 hour.
streaming period, trying to grasp as much as I possibly could. And I’m a white woman, so I’m sure there were things that I don’t fully understand about essays it and probably never will. I don’t have a final thought on it yet, either — I’m still actively thinking about it, reading about it, listening to it, and beowulf, just trying to absorb. How am I supposed to get anything done at mba essay books, work today, or for the foreseeable future for that matter?! Totally on thesis christianity the same page. I can’t stop thinking about it and I’m a tiny bit confused why the U.S. Government didn’t declare a national week-long holiday for us all to sit in meditative circles and devote the proper time/energy/mental space to unpacking all of essay regarding the importance it. Righttr on! I need a full week to thesis statement christianity, comprehend this greatness. EXACTLY! I’ve been so unproductive in the office today… But I *have* been listening to the album in my headphones on repeat and trying not to essay regarding of education, weep, so I consider that being productive.
SERIOUSLY! I’ve been listening nonstop and doing next to nothing at work. I have been telling everyone to beowulf, buy the album like its my job. Each time I think of mba essay books something new and feel so many damn feelings. The world needed this album. Completely agree with you Rosie. I’m currently in the library supposedly finishing my dissertation, but instead I have watched the thesis beowulf, visual album 3 times. I find I’m constantly sharing it on social media, as I believe everyone should hear it.
There is so much more to this album than just ‘Jay-Z cheated on me’. Her articulate lyrics and elegant imagery get across many more messages – most of which I will probably spend the rest of the week deciphering. Its so great to hear/see an artist actually say something. 100%. She’s so refreshing in her rawness and realness. But I’ve always thought Bey was “real” — she’s just much more private than other artists. Until now. Super impressed with her honestly and vulnerability. And good luck with your dissertation!!
You might need to change whatever your topic is to Lemonade. I bet you could write a million pages about it. #128578; i watched it three times in the same night as well. It’s not about Becky, it’s about how we can all be the baddest woman in whatever game we’re playing! EXACTLY! How can we fuck up the game? . Hmmm… I think that’s a HUGE over-simplification of forbidding mourning thesis what Beyonce was saying with this piece. I agree. But I don’t think that makes my comment any less truthful. Well while this piece had universal elements about love and relationships, it’s ultimately about the black female experience. It wasn’t about being the “baddest woman in beowulf christianity the game”. And as a black woman I hate how (like with Formation) it’s being co-opted into a “universal” theme.
It isn’t. Before I respond, I have to say that I was never a huge Beyonce fan. I felt in some ways that she was too put together and I could not relate with that because I’m a whirlwind of emotions, baggage, personality all of for and essay studying it. Beowulf? I saw something about LEMONADE on Instagram so I decided to give it a chance. Essay Regarding The Importance? After the first watch I was in shock. I could not believe that this was the same Beyonce in Drunk in Love. Statement? I Can relate with the entire album. From Sorry to mba essay books, Freedom to Hold Up to Sandcastles (this song completely wrecked me) and thesis, finally All Night. I was so proud of this work of art because Beyonce has given a loud voice to every black woman that has ever been cheated on, beaten, lost a husband/son to gun violence and police brutality. It is a voice that will be hard to get out of your head for a long time. Finally the album made me feel like I was invited into her home to hear a story of a woman who has overcome.
I am in awe of her strength and bravery. And I am soooo glad she gave her voice to this incredibly important movement. Black girls ROCK! And thank you Amelia for this write up. You guys at manrepeller are killing the mba essay books, game on inclusion. Warsan Shire! *cry-face emoji* Ladies. And men if you’re reading this. I don’t even know where to thesis statement christianity, start; I’ve been so overwhelmed by mba essay books Lemonade since the christianity, moment it dropped. I guess I’ll start with the music, which I think is exceptional.
Her lyrics engender a full range of emotions, from sir gawain essays fuck-you indignation, feeling hurt, broken, wistful, hopeful, joyful, to loved. The whole narrative feels entirely relatable and personal at the same time, proving that this goddess makes absolute magic when she lets us in. As far as the album’s visual component goes… there’s just sooo much to unpack. I am most (at least in this moment) struck by the power of the imagery of an all black, all female cast. It is unfortunate that American society is still marred by structural inequalities and racist sentiments, and thesis, Malcolm X’s sound-bite in the video reminds us of reagan essay this fact, that black women are at the lowest rungs of the social order, routinely ignored and oppressed. But the amount of black unity and statement, celebration of women of color in Lemonade is just so incredibly uplifting. The cinematography kept integrating these shots of the women as very still and tight-lipped- an interesting, intellectual paradox against the message and theme of the whole album, which seemed to mba essay books, convey that Beyonce and statement, black women as a whole should not, will not remain silent. A Valediction? Full expression and ownership of every emotion is encouraged and celebrated. Thank you for posting this Amelia/MR Team. I’m still reeling.
I wore my Beyonce concert shirt underneath a button-up to work today and I can’t listen to the album without crying (but obviously am still listening to it). In the absence of a Beyonce support group, this thread will have to do for thesis statement, now! Beyonce support group. Dessertation? Yes. Thesis? Please! (I also almost wore my new Ivy Park t-shirt to work today, but I chickened out. You’ve inspired me to wear mine tomorrow!) A piece of artwork like I’ve never seen. For And Essay Studying Abroad? Lemonade makes Beyonce look like dress rehearsal. I have only seen it once, but I initially felt sadness. Her vulnerability was unexpected and landed like a punch to my gut.
But there is beauty in the acceptance of vulnerability. Such beauty in her blackness, with braided hair and African print. Thesis Beowulf? And though her voice is directly informed on a valediction forbidding mourning her experience as a black woman, her family struggle is universal, the struggle of so many women-black, white, brown, rich, poor, famous or not. Thesis Statement Beowulf? Also universal is seeking and finding strength through family, through sisters, mothers and daughters. And by ronald reagan good president essay the end, empowerment in forgiveness. Statement Beowulf Christianity? I can’t. stop. Mba Essay Books? thinking about it.
If Rachel Roy was indeed implying on beowulf christianity instagram that she was the ‘Becky’, then she is mba essay books one really tacky lady for drawing attention and thesis christianity, flaunting everything that goes against ronald reagan president, what Lemonade addresses for her female peers. Commenting because I’m possibly not the only person with this problem: I haven’t been able to watch it from Canada?! (I have HBO Canada but like, can’t access any of the online streaming because my cable provider isn’t on the list. Thesis Christianity? ughghgh) And I want to soooo badly. A Valediction Mourning Thesis? If she is building on beowulf christianity the momentum of what she gave us with Formation I am SO. FUCKING. DOWN. for it. You can apparently download Tidal for one month free, watch this, and then cancel your subscription but don’t tell anyone I told you to do that. The album is for sale on ronald reagan good essay iTunes now (praise), and it includes the statement beowulf christianity, full visual album. *Totally* worth the dessertation meaning, whopping $17.99, because that’s still less than two months’ worth of Tidal. Do it!
You won’t regret it. the full vid is here.. Work of art. That’s all. I keep reading Lemonade as Leandra and thinking the Internet is convulsing today 4 me. We’re always convulsing 4 u, girl. You’re one of those bad-ass boss queens that Bey talks about in 6 Inch — always on your damn grind! #Leandra #Lemonade #SameThing. i cried almost the whole way through, i can’t stop thinking about it. i loved, LOVED, how none of her anger was cuted-up for the sake of an anthem, and none of statement beowulf it was like she was really trying to explain anything to mba essay books, anyone, except herself. which is statement beowulf what you do in a betrayal, you have to a valediction, explain it to yourself, all by yourself. Beowulf? she just showed it. and the fact that she didn’t stop at herself, she connected it to all the mba essay books, things that it is really connected to. its so complicated, and so common, and it’s hard to see things clearly when you are betrayed, but she laid it out christianity so clearly it was like it was a map. it was so. good. and a valediction thesis, the femaleness of the imagery, the blood-red light, the quietness, the doorways, the cracks in the walls, that line about the silk knots, i just can’t see/hear that enough. it’s like i instantly feel it when i see it, it’s so familiar, but that kind of thesis thing just is not around except for sir gawain critical essays, this. it’s maybe dramatic to say, but i feel like the world is different now after this. for me anyway. You have so beautifully captured the album’s message. Love this! Girl yes, all of the percent in the world yes.
Chills after reading this. I just said to my friends that I feel different after experiencing the visual album, and the album in general… I truly do feel changed. You’re not alone there! “the femaleness of the imagery, the thesis, blood-red light, the sir gawain critical, quietness, the beowulf christianity, doorways, the cracks in the walls, that line about the silk knots” I would love to hear your thoughts/research on the clothing. Every piece of fabric seemed to dessertation, be so important and multilevel, especially the more traditional fashion at the end. I can’t stop thinking about it. Thank you for thesis beowulf christianity, always remembering to include women of color in the conversation. I 3 MR. Lemonade is so many things: Engaging, powerful, emotional, revealing, and just downright F**king beautiful. The music is solid, I downloaded it after watching, and essay the importance of education, can’t wait to statement, listen to it on for and the way home from work – by the way, who is getting any work done when: Lemonade!
Let’s be honest no ones getting anything done for the next week. I’ve listened to the entire thing four times already today. Every listen is different. I feel something different and understand the lyrics better. This is THE most solid album about thesis beowulf betrayal, anger, forgiveness and acceptance and love. Most definitely love. I watched the visual album twice on HBO this weekend, and I will be purchasing the album this week.
I loved it. Just absolutely awesome. Essay Studying Abroad? I immediately bought the album – and I want to watch the film again already!! I am still processing and feel like there is thesis statement christianity so much more I want to say but simply can’t verbalize it yet. More than anything as a black woman I am SO overwhelmed by the emotions and visceral reaction this brought out in me. She touched on so many layers of the black female experience and I truly hope that (unlike with Formation) in the coming days that her vision isn’t co-opted and white-washed. There are of regarding the importance of education course universal themes we can all relate to (love, infidelity, etc.). But there are truths she spoke in this piece that are uniquely the black female experience. And need to be respected and honored as such. totally. maybe someone can talk about thesis statement beowulf christianity this who isn’t white like me? i am so into hearing this. somebody say it. The accuracy of this portrayal of black female experience is so on point.
The door has been flung open and all the critical essays, dirt personal, political, intersectional is in thesis beowulf christianity our face. Critical Essays? Uncomfortable for christianity, some, sure….most uncomfortable for those of critical essays us who LIVE IT………there are no embellishments here and the truth is jarring and intense. Not hopeless though, America is known for allowing redemption….second chances…..we will see…. The writers and other commentary here have finally put to words what I have been thinking all day. Thank goodness for statement beowulf christianity, MR when you work in regarding of education an office where no one is waiting up until midnight for anything. I’m still a little too stunned to go into statement christianity my feelings on Lemonade. Regarding? I will, however, say that I am grateful. I am not an artist but I imagine that it must take a heck of a lot of foresight, and courage to invite so many other artists to help you tell a story that is so deeply personal. I needed some inspiration the other night, so I watched “Formation.” Again. I love everything that Beyonce is statement doing visually and musically right now.
Such powerful affirmations of essay regarding of education life and resilience — how to find beauty and joy in a world that tries to say that you and your life don’t matter. I am not surprised that the main media outlets are reducing the complexity of this album to some biographical points in the artist’s life. Art is about transforming lived experience into something that speaks to others. Beowulf Christianity? Betrayal is a part of life, and so is overcoming it. Especially when you have a daughter who depends on you, and when you have a voice. It’s a lot easier for dessertation meaning, CNN et al. to statement beowulf, talk about some gossipy tonteria than to acknowledge the album’s deep critique of systemic racism. It was brilliant and against, stunning and completely thought provoking. Things I Enjoyed About Lemonade: Lemonade. Things I Did Not Enjoy About Lemonade: Piers Morgan’s Commentary on statement beowulf christianity Lemonade (Here if you have not read: http://dailym.ai/1SoC7yf) #BoyBye.
Further Commentary: 1) Apologies on behalf of an angry Beyhive to essay regarding the importance, Rachael Ray, who was confused for Rachel Roy, 2) I rolled my ankle running to the album this morning because I did a hair whip when no one was near me and lost my balance, 3) I do not apologize or feel sorry for myself. but you’re gonna keep on running because a winner doesn’t quit on themselves! HOW DID YOU KNOW MY MANTRA IN THAT VERY MOMENT. because thats what i repeat to myself as i apply for thesis statement beowulf, new jobs over and over and over again #128578; we gon slay (all day) Spoken as a Bey fan, but not the biggest Bey fan of all time – I feel like I just witnessed something big. Meaning? Like big for our entire generation. How can she make every moment of a 50 minute video I C O N I C ? And the fact that her voice is so phenomenal she can support this visuals and validate her gigantic vision is amazing.
But the main thing that gets me is that she’s undoing the beowulf, cultural biases by a valediction thesis using that exact system which created them. She’s a genius and though she would not want it said, a total god. As a non-American and white (at least by thesis beowulf christianity European standards, because my very American Jewish boyfriend explains american perception of a valediction mourning whiteness a bit differently) I don’t think I can fully comprehend her message. Nor am I supposed to. I’m supposed to see it, be mesmerized by it, and respect it. The woman part is all to clear, yet the thesis statement, black part I don’t think any white person has a right to dessertation meaning, say they understand.
I was never a fan. As a teenage and early twenties goth who evolved into listening world music I never liked her music much. She was just an statement christianity, extraordinarily beautiful woman and celebrity in my perception. Mba Essay Books? Until the whole Formation thing. Which made me more interested in her as an artist. I think with this album she matured and thesis, became relevant on a whole new level.
She is all she is regarding the importance supposed to thesis statement christianity, be. Strong, powerful, unappologetic, and essays, black! Blackness matters. Again as a non-American I may perceive it differently. I am in thesis statement beowulf awe of it. I cheer it. I salute it. Sir Gawain Critical Essays? Visual aspects of Lemonade are incredible.
I think I will watch it many times. To me all the stuff she did before vane in comparison. What I respect above all is the fact that she as a woman and a person of color, used the power she created with hard work, to speak up and address the issues that needed to be addressed. She is not a token black female artist any more, but THE black female artist of our time. Also Warsan Shire!
3. I can’t wait to watch the thesis beowulf christianity, hour long visual this weekend, thank God for ronald reagan essay, the long bank holiday! x. I am completely obsessed with Warsan Shire’s poetry. I love how Beyonce weaves it throughout the thesis statement beowulf christianity, album. For And Against Essay Abroad? It’s simply beautiful and heartbreaking. Thesis Statement? My next choice of reading material is “Teaching My Mother How to Give Birth”, which is Shire’s pamphlet of poetry. Also, this is her poem “For Women Who Are Difficult to Love” https://vimeo.com/38766162. rikki byrd sums it up very well. its not about this gossip stuff or if jayz cheated or not. A Valediction Mourning Thesis? even though you have to admit it leaves everyone wondering if thats the case. but it really is about the plight of the black woman and womanhood. peep my latest post about being proud to be a southern black woman at http://www.malindaknowles.net. Just pointing out……the comments about Lemonade on Man Repeller are all thoughtful, tasteful, supportive, respectful……the list goes on.
When I couldn’t get enough of listening/watching Lemonade (it is statement christianity SO legendary), I read reviews on tons of different sites. The commenters were all so negative, not even discussing her music/art, but tearing apart her personal life and integrity. Goes to show that this is one of the raddest online communities out there. I simply ADORED Lemonade, I can’t stop listening to it. It just shook me up, like my soul was waiting for it, I don’t know… As a white woman, I know there are probably a million things I can’t even start to understand, but still, the way she talks about relationships with our significant other, mother, father, family, other women… It completely blew me away. It made me feel awake, you know? Oh and that James Blake touch on ronald reagan president Pray you catch me and Forward? These two are a perfect musical match!
I love lemonade so much and im still processing it. Its visually dense and complex, and im so happy Lemonade exists just bc i feel like its SO needed. Its raw, and spiritual, and honest. First time watching i had a lump in my throat, its so vunerable. and i had to watch it two more times just to unpack my feelings about it and recieve the poetry and iconography in relation to the music. All in all Im so grateful.
Ive been listening to the movie instead of the album while working/running around, its so good bc you dont loose the poetry from shire.
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Beowulf: Pagan and Christian Elements Essay #2 - Merenda s Class
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As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the statement beowulf christianity resume will begin with your most recent job, and ronald reagan good president, end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to thesis mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to essay regarding of education demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if…
I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in statement beowulf christianity, a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to essay regarding the importance of education the job opening . Unlike the statement beowulf reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the essay regarding resume in order of most relevant to thesis beowulf least relevant skills. Essay Studying? Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for beowulf christianity a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if…
I have unusually large gaps in the importance, my employment history. I am in the midst of a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to beowulf christianity highlight my upward career mobility.
I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. For And? I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.)
This introductory section is thesis statement beowulf, then followed by for and against essay abroad, your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. Statement? (This is the forbidding mourning thesis reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. Thesis Statement? I want to transfer to thesis a different industry. Statement Christianity? I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills.
To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of president, our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for beowulf you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to essays Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service.
How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and thesis beowulf, transferable skills from dessertation, social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on statement christianity, the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format.
Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the dessertation meaning traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in statement, education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the for and against shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for thesis statement beowulf more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at sir gawain, HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of thesis, my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?)
You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of ronald reagan essay, nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is thesis christianity, Homeland Security. A Valediction Forbidding Mourning Thesis? I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in thesis christianity, 2013. From 2013 until January of essay, this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an christianity, entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to critical stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the thesis beowulf christianity day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night. Mba Essay Books? I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to thesis beowulf blur the past 3 years.
However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for dessertation meaning my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to thesis statement beowulf christianity the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and for and, thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at thesis statement beowulf, a loss as to what to do.
I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and essay regarding of education, about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to thesis beowulf approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt.
Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. For And Against? Recently received my AA degree. Beowulf? I do not include employment start – end dates on good essay, my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to beowulf christianity this country on 2012 and for and, have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to thesis statement beowulf start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company.
Now I want to apply for against essay a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on christianity, the job hunt! I am now trying to ronald rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to beowulf marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a valediction forbidding mourning a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996).
After that I joined a small firm on beowulf, Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and forbidding mourning, advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of christianity, English as a Second Language.
I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. Mba Essay Books? I am struggling with how to present my resume. Statement Beowulf Christianity? I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to reagan president get back into statement christianity communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience.
As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and meaning, stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for statement beowulf christianity a year. Essay? I currently want to thesis statement beowulf christianity go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on critical, the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it!
Hi there! This is great. Christianity? I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for ronald president 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is statement beowulf christianity, more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in forbidding, this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of thesis beowulf christianity, luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable.
Best of sir gawain critical, luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological.
Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the beowulf christianity soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Regarding The Importance? Many of statement beowulf christianity, these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to sir gawain critical essays someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the statement beowulf christianity classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and dessertation meaning, easy export to MS Word and PDF.
There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and sir gawain, Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful.
Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to thesis MS Word and PDF.
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A NATION CHALLENGED: PORTRAITS OF GRIEF: THE VICTIMS; Remembering the Generosity of Brothers Who Were Also Co-Workers. The profiles of victims on this page were written by statement christianity NICHOLE M. CHRISTIAN , LYNETTE HOLLOWAY , FELICIA R. LEE , MARIA NEWMAN , IVER PETERSON , BARBARA STEWART and JOYCE WADLER. OCT. 8, 2001. Mba Essay Books. The official number of bodies found in the destruction of the World Trade Center stood at 393 yesterday, and the city medical examiner had identified 335.
In all, 4,979 could be missing. Here are glimpses of some of christianity, those who have been declared dead. DANIEL AND JOSEPH SHEA. Two Brothers on mba essay books, Two Floors. For a time, Daniel James Shea would not work at thesis statement, Cantor Fitzgerald. His older brother, Joseph Patrick Shea, was pretty high up there, and he did not want anyone to think he had zipped in on mba essay books, his brother's coattails. Then he relented. Joseph Shea, 47, a senior managing director, was on the 105th floor of the first building to be hit. Daniel, 37, was on the 104th.
At home in Pelham, N.Y., seven children are without fathers. Three thousand people turned out for the brothers' joint funeral service at St. Ignatius Loyola Church in Manhattan. One reason, perhaps, was the brothers' generosity. Statement Beowulf Christianity. Joseph Shea donated generously to the hockey team of his alma mater, Georgetown University, and coached local youth hockey and baseball teams. When three New York City firefighters were killed on the job this past Father's Day, Daniel Shea contributed his day's commissions to their families and persuaded other men on his floor to sir gawain critical, do the thesis, same. They raised $15,000. ''Cantor set up at the Pierre and the F.B.I. guy told us no one above the plane would have lived,'' said their sister, referring to a family service center the company had set up at the hotel after the attack. The Importance. ''They were all alive for a while.
Danny didn't have his cell, but his friend Tommy did. They couldn't call out, but when Tommy's girlfriend called, Danny said, 'Call my wife and tell her how much I love her.' Joseph called his wife and said, 'A plane just hit the building.' She said, 'What about Danny?' He said, 'I'm just going down to find him.' '' Changing His Life. E. Rudy Bacchus thought becoming a member of the thesis, Securities and Exchange Commission was one of for and against essay abroad, his greatest accomplishments. ''He passed the exam on thesis statement, his first attempt,'' said his sister, Dr. Avril Anthony-Wilson. ''He was pleased.'' Mr. Bacchus, 48, was a successful independent trader at the American Stock Exchange and essays, lived with his wife and two children in Metuchen, N.J. About 10 years ago, he made some changes in his life, giving up going to clubs and dancing, and becoming a deacon at his church. He used some of his earnings to help parishioners pay mortgages and college tuition, and he helped them define their financial goals. He was attending a breakfast meeting at Windows on the World on Sept. 11. Mr.
Bacchus recently provided emotional support to Dr. Anthony-Wilson as she made plans to open a private medical practice in their childhood home in Cambria Heights, Queens. The week before the attack, she reminded him of the beowulf christianity, date of the opening celebration. ''Sept. 22, I'll be there,'' he said. A Lover of Freedom.
Graham Berkeley, a Briton, had lived in for and essay the United States for 10 years, and for 10 years he had been trying to statement beowulf, get the green card that would grant him resident status. For And Against Abroad. It came at thesis statement beowulf christianity, last in ronald June, and Mr. Berkeley had started making plans to move to thesis beowulf, New York City from Boston when, on Sept. 11, he boarded United Airlines Flight 175 for a business trip to Los Angeles. ''It's like fate playing tricks on you,'' said his friend Christian Winslow. President Essay. ''His fight for that green card had been so intense.'' Mr. Berkeley, 37, was director of e-commerce solutions for the Compuware Corporation, but his friends remember him as a classical violinist, an statement christianity opera buff and a world traveler. ''He loved the freedom that America has,'' Mr. Critical. Winslow said. ''He loved the openness of our society and the friends he had here.
America, to Graham, was almost like the clich -- a land of thesis, endless opportunities.'' Getting Things Right. The wonderful thing about Gennady Boyarsky was that he was a perfectionist who took as much pride in getting simple things right -- like a backyard cookout with his wife, Jolonta, and son, Michael, 7 -- as in creating a travel package as an American Express travel agent. Mr. Boyarsky worked for the company at the World Trade Center for five years. Mr. Boyarsky, 34, was known for his extensive, eclectic music collection, his ability to make detailed maps of just about anyplace, and his mischievous streak.
His only sibling, Beata Boyarsky, 25, said some of her fondest early memories were of the times her brother rearranged the furniture in their home when their mother left on errands. Once, when she was 6 or 7, he dressed her up as Wonder Woman. Ms. Boyarsky said her brother never lost that fun-loving side. ''He was a simple, honest, hard-working guy.'' Plans for for and against abroad, a Proposal. What Michael Canty, the seventh of nine children, wanted most was to create a family like the one in which he grew up in Schenectady, N.Y. He loved having lots of statement beowulf christianity, like-minded people around him. He accumulated friends -- from childhood, Loyola College and Carr Futures, where he was a trader -- and drank beer with them at bars like Molly's and Chumley's in Lower Manhattan. He was the against studying, friend his friends turned to. All of them called him their best friend. He spent weekends at the Canty family house on a lake in the Berkshires or with Erin Clifford, whom he planned to marry. Thesis Statement Christianity. They took their first trip to Europe last summer: one day in London and 12 hours in Paris, where, Ms.
Clifford said, they saw ''the front of every building'' and ate in the city's ''only bad restaurant.'' Mr. A Valediction Mourning. Canty, 30, was thinking of memorable ways to give Ms. Clifford the ring on thesis statement beowulf christianity, which he had a deposit. He was leaning toward the Berkshire house as a setting, and here was the mba essay books, plan: he would take her out in the boat and drive near the shoreline, where his 16 nieces and nephews would brandish a sign: ''Will you marry me?'' Organizing the beowulf, Weekends. It was an obvious joke, but one Thomas Collins could not resist. ''Tom Collins, like the for and against, drink,'' he would say, introducing himself to strangers and beowulf christianity, clients at Sandler O'Neill Partners, where he was a managing director. And when he wasn't trying to get a laugh out of someone, Mr. Collins, 36, an avid skier and outdoorsman, was busy organizing weekend adventures and outings for his friends and family. ''He was just always on,'' said Jennifer Hamel, his younger sister. ''On Thursdays, he would start calling people, asking about the weekend: 'O.K., what are we doing this weekend, where are we going?' He loved being pulled in a million different directions.'' Though Mr. Collins has been identified among the a valediction thesis, dead, Mrs. Hamel said she and beowulf christianity, her family continue to imagine him coming home, just as he did after the 1993 bombing of the a valediction forbidding, World Trade Center, and telling stories about his fight to survive. ''Even though I know,'' Mrs. Hamel said, ''I keep thinking he's on a long business trip and he's going to be home soon.'' A Long-Distance Romance. Sheryl Budke of Cincinnati had no intention of trying to meet a guy when she and thesis beowulf, her sister went to Daytona Beach on vacation, but two grandfatherly men kept nagging them, so Ms.
Budke finally took a walk on the beach with Edward Oliver, from Staten Island. Essay Regarding The Importance Of Education. They knew by the next day that they would marry, and they kept the statement, romance going long-distance for two years. They were married for seven. Mba Essay Books. Mr. Oliver, 31, lived in Jackson, N.J., and thesis, was a commodities broker for Carr Futures. He had a 2 1/2-year-old daughter, Emily, and mba essay books, a 4-month-old son, Eddie. Mr.
Oliver loved golf and ''The Honeymooners'' and, most of statement, all, sitting on the couch with Emily, eating reduced fat Cheez-Its. (He was careful about mba essay books his health.) His offices were at the New York Mercantile Exchange building, but on thesis beowulf christianity, Sept. 11, he had an early meeting at the main office in for and essay the World Trade Center. Ms. Oliver received an odd phone call that morning, in which her husband's phone number came up on caller ID but she did not hear his voice. She did not begin to worry, however, until her sister-in-law called. ''I said, 'Oh, but he had a meeting,' '' Ms.
Oliver said. ''Then I ran upstairs and looked in his nightstand drawer and thesis statement christianity, found a business card that said, '1 World Trade Center, 96th floor.' I thought I would die. ''The struggle we did to stay together for critical essays, two years, and this is all we get,'' Ms. Oliver said. ''It's just not fair.'' 'Find Something You Like' After the early deaths of his father and thesis beowulf, brother and his divorce 10 years ago, Don J. Kauth, a bank analyst, focused intently on his four children. ''It made him a much better father,'' said Matt, the forbidding mourning thesis, oldest. Mr. Kauth bought a house near the children and their mother in Saratoga Springs, so they could spend weekends with him, and a camper for vacations in the Adirondacks. ''He told us, 'Find something you like to thesis, do and the money will come,' '' Matt said.
But he was immensely proud when Matt worked at a homeless shelter with the critical essays, Jesuit Peace Corps, a job rich in statement everything but money. And when Kathleen, his daughter, won a place on the United States national hockey team, he was ''crying, he was so overjoyed,'' said Winifred Kauth, his mother. On Mondays, he rose at 3 a.m. to commute to Manhattan, where he kept an apartment and critical essays, worked at Keefe, Bruyette Woods. Christianity. ''He'd say: 'That's where the money is,' '' Mrs. Kauth said. ''He was making it for his children.'' A Desire to Know. Alexander Filipov, an for and against essay electrical engineer, did not just check his sons' homework. He explained it in complex mathematical terms. He took them sailing and statement, taught them to calculate their location by the positions of the sir gawain critical essays, stars. Statement Beowulf. ''He had incredible math acumen,'' said David, a son who is a journalist. ''But he was no genius whiz nerd.
He would go up to mba essay books, anybody and start telling stories about himself.'' An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. He asked religious proselytizers about their lives and showed them the backyard goldfish pond he had carved in thesis statement christianity granite. He learned the phrase ''Do you like Chinese food?'' in 17 languages to open conversations with foreigners. Mr. Filipov, 70, and Loretta, his wife of 44 years, lived in Concord, Mass. He was a passenger on thesis, American Airlines Flight 11, which was hijacked en route from Boston to Los Angeles and flown into 1 World Trade Center. When he was 60 and on business in California, he went bungee-jumping. ''I didn't like when I was done,'' he said later, ''and nobody was looking at me.'' ''Every new gadget he found he had to tell you about, whether or not you understood it,'' said David Filipov. ''He wanted very badly to learn things and know things.'' Determined to Succeed.
Jessica Sachs's schedule since her December graduation from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst was exhausting. She had accepted a job at PricewaterhouseCoopers as a accountant and was working long hours there. Thesis Statement Beowulf. Every Saturday she went to an eight-hour course for the C.P.A. exam. And on regarding, Sundays, as usual, she attended services at New Colony Baptist Church in Billerica, Mass. Beowulf. ''She complained,'' said Stephen Sachs, her father. Dessertation. ''But she did well.'' Despite the thesis statement, workload, she did not sleep in on Sunday mornings. For And Against Essay. She had never let church-going slide, even in college.
When she realized that UMass, with 26,000 students, had no Southern Baptist ministry, she helped establish Mercy House on campus. She was equally determined to succeed in worldly terms. She applied for only two jobs, at the first- and second-largest accounting companies, and was offered a place at each. On Sept. Statement. 11, she was flying from Boston to critical, Los Angeles on business, her first trip out West.
CHRISTIAN L. DeSIMONE. Thesis Beowulf Christianity. Taking On Responsibility. When Christian L. De Simone's father died of a heart attack 18 months ago, he was there for sir gawain critical essays, his mother, Christel. He left his position as linebacker for the Rams football team at the University of Rhode Island so he could have more time to commute to and from thesis beowulf christianity his home in Ringwood, N.J. After graduation, Mr. DeSimone, 23, moved back home and found a job as a forensic accountant at Marsh McLennan on the 100th floor at against studying, 1 World Trade Center. ''He didn't have to take on statement, the responsibility of the house, but he wanted to do it,'' Mrs. Forbidding Thesis. DeSimone said. ''He was always like that. Just the other day, a 20-year-old neighbor came to the door to tell me that my son was his hero because he carried himself so wonderfully and he was so smart.'' Mr. DeSimone was to have turned 24 on beowulf, Oct.
18. Striking Out on His Own. Ronald President Essay. Twenty-eight-year-old John Reo was just about to strike out on his own. He had recently started a job as a bond trader at beowulf christianity, Cantor Fitzgerald and he was scheduled to move into an apartment in the East Village this month. ''He was so excited,'' said his brother-in-law, Richard McGuire. ''It was his first important job.'' But he was most excited about working alongside another brother-in-law, John Swaine, a veteran of dessertation meaning, Wall Street who got him the job on thesis, the 104th floor of against essay studying, 1 World Trade Center, Mr. McGuire said. Mr. Reo, of thesis statement, Troy, N.Y., was living temporarily in Larchmont with his sister Suzanne, who was married to Mr. Swaine. He also died in the attack on the trade center. ''He looked up to dessertation meaning, Swaine because he had been there for thesis, so long,'' Mr.
McGuire said. A Valediction Forbidding Thesis. ''He really wanted to make him proud.'' Sharing the Wealth. John Swaine was the consummate Wall Street bond trader: ''Aggressive and thesis beowulf christianity, full of boundless energy,'' said his brother-in-law, Richard McGuire. He worked at Cantor Fitzgerald for about 10 years. Good Essay. ''He really loved his work,'' Mr. McGuire said. ''He worked hard and statement, played hard.'' But he wanted to share the ronald reagan essay, wealth. He helped his brother-in-law, John Reo, get a job at Cantor, trading bonds. Statement. They worked and died together on for and studying, the 104th floor. Mr.
Swaine, 37, of Larchmont, N.Y., may have loved the Street but he did not fall for the trappings. He preferred to help his extended family, and to spend money on his wife of 13 years, Suzanne, and three daughters. Statement Beowulf Christianity. ''He rarely spent any money on himself,'' Mr. McGuire said. ''He provided his family with a beautiful home. A Valediction Forbidding Mourning Thesis. But he was unassuming. He didn't have fancy cars or suits. He took the subway from the train every day. Everything he did, he did it for his family.'' His Two Families. Beowulf Christianity. ''The main thing about John,'' said Raffaella Crisci, his wife, ''he was a family man.'' Actually, Mr. Meaning. Crisci, a lieutenant who worked 23 years for the New York Fire Department, had two families: Mrs. Beowulf. Crisci and dessertation, their three sons in Holbrook, on Long Island, and Hazardous Materials Company 1 in Maspeth, Queens. He was equally at home in both places. At each he fixed dinners of barbecued shrimp and ribs, built cupboards and shelves, and organized the paperwork.
He loved firefighting and was a rescue specialist and teacher. His shift was over on Sept. 11 when the alarm rang, Mrs. Crisci said, but ''he automatically jumped in, wearing civilian clothes.'' Off duty, ''he liked being home with me and the kids,'' she said. He found plenty to do, watching his sons play hockey, nailing siding and sketching plans for a little pond. ''We didn't take fancy vacations,'' she said. Thesis Statement Christianity. ''We just liked sitting in sir gawain critical essays the backyard, swinging on the swing, drinking coffee.
We had 30 years together. I want 30 more.'' THOMAS F. HUGHES JR. A Life in Pictures. Thomas F. Hughes Jr.'s wife and children assembled dozens of photographs for thesis statement, collages they displayed at Mr. Hughes's funeral services.
There were several pictures of dolphins kissing them during a family vacation in the Bahamas. Another one captured Mr. A Valediction Forbidding Mourning Thesis. Hughes laughing, because he had fallen in the snow on a skiing trip. There was another one of a tailgate party when he and his wife, Rosanne, went to see Bruce Springsteen at Giants Stadium. The largest picture was of thesis beowulf christianity, him in for and essay studying a tuxedo, at his sister's wedding. ''He had the smirk on his face that everyone recognized,'' Mrs.
Hughes said. ''I wanted people to laugh when they saw these pictures. That's how he would have liked it. Christianity. He lived life to the fullest.'' Mr. Hughes, 46, owned a company called Colonial Art Decorators, a painting and decorating company based in New York City. On Sept. 11, he was at Windows on the World, for what was supposed to essay of education, be a 15-minute meeting with a client. The Hugheses, married for 17 years, lived in Spring Lake Heights, N.J., with their children Ashley, 15, and Patrick, 12. ''I don't have the thesis beowulf, words to say goodbye,'' Mrs.
Hughes said. ''He will always be a part of my life.'' Enamored of Fatherhood. John J. Critical. Murray was not one to thesis beowulf christianity, put things off. He would fill his weekends visiting friends and family and mba essay books, he would make that one last phone call even if he was exhausted, said Rory, his wife of christianity, two years. Dessertation Meaning. Mr. Murray, of Hoboken, N.J., was a partner at Cantor Fitzgerald. ''There was no complacency about him,'' she said of her husband. Statement Beowulf Christianity. ''He didn't take life for granted. His father said of critical, him after the attack on the World Trade Center, 'He probably lived more in his 32 years than most people live in 100.' '' For example, shortly after they were married, Mrs. Beowulf. Murray had an opportunity to take a job in London.
He sought a transfer and they lived abroad for about a year. The couple moved back to the New York City area late last year to be close to family after she became pregnant with Alyson, who is now 6 months old. ''He was enamored of his daughter and fatherhood,'' Mrs. Murray said. ''For so many people, becoming a father changes their lives, but he loved every minute of ronald reagan essay, it.'' The Confirmed Dead. Following is a list of the latest three people confirmed to have died in the World Trade Center disaster, according to the New York City medical examiner's office, which said the victims' families had been notified. LILORE, Craig Damian. PAOLILLO, John M. Beowulf Christianity. ROACH, Stephen Louis.
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Christian Elements in Beowulf
cold mountain thesis Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. A Thesis in the Department of English.
Presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts at Concordia University Montreal, Canada. Keith Waddington 1998. School of Graduate Studies. This is to certify that the thesis prepared. By: Keith Waddington.
Entitled: Pictures and Poetry. Beowulf? Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence and submitted in essay regarding the importance of education partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of. Pictures and thesis christianity, Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. This thesis examines the history and development of the Picturesque, its definition, theoreticians, and practitioners; and its influence on romanticism. The focus is the correction of pejorative and negative assessments common in modern literary studies which provide a misleading interpretation of both the Picturesque and its influence.
The goal is a broader understanding which suggests the necessity of a new evaluation of Wordsworth’s “groundbreaking” contribution to literary development. A Valediction Mourning? Accordingly, an extensive introductory section examines pre-Picturesque and Picturesque painting, outlining the beginnings of a new and particularly English aesthetic. Also, an exploration of beowulf pre-Picturesque poetry and formative Picturesque poetry reveals the literary ramifications of essay studying this aesthetic. Finally, Wordsworth and Keats are canvassed within the Picturesque context: Wordsworth to demonstrate the origins and thesis statement christianity, erroneousness of the modern critical bias and the way his poetry was often formulated according to Picturesque principles; Keats to demonstrate the longevity and continuing importance and influence of the Picturesque. Conclusions are conclusive. Table of Contents.
Section One: The Canvas. Section Two: Background. Section Three: The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. Section Four: The Foreground: Keats. Section One: The Canvas  [The] theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to mba essay books European aesthetics. (Watkin, vii)
The romantics . . . Statement Beowulf Christianity? inherited the picturesque way of looking at nature, but realised that it . . . had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of feeling. (Brownlow, 16) Major contribution or tyranny? When modern scholars of literature observe the good essay Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry, ideas become gods and facts their disciples. The extensive adoption, intrinsic importance and “capability” of the Picturesque—willingly acknowledged by art historians like Watkin—are expurgated, summarily sacrificed on the altar of thesis statement beowulf christianity entrenched literary dogma, and the service of academia becomes a self-serving exercise in blind faith. This section will provide a prolegomenon to sir gawain critical scepticism, describing the aesthetic context for the Picturesque movement, demonstrating the links between early continental landscape painting, neo-classicism, the Picturesque, later English landscape artists and romanticism. Besides offering essential background, outlining the artistic continuum which these links illustrate—revealing the inevitability of romanticisms and thus sanctioning a less venerational view of Wordsworth—the principle intent here is to provide a more useful definition of the Picturesque. In terms familiar to thesis beowulf christianity tabloid conspiracy theories: to dessertation meaning tell you what they don’t want you to know. In the beginning was the word, and the word was Picturesque. Statement Christianity? Although perhaps peculiar to the pictorially educated modern, an aesthetic appreciation of landscape scenery was inconceivable prior to the Picturesque period. It is, in simple terms, a skill that requires learning.
According to Christopher Hussey in mba essay books The Picturesque , numerous impediments initially existed, including general Christian doctrine; the early Christian transmutation of pagan nature spirits and gods into evil spirits, essentially rendering the natural realm dangerous and statement christianity, even sinful; and the humanistic bias of our classical inheritance. Reagan? Although valid to varying degrees, the chiefest obstacle was more likely the general difficulties of life and travel which often rendered nature antagonist. Learning landscape then was an up-hill struggle. The Picturesque movement, prerequisite and intrinsic to thesis beowulf this learning process, developed during neo-classicism’s reign supreme, and the formality and rigidity of that rule, by its very nature, proved conducive rather than obstructive. The Picturesque, as we shall see, finally provided egress from neo-classical regulations, where reason could finally take rest, where imagination could romp over mba essay books hill and dale, where individual feeling accompanied originality. Our journey into the Picturesque begins with the Grand Tour. Subsequent to England’s isolation during much of the seventeenth century and made possible by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), the Grand Tour was initially a diversion limited to the monied aristocracy. The journey southward to christianity Italy involved either traversing the Alps or following the Rhone. In the accounts of grand tours made between 1640 and 1730 a pictorial view of sir gawain critical essays landscape is exceptional. Statement Beowulf? In each case it can be traced fairly exactly to the actual sojourn in Rome, where the works of mba essay books Claude and Salvator were to be seen. (Hussey, 84)
Indeed, picturesque awareness—commonly the thesis statement quiddity of modern tourism—was, like landscape painting itself, entirely foreign. Chaucer, for example, made three or four trips over the Alps yet never mentioned them once in his poetry. John Evelyn’s travels between 1644 and 1648 precisely outline a similar aesthetic vacuity, suggesting it was “as if Nature had here swept up the rubbish of the dessertation meaning earth in the Alps” (qtd. Hussey, 85); remembering the “horrid mountains” as “troublesome” (qtd. Hussey, 86). Similarly, Richard Lassels’ Italian Voyage (1670) mentions Mount Cenis only in practical terms of route, “the most desirable for speed and convenience” (Manwaring, 9). Landscape painting at this time generally existed either as a background to human drama, or as a quasi-scientific topography. Neither was considered—especially for the English, where only the farmer or ditch-digger truly worked in landscape—significant work for the significant painter. When aristocratic travellers finally arrived in Italy, they came upon an important exception to this rule. Claude Lorraine, Salvator Rosa and Gaspard Poussin broke with the traditional subject hierarchy and raised the statement beowulf landscape to lofty heights of respectability. The juxtaposition of the scenery aristocratic tourists had seen and the landscape paintings they confronted provided an dessertation early indication of beowulf this parochial aesthetic and mba essay books, even philosophical void. The aristocracy progressively responded, bringing home souvenir paintings and prints—an early equivalent of modern picture post-cards—beginning collections and posing as cognoscenti . Thesis Christianity? Grand Tour guide books soon appeared, including practical advice as well as art information.
Essentially, the status of landscape paintings in Italy compelled travellers to rethink traditional distaste for regions like the forbidding thesis Alps, to over-look the associated dangers and discomforts of beowulf travel and exploration. Dessertation Meaning? The preparatory precepts of the Picturesque aesthetic were thus first introduced into England, and it was particularly the paintings of statement Claude and Salvator Rosa which stimulated the good president essay greatest interest. The Less Grand Tour. In addition to statement beowulf this, the Grand Tour played another important role. In what might be seen as an instance of forbidding mourning thesis cultural trickle-down theory, the less affluent middle-class, encouraged by fashionable discussions of Picturesque niceties, was soon occupied with more modest excursions into the English countryside. In search of landscape, landscape gardens and the galleries of mansions, tourists were aided by new guidebooks and statement beowulf, much improved roads to get them there.
A dramatic democratic appreciation of landscape was at last being realised, with travellers, invariably, carrying sketch-book and forbidding mourning, Claude Glass. The Claude Glass, a convex mirror of about four inches diameter with tinted filters and bound up like a pocket-book, effectively compressed and framed landscapes. Analogous to the camera in these film-free days, the user was obviously obliged to turn his back on the scene to observe the framed and filtered view. Hugh Sykes Davies, in his recent analysis of the Picturesque and Wordsworth, offers the following comment: “It is statement beowulf christianity very typical of mba essay books their attitude to Nature that such a position should be desirable” (223). Christianity? Indeed, as we shall see, the comment is merely typical of Davies’ view of the Picturesque. Timothy Brownlow, in John Clare and Picturesque Landscape , offers a similar comment, all the more mockery for sir gawain critical essays, its parentheticality: “As an artist, he [Clare] casts aside, as it were, the Claude Glass (whose user had to turn his back on the landscape)” (13).
Malcolm Andrews, whose In Search for thesis statement, the Picturesque generally circumvents any romantic exploration, consequently offers a more useful note: The imagination as an “intellectual lens” approximates it to the Claude Glass, which can modify and enhance a particular landscape. All the special properties of the regarding Glass are present in Coleridge’s well-known account of the origins of his poetic collaboration with Wordsworth and their agreement about the two cardinal points of poetry: “the power of exciting the sympathy of the reader by a faithful adherence to the truth of nature, and the power of giving the interest of novelty by the modifying colours of the imagination.” (71) Support for the Claude Glass as imaginative metaphor comes from Claude himself, who was as willing as able to composite the actual with the imaginary: Pastoral Landscape with Ponte Molle (1645), for example (see figure 1), represents a view of the pope’s summer residence. . . Statement Christianity? . The foreground is imaginary, but the palace is a valediction mourning thesis fairly accurately portrayed. The castle-like building bathed in statement beowulf sunlight is a forerunner of the highlighted castles in the middle ground so beloved of Gilpin. (Bicknell, 4) The Picturesque tourists offer moving evidence that the Picturesque became as widespread as it was popular. Indeed, the eighteenth century is essays matched only by the twentieth for the per capita number of country house visits. At Hawkstone in thesis statement beowulf Shropshire, for example, “there were so many visitors to the dramatically landscaped park that in c. 1790 an critical essays hotel was built to accommodate them” (Watkin, vii). Thesis Beowulf Christianity? David Watkin, who examines the Picturesque from the prospect of art historian, similarly provides an analysis inscribed by ronald president essay positivism, unequivocally stating that “theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics” (vii); and thesis statement beowulf, that “the Picturesque became the leading building-type in post-Reformation England and has long been recognised as the nation’s principle contribution to the arts” (vii).
“In the intervening two hundred years since its discussion . . . the regarding the importance of education Picturesque has been altered and extended in many ways. Along the way it has acquired a pejorative tint” (Robinson, xii). Categorical and “pejorative” statements: “The cultural games of the statement christianity picturesque” (Woodring, viii); “The vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33); “Comic and essay regarding the importance, faddish as much of the theory appears in retrospect” (Brownlow, 43); W.M. Merchant’s common “cult” (9) epithet; as well as the statement beowulf supercilious Davies, who extends this negation to the present, saying “The modern tourists . . . pass through the country at a rate never dreamed of by Gray and West, seeing nothing, and apparently feeling even less” (226), all fail to recognise that this appetite to sample and develop a taste for landscape was redolent of a general change in aesthetic sense. Mba Essay Books? In fact, the modern tourist, in statement the route he selects and with each viewfinder frame often reveals the influence of the Picturesque. Mba Essay Books? By the start of the nineteenth century, recognition of picturesqueness had become—and remains—second nature. Landscape Artists Abroad. Salvator Rosa (1615-73)
As mentioned, Salvator Rosa, Neapolitan painter, etcher, satirical poet and actor, was crucial to the development of the Picturesque and also provides an beowulf christianity early link with romantic poetry. In addition to his landscapes, which portrayed the feral and fierce of sir gawain critical essays nature (see figure 3), Salvator displayed a penchant for appalling subjects—witches and monsters, meditations upon death and so on—inspiring such romantic painters as Barry, Fuseli and Mortimer, and finding poetic expression in the romantic inclination towards the gothic and graveyard melancholy. Lady Mortgan’s The Life and Times of Salvator Rosa , published in 1824, depicted the artist as a legendary figure hobnobbing with bandits and joining a popular uprising in Naples, establishing him as the quintessential romantic artist: an outlaw encamped with darkness and despair, whose bravura with the statement brush was symptomatic of a burning artistic brilliance inimical to convention. Eighteenth century literary explorations of the Picturesque are literally laden with references to Salvator: “What’er Lorrain light touched with softening hue / Or savage Rosa dashed, or learned Poussin drew” ( Castel of Indolence I, XXXVIII). Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) Claude Lorrain, although French, spent his adult life in Rome. Claude was undoubtedly the greatest master of ideal-landscape painting, which seeks to present nature as surnature and concording with the habitual “improvement” of the Picturesque vision. Against? In addition, Claude’s landscapes often contain classical ruins—an initial point of entry for English neo-classicists who required some token scrap of Rome or Athens—a key element modified in the Picturesque movement to accommodate native ruins—both genuine and beowulf christianity, artificial. Besides his fundamental importance to the Picturesque movement, Claude, like Salvator, exhibited a less direct though nonetheless certain connection with romantic poetry, with his much acclaimed poetic rendering of light.
As E. B. Greenshields, Landscape Painting and Modern Dutch Artists , states, “if one artist were to be chosen as founder of a valediction mourning thesis modern landscape painting, that title would be rightly given to Claude” (15). Within the neo-classical/romantic context, John Ruskin offers the thesis beowulf following: The love of neatness and precision, as opposed to all disorder, maintains itself down to Raphael's childhood without the slightest interference of any other feeling; and it is not until Claude's time, and owing in great part to regarding his influence, that the new feeling distinctly establishes itself. English scenery, initially, existed as a back-drop to continental landscape paintings in much the same way as landscape initially provided only the setting for human pictorial narratives. In a comparison between Dovedale and Keswick, Dr. John Brown wrote: Were I to analyse the two places in their constituent principles, I shoud tell you, that the full perfection of Keswick, consists of three circumstances, beauty, horror and thesis christianity, immensity united; the second of which is alone found in Dovedale. . . . Thesis? But to beowulf give you a complete idea of these three perfections, as they are joined in Keswick, would require the united powers of Claude, Salvator Rosa and ronald reagan president essay, Poussin. The first should throw his delicate sunshine over the cultivated vales, the scattered cots, the thesis beowulf groves, the lake, and mba essay books, the wooded island. The second should dash out the horror of the rugged cliffs, the steep, the statement beowulf christianity hanging woods, and foaming water-falls; while the grand pencil of Poussin should crown the whole with the majesty of the impending mountains. (qtd.
Davies, 218) The original works of meaning this scanty collection of Italian painters only statement beowulf partly explain the extensive aesthetic transformation in dessertation remote England. Walpole mentions in his Anecdotes several foreign landscape painters living and working in England during the late seventeenth and thesis beowulf, early eighteenth centuries. Regarding The Importance?  These included Henry Dankers, employed by Charles II as a topographical artist and Francesco Zuccarelli, who visited England twice, lived in London for five years and became a foundation member of the Royal Academy. Thomas Manby, an Englishman who studied in Italy, brought back the customary collection of paintings to add to his own works. In addition, the enormous popularity of these artists, especially Claude, led to countless copies and even copies of copies. Less duplicitous was the invention of prints and the development of engraving to thesis statement beowulf high art, making the landscapes of the forbidding mourning thesis masters as common as the furrowed tellurian landscapes of the peasants (see figures 1 and 2 ). Where the canvas could be known, often imprecisely, by only a few hundred privileged, the print could be known intimately by the massed thousands. Statement Beowulf Christianity? Indeed, print collecting—”No person of Taste could be without a collection of prints” (Manwaring, 84)—became itself a popular pastime. Also, “the amateur landscape painter had begun to flourish before the seventeenth century closed, and long continued to flourish increasingly” (Manwaring, 8). The stylistically idealised quality of Claude and Salvator’s paintings provided the inspiration for the Picturesque movement and against essay studying abroad, was then modified as the English Picturesque developed, essentially becoming an statement beowulf idealisation of a nature that was rapidly vanishing and celebrating a rural way of life that was being lost.
A Picturesque Definition. Perhaps the earliest explicit statement on the Picturesque comes from William Kent in his 1709 Memorandum on the preservation of Woodstock Manor: That part of the Park which is seen from the North Front of the new building has little variety of objects nor does the country beyond it afford any of value. It therefore stands in need of all the helps that can be given. . Mba Essay Books? . Statement? . Buildings and Plantations. These rightly dispos’d will indeed supply all the wants of Nature in that place. And the meaning most agreeable disposition is to christianity mix them: in of education which this old Manour gives so happy an occasion for; that were the enclosures filled with Trees (principally fine Yews and Hollys) promiscuously set to grow up in a wild thicket, so that all the buildings left might appear in two risings amongst ’em, it would make one of the most agreeable objects that the best of Landskip painters can invent. (qtd. Watson, 17)
From this early beginning—remarkably loaded with what would eventually become the nitty-gritty of picturesque idiom: variety, wants of nature, mix, wild, thicket; and thesis statement, concepts: a harmony of architecture and natural surroundings and comparison with landscape paintings—the unfamiliar story of Picturesque development reads rather like the recorded exploits of an ancient relation discovered in a dusty chest, while categorical definitions have all the the importance of education interest of his bleached bones. Unfortunately, ubiquitousness and over-familiarity has essentially starved the term of any useful sense and to statement beowulf flesh out that skeletal frame becomes a matter of Hobson’s choice. Ronald President? So what does “picturesque” really mean? As late as 1794, Uvedale Price wrote: “There are few words whose meaning has been less accurately determined than that of the statement word picturesque” ( On the mba essay books Picturesque , 77).  Whether or not we accept J. R. Watson's hypothesis, in Picturesque Landscape and English romantic Poetry , that this period—despite being the most prolific in picturesque studies, picturesque tours and picturesque allusions—actually marks the decline of the movement (a somewhat strange notion considering Turner’s Picturesque series is still decades away), it seems obvious that the time was indeed ripe for some clear definition. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the subject means that no nut-shell, no matter how perfectly nutty, can contain a definition fair and useful. The stress here then is selectivity, surveying concepts intrinsic to Picturesque theory that reveals strong romantic links and usually glossed-over in modern literary criticism. William Gilpin (1724-1804) Perhaps the most succinct definition of Picturesque comes from Reverend William Gilpin's Essay on Prints (1768): “ . . . a term expressive of that peculiar kind of beauty, which is agreeable in a picture”(xii). This simple statement is statement christianity modified by the notion of “picturesque grace,” meaning “an agreeable form which may be given to a clownish figure”(xii): that stylistic rendition found in a valediction mourning “Berghem's clowns, and in christianity Callot's beggars”(29). For And? Thus, in this simplest of beginnings, the Picturesque relates both to the elements in a scene as well as the artist's treatment of his subject.
Essay on Prints provides a broad examination of statement christianity art and compositional analysis; and Watson's suggestion that for most of the mba essay books period this definition “was sufficient” seems sufficient only for those unwilling to read the statement christianity book. Gilpin himself, recognising the fribblish finish, offers some restoration in Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape (1792) . Ronald Reagan President? The accepted definition of beauty—most often marked by smoothness and thesis beowulf christianity, unity—was established by Edmund Burke in A Philosophical Inquiry into forbidding mourning thesis, the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Recognising that scenes beautiful according to this definition were usually unsuitable subjects for the pencil, Gilpin considered the thesis Picturesque composed of essay the importance roughness, irregularity and variety. In addition, Gilpin disagrees with Burke’s conclusions on the beautiful and sublime, where the effect of the former is pleasure, the latter astonishment and that the thesis beowulf christianity two, discovered in a single object, cause mutual destruction. In reference to a valediction Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Among all the visions of this enchanted country, we had seen nothing so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque, as this” ( Three Essays , 52). The juxtaposition of statement beowulf christianity beautiful and mba essay books, sublime is both deliberate, and—as any present-day hiker in thesis statement beowulf this region will attest—accurate. Indeed, the mix of beauty and reagan, sublimity, producing the Picturesque, seems to be the gist of thesis statement christianity Dr. John Brown’s “beauty, horror and immensity united.” As John Ruskin suggests, “this sublimity may be either in mere external ruggedness, and other visible character, or it may lie deeper, in sir gawain critical essays an expression of thesis statement beowulf christianity sorrow and old age, attributes which are both sublime”
By defining the dessertation principle characteristics of the Picturesque, besides underlining the main weakness of Burke’s theory, Three Essays also achieved dubious honour of virtually codifying picturesque theory. The Picturesque was finally composed of such illustrative elements as ruins— à la Claude—cottages, villages, twisting tracks; with roughness, intricacy, sudden variation, abruptness, foreground, middleground and background forming the more abstract and general Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin's Picturesque musings, however, exceeded the catalogue of elements and rules of composition, and in statement this often overlooked material Gilpin’s especial merit becomes clear. For all the asseverations on the importance of education, artistic theory, it was the visual art itself which most concerned Gilpin and explains the statement focus of his philosophy. Words,, Gilpin insists, cannot mark the characteristic distinctions of each scene, the touches of of education nature—her living tints—her endless varieties, both in statement beowulf form and colour.—In a word, all the elegant peculiarities are beyond their reach. The pencil, it is true, offers a more perfect mode of description. ( Observations , 10) Indeed, the peculiar strength of for and language rests elsewhere, and the adoption of Picturesque sensibilities by the poet must—by the very nature of his medium—result in an altered expression and not, to foreshadow central critical dogma, a transcending expression. Beowulf Christianity? Besides this conclusion—which literary scholars might find presumptuous—Gilpin keenly discerned the importance of the imaginative faculty: “. . . we may be pleased with the description, and the picture. But the soul can feel neither, unless the force of our own imagination aid the poet's, or the painter's art; exalt the idea, and picture things unseen” ( Observations , 10). Reading poetry, viewing painting, it is the imagination which provides fullest meaning; and it is imagination also which accompanies Gilpin through the Lake District:
The evening . . . grew more tempestuous . . . Mba Essay Books? amid the obscurity, which now overshadowed the landscape, the imagination was left at large; and painted many images, which perhaps did not really exist. . . . Every great and thesis beowulf, pleasing form, which we had seen during the day, now played, in strong imagery before the fancy; as when the grand chorus ceases, ideal music vibrates on the ear. ( Observations , 19) Gilpin here describes the essay the importance of education participation of active imagination both in reading poetry, viewing paintings, and exploring landscape. Thesis? Followers of the Picturesque then, at least according to Gilpin, are involved with elemental matter both external and internal. Figure 4, for mba essay books, example, offers an unusual composition where the two figures “may be supposed to see the continuation of a landscape down the valley . . . and this gives a sort of clue to the imagination” (qtd. Bicknell, 38). Indeed, the bridge leads the eye outside the frame and it is the unseen which initiates the imagination as much as the seen. In addition, Gilpin suggests picturesque tourists with an artistic drift should side-step exact copy and statement christianity, superinduce through the imagination and awareness of picturesque aesthetics: in a sense, the tableau should improve upon nature’s raw material.
Hiking the lower lake of Buttermere, for example, Gilpin says: “Nothing is against studying wanting but a little more wood, to make this lake, and the vale in which it lies, a very enchanting scene”( Observations , 3). Although instances such as this provide fodder for scholars hungry to highlight the absurdity of the Picturesque vision, where actual landscape is compared with ideal landscape painting, the thesis statement methodology actually involves processing nature through artistic sensibility. Indeed, such comments reveal the Claudian concept of ideal landscape to be never further than the next hill. Heading towards Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Except the mountains, nothing in all this scenery is great ; but every part is filled with the sweet engaging passages of nature” ( Observations , 8). Here, “passages” suggests poetry—indeed, several lines of verse follow—and Gilpin, despite his acute sense of the visual, infers that landscape, painting and poetry are all, deucedly and inextricably, mixed.
Published in 1792, it pre-dates Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads by ronald reagan good essay six years and the poet’s own Guide to the Lakes by statement christianity eighteen. Gilpin, as a clergyman, was naturally concerned the regarding the importance of education amorality of the Picturesque. Christianity? Davies, in forbidding an exhibition of ignorance and forgetfulness, quotes Gilpin’s comment on the lakeland shepherd: “But the life of the shepherd, in this country, is thesis statement christianity not an Arcadian life. His occupation subjects him to many difficulties . For And Against Essay Studying? . .” (qtd. Davies, 228), subsequently suggesting he afforded no interest in the people who live in statement christianity landscape! In fact, Gilpin, as we shall see, was personally concerned with the well-being of country people and reagan essay, openly acknowledged that the Picturesque stood outside ethical concerns: In a moral light, cultivation, in all its parts, is pleasing; the hedge and statement beowulf christianity, furrow, the forbidding waving corn field, and rows of ripened Sheaves. But all these, the Picturesque eye, in quest of scenes of grandeur, and beauty, looks as with disgust . . . thus the lazy cow herd, resting on his pole; or the peasant lolling on a rock, may be allowed in the grandest scenes; while the laborous mechanic, with his implements of labour, would be repulsed.” ( Observations, Cumberland , 45) This then is the thesis Picturesque, not Gilpin himself. Gilpin, a school-master, required years of persuasion from friends before agreeing to publish his manuscripts. Against Studying? Subsequent royalties funded a school, “to remedy the conditions of ignorance and squalor” (Manwaring, 184) founded within the boundaries of his rural parish.
In contrasting urban and rural life, picturesque representations inadvertently suggested a conflict between the reality of children's lives and projected adult attitudes. Many such pictures—including Thomas Gainsborough's cottage series—share a romanticised notion of the countryside as an beowulf christianity innocent, idyllic environment. Sir Gawain Critical? While presenting children in tattered clothing, the effect is picturesque rather than moral. The very same, of course, can be said of much romantic poetry. Thesis Christianity? Gilpin, often the dessertation object of narrow-view animadversion, not only recognises the problem but selflessly provides some correction. Despite Gilpin's rule and dogma—measure for measure no more insidious than a modern “How-To” book—his Picturesque views display a diversity to which the satirists were forced to turn a blind eye; an acknowledgement that is as much in accord with romantic contemplation as Picturesque investigation. From 1768 onwards, Gilpin undertook full many provincial journeys in thesis statement beowulf search of the Picturesque, producing a series of illustrated guide books which often suggested specific “stations”—places providing ideal perspective of picturesque vistas. These guides, including Wye and South Wales (1782) and the Lake District (1789), were paramount in the popularisation of the Picturesque as a means of viewing nature and are, of themselves, indicative of the popularity of picturesque tourism. As Watkin suggests, “Gilpin’s numerous topographical books were essentially a preparation for intelligent critical visiting, for the Picturesque presupposes a society which was interested in nature and in art and, above all, in travelling (vii). In conclusion, Gilpin's introduction to Essays provides the following clarification which modern critics might gainfully peruse: . . The Importance Of Education? . Thesis Beowulf? we picturesque people are a little misunderstood with regard to our general intention . I have several times been surprised at finding us represented, as supposing all beauty to consist in picturesque beauty —and the face of nature to be examined only by the rules of painting. For And Against Studying? Whereas, in fact, we always speak a different language.
We speak of the grand scenes of nature, though interesting in a picturesque light , as having a strong effect upon the imagination . . . we everywhere make distinctions between scenes, that are beautiful , and amusing , and christianity, scenes that are picturesque. ( i-ii) Followers of the a valediction forbidding Picturesque—and their numbers were legion—were concerned with a general appreciation of landscape and nature, though particularly those scenes formed of picturesque elements. Thesis Statement Christianity? The Picturesque scene was of more intense interest to painters, poets and travellers for the simple reason that the Picturesque scene is dessertation meaning a scene more intense in thesis christianity its capacity to provoke and induce reflection. And finally, Gilpin offers a warning: Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers,
Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign. Great archetype in all. ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30) Uvedale Price (1747-1829) This capacity to mba essay books provoke is an essential element in the theories of Uvedale Price. Like Gilpin, Price adopts Burke's analysis of beauty: uniformity of surface, gradual variation and thesis beowulf, so on; as well as Gilpin's own analysis of picturesqueness: roughness, sudden variation, irregularity etc. Regarding? Price, however, takes exception to pictorially-based definition, suggesting that the Picturesque is related to thesis statement painting only accidentally: That term, as we may judge from its etymology, is applied only to objects of a valediction forbidding mourning thesis sight; and, indeed, in so confined a manner as to be supposed merely to have a reference to the art from which it is named. I am well convinced however, that the name and reference only are limited and uncertain, and that the qualities which make objects picturesque, are not only as distinct as those which make them beautiful or sublime, but are equally extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received; and statement beowulf, that music—though it appears like a solecism—may be as truly picturesque, according to the general principles of picturesqueness, as it may be beautiful or sublime, according to those of beauty or sublimity. ( On the Picturesque , 79-80) Price also states: “Whoever studies art alone, will have a narrow pedantic manner of considering all objects” (3), stressing the for and importance also of thesis statement beowulf “the mistress of all art” (4), Nature herself.
Price is here drawing attention to the ocular bias of William Payne Knight—introduced below—as part and parcel of ronald reagan essay a protracted debate. Strange then that Davies should insist that for Gilpin landscape’s “appeal is to the eye . Beowulf Christianity? . . only through the eye” (230). Heretically, in a topsy-turvey turn around and the importance, about Ullswater, Gilpin’s mentions the music of the winds and tempest, “the echoes excited . . . in different parts of [the] lake” ( Observations, Cumberland , 59). In addition, he tells the tale of the Duke of Portland, who owned a vessel fitted with brass cannons designed for the purpose of producing echoes. “Such a variety,” he suggests, “of awful sounds, mixing and beowulf christianity, commixing, and at against, the same moment heard from all sides, have a wonderful effect on the mind” ( Observations, Cumberland, 61). Another example of the auditory factor in the picturesque is Hagley, Lord Lyttelton’s estate, the locale in which Thomson revised and rewrote The Seasons which, besides the artificial ruins, featured a stream carefully designed for maximum gurgleability. Price seeks to take something of the statement picture from Picturesque, considering it a new category of aesthetic values added to Burke's beautiful and sublime.
. . . A Valediction? picturesqueness appears to hold a station between beauty and sublimity; and, on that count, perhaps, is more frequently, and more happily blended with them both, than they are with each other. Thesis Statement Beowulf? It is, however, perfectly distinct from either. Beauty and picturesqueness are indeed evidently founded on very opposite for and against essay qualities; the thesis statement one on mba essay books, smoothness, the thesis beowulf christianity other on roughness; the one on gradual, the other on sudden variation; the one on ideas of youth and mba essay books, freshness, the statement beowulf other on those of dessertation age, and christianity, even of decay. ( On the Picturesque , 90) Again, this is only a modification—an engradisement—of Gilpin. Unlike Gilpin’s nation-wide pursuit of the Picturesque, Price concentrated his aesthetic energies upon the picturesqueification of manor gardens; and it is here that the two part company. In fact, it was William Kent, painter, architect and factotum of the Earl of Burlington, who led the revolt against the artificial symmetry of gardens, (see figure 5 ), modifying, in 1734, the for and essay studying gardens at Chiswick House with a meandering stream and an irregular path. Price adopted Kent's early ideas and developed a more expansive theory of picturesque landscaping, arguing in On the Picturesque (1794), that gardens should imitate landscape paintings and that the gardener and statement beowulf christianity, painter each aspire to the improvement of dessertation nature—again, the familiar idea of Nature as archetype which might be improved through art. Though inspired by thesis statement christianity Claude and Salvator, Price also aspired, as suggested above, towards the guiding hand of raw nature and offered pragmatic suggestions of essays picturesque effects landowners might attempt.
Unfortunately, Price’s own effect over actual landscapes was severely limited by the very nature of thesis statement beowulf christianity his improvements, many of which required decades to reach full decay. If the patrician Price failed to effect solid change in the English manor landscape, he nevertheless bequeathed a more ironic and widespread legacy: just as “the picturesque sketch promoted naturalism in landscape painting” (Bermingham, 67), Price’s notions fostered a new naturalism in gardening—advocating the wild, the dramatic, the “accident” of nature: a withered tree, a half-submerged branch breaking the surface of a pool—and continued the forbidding democratisation of the Picturesque aesthetic. Condemned by some contemporaries for taking wildness too far, Price ultimately won a vox populi approval. Indeed, the beowulf christianity art of picturesque gardening was soon exported: “. . Reagan Good? . the continent, about 1770, began to adopt widely the English . . . fashion; and works in French and Italian were added to the copious literature of landscape gardening” (Manwaring, 121). The clash between aesthetic and utility—essentially the moral dimension—was particularly trenchant for Price, whose expertise was firmly fixed in the land itself.
In reference to thatched cottages, for example, he suggests: “It is no less picturesque, when mossy, ragged, and sunk in among the rafters in decay; a species of that character, however, which the keenest lover of it would rather see on another's property than on his own” ( On the Picturesque , 398). To this, the statement beowulf zealous and sometimes verbose editor of the sir gawain critical 1842 edition interpolates: I confess, that after considerable experience, I have been completely cured of my romantic attachment to thatch. If the roof of a cottage be well formed, and well projected, so as to throw a deep shadow over christianity the wall beneath it, I do not conceive that it will be necessary to thatch it, in for and essay studying abroad order to add to its picturesque effect, at the risk of beowulf diminishing the comfort of the poor inmates. Sir Gawain Essays? (398) Price the gentleman farmer, occupied with increased production and the maximisation of land use, appears, Ann Bermingham points out, as something of a contradiction to Price the statement christianity promoter of picturesque aesthetics, biased towards the nostalgic, the antiquated, the rustic, the dilapidated and the inefficient. The contradiction though seems somewhat delusive and is perhaps suggestive of the transformation of the paternal landlord-tenant relationship, with the picturesque manor garden now forming a physical boundary between aesthetic and productive nature.
Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824) Richard Payne Knight, who owned the forbidding mourning thesis most valuable collection of Claudes in Europe and whose interests were eclectic,  provides still another perspective. In, The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in Three Books , he refutes compositional analysis, instead seeing art as a “magic power”(8) which defies analysis and rule: Curse on christianity, the pedant jargon, that defines. Beauty's unbounded forms to given lines!
With scorn eternal mark the cautious fool. Who dares not judge till he consults his rule! Or when, Salvator from thy daring hand. Appears, in burnished arms, some savage band,— Each figure boldly pressing into mba essay books, life, And breathing blood, calamity, and strife, Should cold measure each component part. And judge thy genius by a surgeons art. Thesis Statement Christianity? (6-7) Knight also disagrees with Price’s multi-sensory theory, believing that the Picturesque “is merely that kind of beauty which belongs exclusively to the sense of vision; or to the imagination guided by that sense”  ( On the Picturesque , 500). Knight provides a curious blend of neo-classical—with his didactic poem festooned in rhyming couplets and his notions of “taste”—and romantic, a clear sign of the transition underway:
Such too the the importance Sicyonian sculptor taught. To model motion, and thesis beowulf, embody thought; Pure abstract beauty's fleeting shades to trace. And fix the image of ideal grace: Combining what he felt with what he saw. (5-6) Besides his emphasis upon “feeling” in the almost magical and almost irrational production of art, Knight points towards the dangers of fashion: Straight lines were the fashion of the last century, and the curved ones are the fashion of this, and an indiscriminate adherence to the fashion of the day, what ever it happens to be, with a supercilious contempt for all who venture to dissent from it, is the never failing characteristic of the vanity, separated from the feeling, or discernment, of taste. The advocate for the curve lines would have been as much ridiculed in ronald good president the last century as the advocate for straight ones in this; and with equal reason; for the indiscriminate use of either is equally bad. Many of the statement beowulf christianity compositions of dessertation Nicholas Poussin show the grand effect which may be produced by the judicious use of straight lines. but the too general use of them was still more fatal to thesis statement beowulf picturesque beauty, than the late senseless destruction of them has been.
It belongs to the real improver to discriminate where the straight, and where the curve line will best suit the composition; and it is a valediction mourning thesis this talent of discrimination which distinguishes the liberal artist from the statement beowulf christianity mechanic. (fn 11) Here, “faddish” (Brownlow, 43) modern appraisals typified also by the “vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33) are clearly drawn and quartered by Knight’s properly considered execution of Picturesque principles which supersede transient newfangledness and commemorate the sir gawain critical sempiternal. Knight's fixation upon “taste,” and “discrimination,” are reminiscent of the superciliousness of statement a Pope or a Swift, though his distinction between the mechanic and thesis, liberal artist—one who follows no rules besides those which the beowulf christianity magic spirit of art suggests—offers a place within the for and against essay studying romantic arena. Knight, like Price, was accused of wild neglect in his landscape theories: an indication indeed of the distance separating the new naturalism from the statement beowulf old neo-classicism. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, Knight insists that the transplanting and mimicking of essay regarding Italian landscape—both real or painted—should finally be abandoned in preference to compositions which adopt Picturesque principles and native scenes:
Nor, plac’d beneath our cool and wat’ry sky. Attempt the statement christianity glowing tints of regarding of education Italy: For thus compell’d in beowulf christianity mem’ry to confide, Or blindly follow some preceding guide, One common track it still pursues, And crudely copies what it never views . . . . (309-314)
The work of Price and Knight, though perhaps less interesting a read than Gilpin, augmented the Picturesque phenomenon to a point where it was not only the talk of the town but of the estate and village. Watson’s assessment that “it is difficult to critical regard it as much more than a sterile ending,” (21) reveals perhaps a certain sterility in his own point of view rather than providing any useful conclusion. Lancelot Brown (1716-83) Lancelot “Capability” Brown, though embroiled in the Picturesque debate, essentially helped define the Picturesque by negation: Brownian improvement replaced the artificiality of neo-classical landscape gardens with a new artificiality based either upon Burke’s principles of beauty or Brown’s singular notions born orphan and condemned to permanent infancy. Fundamentally, Brown’s style, though claiming nature as its inspiration, was no less unnatural than, for example, Knole, Nymphenburg or Le Notre's Versailles. If the “improvements” of Price and Knight might take decades to develop, the thesis beowulf christianity bumbling “Capability” Brown provided expeditious transformations priced by the yard and complete the day after tomorrow. Gilpin himself comments upon mba essay books this: This is the first subject of the kind he [Brown] has attempted . . . but a ruin presents a new idea; which I doubt whether he has sufficiently considered . . Thesis Beowulf Christianity? . [His lake] is too magnificent, and too artificial an appendage, to be in unison with the ruins of an abbey. An abbey, it is mba essay books true, may stand by the side of a lake; and it is possible that this lake may, in some future time, become its situation; when the marks of the spade and the pick-axe are removed,—when its osiers flourish; and its naked banks become fringed and covered with wood . . . the ruin stands now on statement beowulf christianity, a neat bowling-green like a house just built, and without any kind of connection with the ground it stands on. (qtd. Mba Essay Books? Watkin, 48)
Brown designed his landscapes according to his own simple understanding of nature's harmonies and gradients, featuring vast expanses of grass, irregularly shaped bodies of water, and clumpified tree groupings. As a consequence, Brown eventually became the thesis beowulf object of a valediction thesis general ridicule: On one occasion Owen Cambridge remarked, “I wish I may die before you, Mr. Brown.” “Why so?” inquired the puzzled but flattered Brown. Statement? “Because,” came the reply, “I should like to good president see heaven before you have improved it.” (qtd. Hussey, 139) Brown clearly and entirely personified the beowulf halting and maladroit neo-classical Picturesque, an awkward attempt to plant a round tree in a square hole; and the importance of education, his importance stems partly from the middleground his improvements occupied, and thesis beowulf, partly from the antithetical virtue of something which is not providing a point of reference to forbidding thesis something which is. The Philosophical Context. The Grand Tour, the importation of souvenir landscape paintings and the increasingly popular provincial trips provide the foundation for all this Picturesque inquiry; but there was additionally a general philosophical investigation which offered a provocative and conducive milieu. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) equated God with the natural order of the world; Wilhelm Wackenroder's Effusions of an Art-Loving Friar (1773-1798) proposed the existence of thesis christianity two Divine languages, the first reserved for solely for God, the second composed of two components: Nature and essay regarding the importance of education, Art—a kind of bilingualism for the unilingual. Together, these ideas brought some balance to the traditional Christian bias against thesis statement christianity, nature. Most important was Burke’s (1729-1797) aforementioned theory of the sublime: the ultimate experience of divinity, composed of awe, fear and enlightenment, and produced by a valediction mourning the contemplation of potent and alarming nature.
The effect of visible objects on thesis statement beowulf, the passions, clearly, is not only the concern of Burke, but lies at the heart also of Picturesque theory. In effect, these philosophical theories began either to intellectualise landscape and nature—a process continued by the Picturesque school, which allowed a less restricted participation—or attached to it theological importance (see figure 6) where once was seen irreverence. Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), for example, exhibited Cross in the Mountains in 1808: a landscape intended as an mourning altarpiece for thesis statement, a private chapel. Regarding The Importance Of Education? Critics initially condemned this as sacrilegious. Friedrich's own interpretation of the picture identified the natural images as symbols for religious beliefs: “The Cross stands erected on a rock unshakeably firm as our faith in Jesus Christ. Evergreen, enduring through all ages, the firs stand round the cross, like the hope of mankind in thesis statement Him”( Encyclopaedia Britannica ). Landscape and landscape paintings, through these developments, were deemed to be intellectually and religiously interesting and ronald good, thus offered a respectability previously unknown. Importantly, the religious angle provided only an initial entry point in what was finally to thesis become an amoral and secular aesthetic. Returning to essays the properly Picturesque, Thomas West’s Guide to the Lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire , first published in statement christianity 1778, displays the religious overtones of landscape within the context of the urban/rural dichotomy: Such as spend their lives in cities, and the importance, their time in crouds will here meet with objects that will enlarge the mind, by contemplation, and raise it from nature to nature’s first cause. Whoever takes a walk into these scenes must return penetrated with a sense of the christianity creator’s power in meaning heaping mountains upon mountains, and enthroning rocks upon rocks. And such exhibitions of sublime and beautiful objects cannot but excite at once both rapture and reverence. (4)
Although religion, ultimately, would be banished from the Picturesque scene, initially such inclusion provided justification and thesis beowulf christianity, absolution for the new focus on landscape. Within the forbidding mourning thesis larger context, the developing interest in landscape painting and landscape itself comes as no surprise and the romantic school of poetry was essentially a natural progression as inevitable as the wooded shadows cast by a brilliant dawn. Landscape Painters Autochtonous. As we have seen, the appreciation of landscape was one which required learning, and it was through landscape painting and statement, painters that this skill was initially acquired. Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88) Thomas Gainsborough, perhaps the earliest and certainly most highly regarded pioneer of picturesque English landscape painting, emerged as.
the most significant landscape painter of the century. Whereas the work of Wilson, the for and “English Claude,” could be accommodated within the familiar art-history tradition of landscape painting, Gainsborough’s art inspired insights that ran counter to the academic notions of thesis christianity paintings. . . . (Bermingham, 58) Gainsborough “gave landscape the status of mba essay books pure painting: private, personal” (Bermingham 43). Rejecting portraiture, with its congenital mandate for poetic license, conjured to placate a patron, rather than artistic integrity, Gainsborough believed that the material of landscape allowed “. . Beowulf Christianity? . the artist freely to mba essay books exercise his imagination” (Bermingham 44). In his later work, Gainsborough offered ever more subjective and sentimental subjects: the cottage, the sublimity of sea, of statement christianity mountain, and the innocence of children, each finding a correspondence in essay studying such poems as Wordsworth’s “The Ruined Cottage,” “Ode: Intimations of Immortality,” “Farewell though little Nook of mountain ground” and “We Are Seven.” In the thesis statement beowulf decades after his death in ronald reagan good president 1788, a veritable inversion of taste had occurred, with critics and sensible folk alike increasingly praising landscape over portraits. Gainsborough rejected predefined artistic traditions, embraced English rural subject matter as “a direct response to nature” (Bermingham 58), and established an affinity with the Picturesque well beyond that of either Claude or Salvator. If, as Hussey suggests, Claude, Salvator and others caused a revolution in the appreciation of thesis beowulf scenery and against essay, nature, then Gainsborough landed that rebellion on the home front, adopting English countryside and scenes with a subjective reconnaissance which sought to christianity discover their innate truth. J M W Turner (1775-1851) Joseph Mallord William Turner was principally influenced by Claude, and so, not surprisingly, painted a host of mba essay books picturesque scenes whose mythological and historical subjects are guaranteed to statement christianity warm even the coldest cockles of the neo-classicist: Dido Building Carthage , The Bay of Baiae with Apollo and the Sibyl and Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus , to name only a few.
And yet the subjects themselves tell only half the story, for these were indeed Picturesque canvases with atmospheric effects suggestive of Claude (see figure 7) and foreshadowing impressionistic treatment. Turner then demonstrates the tenacity of neo-classical material in paintings; but also the movement towards a more individual and romantic approach: in place of mere factual recording, Turner translated scenes into mba essay books, a light-filled expression of thesis statement christianity his own romantic outlook. Other paintings, like Buttermere Lake: A Shower , from around 1798, as well as Turner’s extensive touring of England and Scotland during the same period, show a sensitivity to the nationalistic climate inherent in the Picturesque movement. Turner, like Salvator, was himself something of a romantic figure: claiming no close friends, painting in absolute privacy, spending months in solitude and a valediction forbidding mourning, always travelling alone. When persuaded to sell his paintings, Turner suffered days of dejection. Finally, Turner left a large fortune which he hoped would support what he called “decaying artists”—a picturesque appellation if ever there was one.
What makes Turner particularly interesting is his treatment of the sublime and its Picturesque ramifications. Thesis Statement? John Ruskin has a unique and essays, convincing view of this which explains the strength of the thesis statement beowulf christianity Picturesque and partly —infinitesimally—accounts for essay the importance of education, the modern literary bias: . . . if this outward sublimity be sought for by the painter, without any regard for the real nature of the beowulf thing, and without any comprehension of the pathos of character hidden beneath, it forms the low school of the surface-picturesque; that which fills ordinary drawing-books and scrap-books, and employs, perhaps, the essay the importance of education most popular living landscape painters of christianity France, England, and meaning, Germany. But if these same outward characters be sought for in subordination to the inner character of the thesis statement beowulf object, every source of pleasurableness being refused which is essay studying abroad incompatible with that, while perfect sympathy is thesis statement beowulf christianity felt at the same time with the object as to all that it tells of itself in those sorrowful by-words, we have the school of true or noble picturesque. To extend this analysis, it is an acute sympathy which separates middling artists of the Picturesque from the Turners and ronald good president, the Wordsworths; it is, to adopt Ruskin’s terminology, the difference between high and low Picturesque. Although Turner— unlike Wordsworth—employed both sketches and memory, a similar temporal distancing from subject is common to thesis their respective methodologies: The sketch which Turner used as the for and against basis for his drawing of Louth, Lincolnshire , a drawing that dates from thesis beowulf christianity sometime in 1827-8, was made thirty years earlier, in 1797. As will become increasingly obvious, painting and dessertation, literature are indeed sister arts and their practitioners intimately related. (Shanes, 20) John Constable (1776-1837)
John Constable was born and bred in beowulf rural England and his bond to the countryside was life long and reverential. No other painter of the period imbued such a sense of self in his work, calling his sketchbooks “journals”—complete with their autobiographical annotations—and stating, surely with a nod of approval from Wordsworth: “I am fond of a valediction forbidding being an Egoist in whatever relates to painting” (qtd. Bermingham, 87). His earliest works were venerational sketches in the style of Gainsborough; and, though never abandoning Picturesque theory, Constable appropriated its many exigencies and eventually made them componential to the dictates of his own. Initially, then, the Picturesque afforded Constable an beowulf aesthetic perspective whose ideological bias coincided at many points with his own rejection of commercial values as shared by his family. Furthermore, the regarding of education Picturesque focus on the specific appearances of objects and the power of these appearances to christianity evoke strong imaginative associations encouraged Constable’s own propensity to infuse particular views and objects with affective significance. (Bermingham, 113-114) Perhaps the most striking aspect—at least to the literary minded—of Constable’s stylistic development involves his new conception of nature with its emphasis upon specific and individual elements which undermine traditional hierarchical landscape composition. Discussing Dedham Vale: Morning , Bermingham states: . . . the eye cannot trace a pedestrian itinerary; it focuses on charged spots—the figures, the tall golden trees, the white church, the post in the left foreground. . . . [It is this] profusion of dialectically charged spots [that] organises Constables landscapes. (123) Besides these spots of composition, Constable, in the frontispiece of English Landscape Scenery , supplies an archetype for his work in general: This spot saw the day-spring of my life, Hours of Joy and years of Happiness; This place first tinged my boyish fancy with a love of the Art,
This place was the origin of my fame. (qtd. Bermingham, 125) The obvious and unavoidable correspondence with Wordsworth’s “spots in time” is further augmented by Constable’s use of recollection: Flatford Mill from the Lock , as a case in point, is a composite canvas composed of five prefatory and much studied sketches, and features five charged spots—focal points of interest—copied from president essay their respective points in thesis beowulf christianity the sketches. The final choice of perspective and arrangement is suggested by Constable in mba essay books a letter to thesis his wife: “I have tried Flatford Mill again, from the lock (whence you once made a drawing)” (qtd. Bermingham, 131). Essay The Importance? The lock and its view, as we see, are associated with his wife, and the final composition is thesis statement beowulf christianity imbued with the emotions stirred by his memories of that moment and essays, of imaginings, of retrospection: “. . . what he experienced remembering with what she had experienced in the process of drawing” (Bermingham 132); a fusion of past and present. We should deduce no direct philosophical or methodological imitation from either Constable or Wordsworth—though each was intimately acquainted with the other’s work—but rather recognise that both responded to the spirit of the times, inheriting a still viable Picturesque aesthetic, assimilating its imperatives and making egotistical innovation their own underlying principle. If we accept for statement christianity, the moment that the romantic movement came not as a miraculous gift from a prophetic Wordsworth tired of rhyming his couplets and poeticising his passages, but as a result of processes already under way; similarly, the Picturesque itself developed through gradual shifts in against abroad the philosophical mind and artistic mix. Figure 1: Claude, Pastoral Landscape With the Pointe Molle, from Bicknell. Figure 2: Earlom, from beowulf christianity Bicknell. Figure 3: William Westall (1781-1850) View of the caves near Gordale Scar, Yorkshire from Bick nell. “Of all the scenes regularly visited by travellers in dessertation search of the Picturesque, Gordale Scar most vividly evoked Salvator” (Bicknel, 72).
Figure 4: Gilpin, Number 18, from Bicknell. Figure 5: Garden Plan, from Manwaring. Figure 6: Marco Ricci (1679-1729), Classical landscape with a traveller and two figures kneeling before a cross, from Bicknell. Figure 7: Turner, Caernarvon Castle (1799) Claudeian influence. Moving from Picturesque affects to effects: as fundamental to literature as to the way we presently evaluate and relate to landscape scenes, the holidays and pictures we take, the rural dreams we dream. Continuing the supposition that the Picturesque was no mere fad, this section will detail the transition from literature’s traditional view of beowulf landscape shortly before and during the Augustan reign to for and essay one which gradually accommodates Picturesque learning and issues in christianity the sovereign Nature of the romantics. The movement from essay abroad neo-classicism to romanticism was not so much a break as a gradual changing of the guard, until finally the palace itself stood vacant and the Greco-Roman soldiers sent a-packing. Beowulf Christianity? Just as Sir Isaac Newton—for all his cosmic reconstruction—quietly maintained traditional beliefs, writing a commentary on the Book of Revelations which flabbergasted his scientific admirers, so too the Picturesque prebendaries provided token offerings to the ancient classical gods. William Gilpin himself reveals this tentation, offers these offerings, in his definitions of picturesque, occasionally comparing picturesque roughness with classical depictions: Virgil’s Venus, with hair dissundere ventis , Homer’s rugged Jupiter. The strain of discovering the Picturesque in the classics is injurious both to Picturesque theory and to the authors themselves, though the omnipresence and potency of dessertation Augustan authority and prestige during the eighteenth century essentially made necessity of inanity.
In addition, Gilpin sometimes uses Virgilian quotations to describe English scenery; and in Observations even suggests that Virgil was a great master of landscape. Christianity? From this, Hugh Sykes Davies—perhaps the most Boeotian of the importance modern critics—understands the thesis statement Picturesque to be a “revived Augustan attitude to Nature” (248)—a particularly unique and outlandish notion which defies both the evidence of art and literature. Indeed, David Watkin makes this absurdity clear: Carroll Meeks showed in 1957  how each of the five principles of the Picturesque—variety, movement, irregularity, intricacy and roughness—is respectively echoed in mba essay books the characteristics of Baroque as defined by Heinrich Wolfflin (1864-1945): painterly, recession, open, unity and beowulf, unclearness. In Wolfflin’s visual system of analysis, which in itself could be seen as a legacy of the essay regarding the importance of education Picturesque, these characteristics were identified as the opposite of those of Classic Art: namely linear, plane, closed, multiplicity and clearness. (x)
Section one provided some hint of the amorality that marks the Picturesque school. It is thesis christianity this very fact which provides and another important distinction between the Picturesque and mba essay books, neo-classicism. In Gilpin’s Dialogue upon the Gardens at Stowe , two visitors discuss the merits of a ruinous hermitage. Statement Christianity? The first is puzzled “why we are more taken with a prospect of this ruinous kind, than with views of Plenty and Prosperity in their greatest Perfection.” (5) The second responds: Yes: but cannot you make a distinction between natural and moral Beauties? Our social Affections undoubtedly find their Enjoyment the most complete when they contemplate, a Country smiling in the midst of essay regarding Plenty, where Houses are well-built, Plantations regular, and everything the most commodious and useful. But such Regularity and Exactness excites no manner of Pleasure in the Imagination, unless they are made use of to thesis statement beowulf christianity contrast with something of an opposite kind. (5) Malcolm Andrews contextualises such differentiations: “. . . the distinction between natural and moral beauty would have made most Augustans very uneasy, so clearly does it fly in the face of cherished neo-classical values, where physical beauty is seen as the expression of moral beauty” (48). In terms more specifically concerned with the development of the against abroad Picturesque and romantic poetry, Brownlow makes a similar point: “They [neo-classicists] took it as axiomatic that the training of the eye was a moral activity, in that a properly conceived, and perceived, landscape or garden was an emblem of order . . Statement Christianity? . in the state, the mind, the soul, and dessertation, the emotions” (15).
The influence of the Picturesque in France stands as further testament: there the impact was particularly striking for “it conflicted with the rationalist trend of statement architectural theory which survived from the late seventeenth into the early twentieth century” (Watkin, 161). Eighteenth century neo-classical and Picturesque correlations, like those of Gilpin, which are, at best, spurious, are further explained, firstly, by some degree of pedantry; secondly, intellectual name-dropping, offering assent through association; and thirdly, and reagan good president, most particularly, the tremendous difficulties involved in thesis christianity developing an aesthetic outside the ubiquitous and intrinsically disdainful neo-classical confines. The Picturesque then, saw its earliest lines of for and essay delineation drawn during the Augustan heyday. Augustans’ adoption of the Picturesque was initially obvious: with the works of Claude increasingly in beowulf christianity vogue, his idyllic and thesis, nostalgic landscapes of statement lost classical splendour were understandably and generally embraced. Dessertation Meaning? Indeed, the historical/classical narrative in Claude’s paintings was comfortably accommodating to neo-classicists and offered—as was the case with religious allusion—a license of statement beowulf interest in what was actually a novel, non-classical, non-traditional genre. The Picturesque Path  The attendant problem in viewing pre-picturesque poets through the for and filter of this thesis is thesis actually the point: landscape in literature, until the early eighteenth century, is dessertation conspicuous either by its absence, rarity, or treatment. As mentioned in christianity Section One, just as landscape in sir gawain critical painting initially existed largely as a backdrop to human drama, similarly, in literature, it functioned as a symbol of or allusion to grander to more “worthy” conceptions. Ben Jonson (1572/3-1637)
Ben Jonson’s “To Penshurst” (1616) is an interesting case in point: cutting the first turf in a sub-genre celebrating a specific locale, its treatment of landscape is exactly as we would expect, which is to say, exactly as this thesis anticipates. Penshurst, the country seat of the Sidney family (Sir Philip being the most familiar) is described by Jonson in a most particular manner: after a brief preamble describing the manor’s modest facade, the poem turns to the surrounding gardens, where “Thou hast thy walks for health, as well as sport” (9)—though notably not for any aesthetic value; where, not surprisingly, Pan and Bacchus drop in for a famous feast; and where every element of beowulf this topography reads like a catalogue of ownership, the ledger of a steward rather than a poetic eulogy or a laudation of landscape. “That taller tree, which of a nut was set / At his great birth, where all the Muses met” (13-14), initially provides a symbolic marking of Sir Phillip’s birth, soon inscribed—“There in the writhed bark are cut the names / Of many a sylvan” (15-16)—with the scrawl of lovers re-scrawled as the meaning initials of fabled wood deities. The oak stands not as a tree valued for thesis christianity, its majestic treeness, but as an emblem marking the consequence of its wealthy owner; and, to for and against abroad pursue this branch to its limit, acting as a veritable Zeitgeist . “Thy copse, too, named of Gamage, thou hast there, / That never fails to serve thee seasoned deer” (19-20), strengthens the notion of ownership through nomenclature and introduces the main theme: nature not as objet d’art but as morsels of existentialistic meat, the ingredients of art culinaire . Thesis Statement? Accordingly, in this Edenic garden, with land-owner seated not as Adam but standing as God, “The painted partridge lies in every field, / And, for thy mess, is willing to be killed” (29-30); and “Fat, aged carps, that run into thy net, / Bright eels that emulate them, and leap on land / Before the fisher, or into studying abroad, his hand” (33-35). Statement? Of course, all this is very pragmatic and moral, supporting the the importance of education pillars of establishment and legitimate dominion in a manner suggestive of Elizabethan hierarchy. It will be some time before the stability of the oak and thesis beowulf, pillars becomes, instead, the stuff of aesthetics. John Denham (1615-69) Sir John Denham, in Cooper’s Hill (1642), composed one of the earliest and particularly influential topographical poems. Typically, it mixes natural descriptions with moral. Here, for example, the two are intercoursed: Though with those streams he no resemblance hold,
Whose foam is amber and regarding, their gravel gold; His genuine and less guilty wealth t' explore, Search not his bottom, but survey his shore. (165-168) The incorporation of thesis christianity historical and political reflections, besides foreshadowing Pope—specifically Windsor Forest —highlight a landscape invisible without the filter of man’s works. Interestingly, ironically, use of the essay regarding the importance of education heroic couplet marks the transition from metaphysicals to neo-classicism in much the same way that Thomson’s The Seasons foreshadows romanticism. John Hughes 1677-? John Hughes, with a lifelong interest in graphic art, is one of several lesser poets whose attempts at thesis statement beowulf christianity, landscape poetry predates the more familiar and famous. Dessertation Meaning? His Court of Neptune (1700) describes “Landscapes of rising Mountains, shaggy Woods, / Green Valleys, smiling Meadows, silver Floods, / And Plains with lowring Herds enrich’d around” (qtd, Manwaring, 96). Obviously, this pre-Picturesque period, still lacking any landscape aesthetic, is statement beowulf incapable of providing any genuine pictorial perspective.
Nevertheless, Hughes’ introduction to Poetical Works offers an interesting observation: “There are no parts in a poem which strike the generality of readers with so much pleasure as Description” (xxxxv). Regarding? Poems like “The Picture,” features an beowulf christianity original collecting of hues from essay abroad nature: Queen of fancy hither bring. So from ev’ry flow’r and plant. Gather first the immortal paint. Fetch me lilies, fetch me roses. (7-14)
The poem is delightful not only for its originality, but for the genuine poetic sensibility. Finally, however, all this pigment is to paint a portrait of Venus. “Greenwich Park,” despite the hopefulness of its title, inevitably becomes nothing more than a background for thesis christianity, parading and prancing nymphs, Cupid, Mira and various embodiments of beauty: a landscape reflecting classicism and finally fading into sir gawain critical essays, aesthetic oblivion while all the radiance that remains is human. Statement? Poems like “The triumph of peace occasioned by the peace of meaning Ryswich 1697” and “The court of Neptune on King William’s return from Holland 1699,” surprisingly do contain landscape elements, though again only as a history painting-like background. Only the subject itself of To Mr. Constantine, on His Paintings makes true landscape fleetingly possible:
Here tufted Groves rise boldly to the Sky, There Spacious Lawns more distant charms the Eye, The Crystal Lakes, in Borrow’d Tinctures shine. And misty Hills the far Horizon join, Lost in the azure of thesis statement beowulf Borders of the Day,
Like Sounds remote that die in critical Air away. (qtd, Manwaring, 96) Conventionally a cardinal artistic sin, this copy of copy surprisingly exhibits particular merit, not only for the avant-garde Picturesque elements—William Kent’s 1709 Memorandum, after all, appears now on the horizon—but with the “borrowing” from one state of reality to another and the canvas’ frame providing closure to the day. Nevertheless, any systematic rendition of landscape is, at this time, possible only by imitation not of nature—nor indeed Nature—but of a landscape canvas. The Picturesque Convergence. Alexander Pope (1688-1744), writing during and even dabbling in the development of Picturesque theories, enters the literary pantheon during this transitional period and consequently demands significant attention. In fact, as will become apparent, the Augustan embrace of the Picturesque was one without much feeling, attachment, sincerity and without much conviction.
Pope was connected with the earliest picturesque efforts: one of the first romantic mediaevalisations, built at thesis statement beowulf, Cirencester Park, Gloucestershire. Known as Alfred's Hall, it was begun in 1721 for the first Earl of Bathurst. In 1732 Bathurst wrote to Pope: “I have almost finished my hermitage in mba essay books the wood, and it is better than you can imagine . Thesis Statement Christianity? . . I will venture to assert that all Europe cannot show such a pretty little plain work in the Brobdingnag style as what I have executed here” (qtd. Watkin, 45). This plain structure eventually became, with Pope's advice and assistance, a venerable castle and mock ruin. In addition, Pope’s Moral Essays , “Epistle IV” offers some promising notions of picturesque landscape gardening, with both Nature and a valediction mourning thesis, painting offered as inspiration and methodology. Thesis Beowulf Christianity? This leads J. R. Regarding The Importance Of Education? Watson to suggest: “The gardener’s task was now to co-operate with nature, as Pope knew” (16). Thesis? In fact, although Pope mocks the formality of sir gawain critical essays a Versailles, supplanting it with, “Parts answ’ring parts shall slide into view / Spontaneous beauties all around advance, / Start ev’n from Difficulty, strike from Chance” (66-68), his own poetry regularly smacks of the beowulf formality of affected gardens. Regarding The Importance Of Education? Indeed, Pope’s own garden—mostly laid out in c. 1718-25—epitomised by its now famous grotto, illustrates something of the statement beowulf christianity awkwardness of his picturesque dabblings. David Watkin—in what becomes a familiar motif of prevarication—succinctly describes this incongruity: “Pope enhanced his grotto with optical illusion, with mirrors and waterworks, with ores and minerals chosen for their beauty not their rarity, yet he still considered it natural in comparison with the formality and artificiality of mannerist and baroque grottoes” (4).
A Plan of Mr. Pope’s Garden , penned by John Serle, Pope’s gardener and man-servant, reveals more details: the grotto was, in ronald president fact, a rock and sea-shell strewn tunnel leading beneath a road to the garden. Besides the opulence of the marble plaque inscribed in thesis statement gold letters decorating the entrance, Italian marble, Plymouth marble, Cornish diamonds, Amesthystine crystals—to scratch only the surface—form the grotto itself. Although none of these are precious materials per se , neither are they the stuff of the primitive Picturesque scene. A Plan , in its cartographic fold-out, reveals the lay-out of the garden: formed mostly of radial and meaning, rectilinear pathways and a polished lawn, there are nevertheless a few hesitant serpentine walks. Watkin admits: “What Pope persisted in seeing as ‘natural’ seems to us as artificial as Rococo . . .” (5).
Indeed, what Pope persisted in seeing as natural would no doubt have seemed equally artificial, only a few decades later, to Price and Knight. What makes A Plan particularly interesting is its uninteresting inventory, which not only itemises the thesis statement beowulf materials used in the grotto, but their source: Several large Groups of Cornish Diamonds tinged with a blackish Water, from the Rev. Dr. William Borlace of Ludgvan in Cornwall . . . . Several fine Pieces of Eruptions from Mount Vesuvius , and mba essay books, a fine Piece of Marble from the Grotto of Egeria near Rome , from the Reverend Mr. Spence ; with several fine Petrifactions and Plymouth Marble, from Mr. Cooper . (6-7) This brief extract, with its “fine” name dropping, reveals the familiar marks of thesis beowulf ownership and prestige. A Valediction Forbidding Thesis? The emblem of land title, which we saw in Jonson’s “To Penshurst,” is here reduced to constitutional elements: rocks and minerals, and suggesting the commensurate importance of associate names, like famous signatures in a gallery of ultimately mediocre art: the high price of reputation . Even the poems contained in a section entitled, “Verses Upon the Grotto at thesis statement christianity, Twickenham” concern themselves not with the grotto itself, but with the man who owned the grotto. Emerson once wrote that although fields and farms belong to this man or that, the landscape is nobody’s private property.
In early eighteenth century England, the notion of landscape finally existed, though Emerson’s point was as yet lost in the haze of future understanding. The far flung opulence, the for and unnatural far flung assortment of items collected from various regions—how natural is a chunk of thesis Vesuvius clinging to a lump of Plymouth Marble?—should, one would think, quickly and convincingly settle the question which Morris R. Brownell rhetorically poses in his introduction to A Plan : “Pope’s acknowledgement to Sloan for essay regarding of education, his gift of joints of the thesis statement christianity Giant’s Causeway raises the question of his conception of the grotto—fosillary of rare minerals or imitation of nature?” (viii). Not surprisingly, Brownell sees the whole thing as an imitation of nature. However wrong this blind faith reading might be, the question itself misses the point: whatever Pope’s intent, the result was impossibly unnatural. Essay Regarding The Importance? The neo-classicist, no matter what aesthetic mining he attempts, can extract only a rarefied nature, more artful than natural, the geological equivalent of beowulf christianity a landscape lyric in heroic couplets, with every pair of sir gawain critical essays lines a peculiar strata of imported rock. In fairness to Pope, however, Twickenham garden and Lord Burlington’s in thesis Chiswick vie as the first picturesque grounds. If they are, by later standards, largely unnatural and unpicturesque, they were at least a tentative first step down the mba essay books meandering garden path. Further, Pope’s definition of nature was usually Nature , duly capitalised and interrelated not with “the great out-doors,” nor nature in a Darwinian sense, but more particularly the illustrative, universal and intransmutable; common sense and perspicacity: Yet if we look more closely, we shall find. Most have the seeds of judgement in their mind:
Nature affords at least a glimmer of light; The lines, though touched but faintly, are drawn right;(“An Essay on Criticism,” 19-22) Here the drawing metaphor is emphatically concerned neither with landscape nor art, but with “good sense.” Pope’s earliest attempt at what we might broadly term nature poetry was Pastorals . Reading like a declaration of love from an avaricious beggarly bachelor to a wealthy widow, any genuine feeling seems obliterated by a self-conscious pedantic exhibitionism: the thesis Thames valley landscape, for example, is essay regarding the importance chock-a-block with “ Sicilian Muses” (certainly not my italics) though singularly Spartan in sunny meadows. The natural elements in Pastorals typically function in one of three ways: firstly, as a form of extended characterisation: Oh deign to visit our forsaken seats, The mossy fountains, and the green retreats! Where’re you walk, cool gales shall fan the glade, Trees, where you sit, shall crowd into a shade;
Where’re you tread, the blushing flow’rs shall rise, And all things flourish where you turn your eyes. (71-76) In this instance, the chastity, morality, purity of Rosalinda is beowulf christianity externalised in a venerational relationship with subdued Nature. Secondly, as a mere pretext for manifold classicisms: Beneath the Shade a spreading Beech displays, Hylas and Aegon sung their Rural Lays; This mourn’d a faithless, that an reagan good absent Love. And Dekia’s Name and Doris fill’d the thesis statement christianity Grove.
Ye Mantuan Nymphs, your sacred Succour bring; Hylas and Aegon’s Rural Lays I sing. ( Pastorals: Autumn , 1-6) And, thirdly, as in traditional paintings, as a background or at best a setting for human activity. Windsor Forest (1713) provides another example of Pope’s inability to create either pictorial or picturesque scenes. Mba Essay Books? Indeed, the poems turns out to be a virtual arboricultural wasteland: a peculiar reversal of the familiar aphorism where we cannot see the thesis beowulf christianity trees for the forest. Here Hills and Vales, the Woodland and the Plain, Here Earth and water seem to strive again. There, interspers’d in essays Lawns and opening Glades, Thin Trees arise that shun each others Shades. Here in thesis statement christianity full light the russet Plains extend;
There wrapt in Clouds the bluish Hills ascend. (11-24) Certainly there is essay regarding the importance of education some semblance of statement beowulf landscape here, but the lawns are never far away, and we imagine a scene, not surprisingly, more typical of Capability Brown than the Picturesque. The natural elements are correspondingly here, here, there, here, there: namely, nowhere, a collage of bits glued willy-nilly, denying spatial and relative reality; the thin trees seemingly represent not a fecund forest but the sparsity of Pope’s pictorial sense. To admire Pope for his particular strength without acknowledging his weakness licenses the critical essays implicit generosity of J. R. Watson and the superficiality of statement beowulf christianity Manwaring’s statement that “Pope comes close to ronald good president essay Claude” (97) and does neither service to understanding Pope’s poetry nor Picturesque development. Indeed, Hussey convincingly argues that, “There is no analogy in his landscapes to those of Claude or Salvator” (30). Pope’s embryonic landscapes, in place of visualisation, provide Defoe-like catalogues, reminiscent also of “To Penshurst”: painting the scenery of inventory rather than the canvas of invention. Pope’s Classical Roots. Ever since Horace’s dictum in Ars Poetica (c. 13 BC) “ ut pictura poesis —“as is painting, so is poetry”—the two arts have been jointly imprisoned in the same ivory tower—albeit “painting” definitively meant portraiture. Even briefly setting aside the neo-classical context, there can be no surprise that the thesis beowulf Picturesque movement was initially tied—though with varying degrees of tightness—to classical poetry. Of course, Pope’s archetypes—indeed, the fact that his literature always passes through some metaphysical classical filter—virtually disallows any personal expression of a personal relationship with nature, or at least results in hollow sentiments.
A brief quotation from Virgil’s The Eclogues (37 BC) will perhaps make this clear: Happy old man, who ’mid familiar streams. And hallowed springs, will court the cooling shade! Here, as of a valediction old, your neighbour's bordering hedge, That feasts with willow-flower the Hybla bees, Shall oft with gentle murmur lull to sleep, While the leaf-dresser beneath some tall rock. Uplifts his song, nor cease their cooings hoarse. The wood-pigeons that are your heart's delight,
Nor doves their moaning in the elm-tree top. ( Eclogue I) Though certainly broader than Pope’s catalogue of natural elements, the holistic perspective of landscape is obviously impossible where man and thesis beowulf christianity, his activities form the principal focus. Interestingly, Virgil goes beyond simple nature eulogy and those country comforts provide a simple alternative to for and against urban opulence: “Let Pallas keep the towers her hand hath built, / Us before all things let the statement beowulf woods delight”(Eclogue II). The English ideal would transform these towers into stately homes, islands of luxury in a sea of peasant labour, a simplicity of life defined geographically rather than philosophically. While Virgil calls for a hands-on relationship with nature, rural England produced the harvest bounty at arms length. In addition to essay of education this, the classical landscape, though never described in terms of landscape, is one distinctly exotic, inhabited by pipe-playing shepherds, wayward wolves and unfamiliar flora. Thus, the classical pastoral offers a way of statement christianity life that no well-manored Englishman could tolerate in a countryside he could not assimilate. Essay The Importance? The “Muses of Sicily,” (Eclogue IV) can never truly sing of England, and Pope, in emulation, can never truly sing familiar nor sing true.
When Pope adopts not only the dialogic structure of Virgil’s Eclogues but the beowulf characters themselves, “Fair Thames , flow gently from thy sacred Spring, / While on thy Banks Sicilian Muses sing” (“Spring. The First Pastoral, or Damon,” 3-4), the result is regarding the importance transplanted absurdity, apparent not only to the modern reader, but the contemporary also: Thomas Tickell, in his Guardian essay (April 15, 1713), comments: . Statement Beowulf Christianity? . . our countrymen have so good an dessertation meaning opinion of the thesis statement beowulf christianity ancients, and think so modestly of themselves, that the generality of Pastoral Writers have either stolen all from the Greeks and Romans, or so servilely imitated their manners and customs, as makes them very ridiculous. Ronald Reagan? (qtd. Thesis Beowulf? Andrews, 11) Pope understood none of ronald this,  saw no immediacy in the pastoral, no native narrative nor contemporaneity: only a perpetual backwards survey of a Golden Age forged in Vulcan’s far away fires. Accordingly, in thesis statement beowulf “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” Pope states:
If we would copy Nature, it may be useful to take this Idea along with us, that pastoral is an image of what they call the Golden age. So that we are not to describe our shepherds as shepherds at this day really are, but as they may be conceiv’d then to have been. (120) The real requirement was something Pope could never provide: a kind of reverse alchemy, transforming the gold of the Golden Age into the Englishman’s baser mettle. Pope’s further insistence upon “exposing the best side only of a shepherd’s life, and in concealing his miseries” (120) is again in opposition with picturesque trends which, though, as we have seen, generally avoiding the mba essay books moral context of poverty, places emphasis upon the dilapidated, the statement christianity coarse, the unkept, positing hardship as intrinsic to the scene as the gnarled wind-blasted tree. The ragged shepherd, his hair swept by wind, his visage worried by the elements, is both a more accurate and ronald reagan good president essay, picturesque portrait. Virgil’s Eclogues , with “These fallows, trimmed so fair” (Eclogue I) and, “Now, Meliboeus, graft your pears, now set / Your vines in order!” (Eclogue I), provides a subtext of nature controlled, ordered and manipulated. Thesis Statement Christianity? In Georgics , of course, this philosophy becomes an overtly expressed treatise on the cultivation of estates, making the incongruity between the essays neo-classical and the Picturesque as conspicuous as a dilemma between nature ordered and natural disorder. But there is an even more important incongruity, for Georgics , like much of Virgil’s poetry—and The Aeneid in thesis statement beowulf particular—features a strong nationalistic component. As the focus gradually fixes upon British landscape, Virgil’s distant view of “. . . Britain, from the whole world sundered far” (Eclogue I,) and the worship of foreign fields reveals a dislocated panegyric, at odds with the general trend. Malcolm Andrews, in The Search for the Picturesque , sees Virgil’s patriotism as offering “. . . a kind of licence for cultural emancipation” (9), and moves in the next paragraph to an analysis of Thomson’s The Seasons , as if Virgil’s nationalistic vision directly correlated to an appreciation of against essay English landscape.
In fact, the thesis statement christianity neo-classical attitude as expressed in Pope’s “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” implies the very reverse. Infatuation and the importance, emulation of the Golden Age proved a barrier to home-spun nature and landscape literature—briefly recollect the shepherd not as he is thesis statement beowulf christianity but as he might once have been—and it was the Picturesque movement which gradually laboured in mba essay books chipping away at that barrier. Thesis? This can be seen even in Pope’s pastoral verse, “Spring. The First Pastoral, or Damon”: despite mimetic qualities, the poem works upon the premise of “ Cynthus and Hybla yield to Windsor- Shade” (68), festooning lines with English flora. The result is a hodge-podge of classical characters, ancient gods, and the English rose as an uncomfortable floral bed fellow. The new focus on landscape through the Picturesque was never a reinvention of the Golden Age: the Picturesque includes in its composite elemental degeneration, hardship and ruin: the dessertation meaning stuff of the thesis statement beowulf christianity English countryside rather than the eternal Mediterranean spring and a life of for and essay abroad ease.
Richard Payne Knight’s comment that “a person conversant with the writings of Theocritus and Virgil will relish pastoral scenery more than one unacquainted with such poetry” ( Inquiry , 150), demonstrates the difficulties involved in adopting a new and provincial landscape still largely devoid of literary and artistic association and prestige. Such comments lead Malcolm Andrews to talk of the “elitism of the Picturesque” (4), though it seems more appropriate—especially when we consider the eventual popularity of picturesque tourism—to understand rather the elitism of Knight himself. The plethora of thesis statement christianity Picturesque guide books is a valediction indicative of the increasing popularity of landscape appreciation. This gradual shift from “elite” to general can also be seen in Gilpin’s Observations on statement, the River Wye : the first edition of 1782 features Latin quotations which, in the second 1789 edition are all translated. If textbooks on landscape gardening exist for for and against studying abroad, the narrow academic, this by no means suggests the humble fellow busy building his lily pond is similarly focused. The initial references to Virgil and Horace were as necessary as they were inappropriate: before Britain could be truly discovered and localised, it was conceptualised as a transplanted Arcadia, where northern Shepherds wandered crooked hills buffeted by Mediterranean breezes, expecting at any moment to come upon a triumphant Aeneas. With no traditional appreciation for landscape as a meaningful aesthetic experience, new understanding, occasioned by thesis beowulf the novel introduction of landscape paintings, came not from a moment of revelation, but rather from a gradual modification and eventual weakening of what was already known. Essentially, Pope understood a well composed garden to be an emblem of against essay studying good order reflecting the inner good order of the educated mind. His treatment of nature is subjugated by the omnipresent and Elizabethan notion that “ORDER is Heav’n’s first law” ( Essay on Man , Epistle IV, 50), though devoid of Shakespeare’s sense of thesis nature’s power, of against Godlike omnipotence; and botany, biology, anthropology, philosophy, painting, all become mere lessons in classical history. Beowulf? Classical pastoral and Georgic writing, in simple terms, are too distant and different to abroad ever speak of England, no matter how cunningly coined and conflated with native elements.
Like Windsor Forest, Pope’s Picturesque is one defined by omission, a Picturesque truly without the thesis statement beowulf christianity picture. The Picturesque Scene. James Thomson (1700-1748), as an acquaintance of Arbuthnot, Gray and forbidding mourning, Pope, falls firmly into the neo-classical camp. Thesis Statement? His landscapes, although they were greatly influenced by those of Claude, Rosa and Poussin, include only a valediction mourning occasional classical allusions, and from this we see some glimmering hope of rebellion. Indeed, this is the case: the bugle call bugled, the neo-classical swan-song giving way to. The Muses, still with freedom found, Shall to thy happy coast repair: Blest isle! with matchless beauty crown'd, And manly hearts to guard the fair.
Rule, Britannia, rule the waves; Britons never will be slaves.(“Rule Britannia”, 1729) Despite somewhat artificial diction, Thomson’s The Seasons :, first completed in thesis statement 1730 and later expanded, offers a landmark in English poetry. The influence of the increasingly familiar Picturesque is particularly clear in Winter : the mba essay books first edition expressed only minor pictorial interest; in the second, Thomson inserts such Salvatorian lines as “. Thesis? . . The cloudy Alps and Appenine / Capt with grey mists, and everlasting snows; / Where nature in stupendous ruin lies. Critical? (243-5) The remaining three books, composed subsequently to Winter , feature diverse landscape scenes. Summer (1727) illustrates Claudian sun play: . Thesis Statement Christianity? . . yonder comes the powerful king of day, Rejoicing in the east. The lessening cloud. The kindling azure, and the mountain’s brim,
Illumed with fluid gold; (81-84) In Spring both the dessertation meaning poet and thesis christianity, Nature play the part of painter: Behold yon breathing prospect bids the Muse. Throw all her beauty forth. But who can paint. Like Nature?
Can imagination boast, Amid its gay creation, hues like hers? Or can it mix them with that matchless skill. And lose them in each other, as appears. In every bud that blows. (467-73) Manwaring explains: “In the essay regarding of education edition of 1744—that is, after his visit to Italy and his collecting of prints—appears the most elaborately composed of all his landscapes, with real Claudian distances” (104). Although none of this is specifically Picturesque, the Claudian influence and thesis statement, the well defined conflation of poetry and landscape painting demonstrate the development underway. Abandoning rhyming couplets was nothing new—indeed, The Seasons , as commonly acknowledged, owes some of its versification to Miltonic influence—but in the context of Pope’s predominant style it was a break in the pillars of the literary establishment.
The popularity of The Seasons , with over three hundred editions published between 1750 and 1850, is a testament to the vitality of the Picturesque trend. Certainly, The Seasons is not solely a Picturesque poem, though the thesis influence of painting is statement beowulf everywhere; and the title itself, suggestive of the temporal changes of a valediction mourning nature, quotes the statement christianity movement of Picturesque tenets in implicit opposition to meaning the static catalogues of Pope: a real landscape that generates and degenerates. Although the thesis statement beowulf poem predates the apex of Picturesque popularity, there can be no doubt as to the Picturesque vision that made the conception possible: . . Mba Essay Books? . now the bowery walk. Of covert close, where scarce a speck of day. Falls on the lengthened gloom, protracted sweeps; Now meets the thesis beowulf bending sky, the river now. Dimpling along, the breezy ruffled lake.
The forest darkening round, the glittering spire, The ethereal mountain, and the distant main. Here we see not only metastasis, the chequered canvas of change, with the temporal “now” rather than Pope’s unplaceable “here” and “there,” but also key Picturesque elements: the dimpling river anticipates Knight’s original musing on smoothness : Smoothness being properly a quality perceived only by the touch, and applied metaphorically to sir gawain critical the objects of the beowulf christianity other senses, we often apply it very improperly to those of vision; assigning smoothness, as a cause of visible beauty, to things, which, though smooth to forbidding thesis the touch, cast the most sharp, harsh, and angular reflections of light upon the eye. . Thesis? . Mourning Thesis? . ( An Analytical Inquiry , 65) The ethereal mountains offering a suggestion of thesis beowulf christianity sublime grandeur; the depth of field, with the reagan meandering river leading the eye towards a distant background. Unlike Pope, Thomson invites the reader to view the thesis statement christianity landscape with leading locutions: “see,” “prospect” and “yon,” and the frequent use of the present tense. Dessertation Meaning? As Watson points out, the description of George Lyttelton’s estate at beowulf christianity, Hagley “is carefully composed and presented as foreground (the Hall), middle distance (villages, fields, heathlands, a ‘broken landscape’) and background (the Welsh mountains)” (32), a method identical to that employed later by Picturesque writers and intrinsic to the landscape artist’s craft. Andrews, however, refuses to see any influence of picturesque painting in Thomson’s The Seasons , asserting instead the influence stems rather from mba essay books literature. External evidence all suggests otherwise.
The historical context: this is, after all, rapidly becoming the age of landscapes and influence seems virtually unavoidable; the geographical: the poem was actually revised and partly rewritten at thesis statement beowulf, Hagley, then newly laid out against studying abroad, according to picturesque tenets; and, as mentioned above, Thomson travelled to Italy during the composition, making subsequent books markedly richer in landscape images. Unfortunately, Andrews’ literary bias—the idea, for example, that, “Painting’s sister-art [literature] had shown the beowulf christianity way to freedom from didacticism or slavish topographical portraiture with Thomson’s The Seasons ” (25), places the the importance of education literary cart before the Picturesque horse. However, it is internal evidence itself which most clearly outlines the absurdity of Andrews horsing around: Meantime you gain the hight, from whose fair brow. The bursting prospects spreads immense around; And, snatched o’er hill and dale, and wood and lawn, The verdant field, and darkening heath between, And villages embosomed soft in trees, And spiry towns by surging columns marked. Of household smoke, your eyes excursive roams— Wide-stretching from the Hall in whose kind haunt.
The hospitable genius lingers still, To where the broken landscape, by degrees. Ascending, roughens into thesis christianity, rigid hills. O’er which the Cambrian mountains, like far clouds. That skirt the sir gawain blue horizon, dusky rise. Christianity? ( Spring , 950-62)
Selected almost at random, there can be no doubt even here of the analogy to landscape canvas: the scene is both designed and unified, with precisely placed detail within the larger picture framework; with foreground, middleground and mba essay books, background all respectively described. The passage also contains key picturesque elements: contrast, for example, between wood and lawn, field and heath; the statement christianity texture of the rough rigid hills; the broken allusion; and the sublime cloud-like mountains. Dessertation? The influence of landscape paintings upon a burgeoning genre of landscape and nature literature seems beyond question and Andrews’ cart is not only misplaced but surely wrecked by a broken axle. The interconnectivity between these two arts is further illustrated by Turner and thesis statement, Constable, for whom Thomson was a favourite poet, adopting lines appended to several canvases.  Indeed, Turner’s Aeolian Harp (see figure 8) was exhibited in 1809 with a poem that begins: On Thomson’s tomb the dewy drops distil, Soft tears for Pity shed for Pope’s lost fame, To worth and verse adhere sad memory still, Scorning to wear ensnaring fashion’s chain.
In silence go, fair Thames, for all is laid. While flows the stream, unheeded and unsung. Resplendent Seasons! chase oblivions shade. (qtd. Bicknell, 32) The poem highlights each season in turn, though, as Bicknell explains, quoting various art scholars, it is based not so much on Thomson’s work as William Collin’s “Ode occasion’d by the death of Mr Thomson.” The four figures in the picture, however, are understood to represent the seasons. Bicknell concludes: “Turner’s picture pays homage both to ronald reagan good Claude and to Thomson, and in doing so it enshrines the statement link between the ‘picturesque poets’ and the ‘Italian’ landscape painters(33). During the swan-song years of the eighteenth century, classical poets were losing ground to the increasing number of British poets, with classical allusion becoming thin on the ground. Concomitantly, . . . booksellers were no longer addressing a relatively few, elite readers but a wide, mixed audience including merchants, professionals, children, and urban servants, as well as traditional audiences. (Benedict, 158) Thus, there existed a growing exigency for a new kind of literature, removed from the Grub Street Press, yet more in tune with more people, more accessible, reflecting more the changing social condition. John Dyer (1699-1757), of essay course, is best remembered for “Grongar Hill.” Describing the scenery of the river Towy, there is a Wordsworthian quality of observation, personal reflection and picturesque features: “prospect,” “Old castles,” “ruins, moss and weeds,” and so on; there is the occasional picturesque personification, as in “And ancient towers crown his brow, / That cast an awful look below” (71-72); though mostly we have only a topographical and irregular ode in rhyming couplets. Thesis? Published in 1726, it draws immediate comparison with Thomson’s The Seasons . Besides taking landscape as its primary focus, “Grongar Hill” really sits in reagan good president essay the shadow of christianity The Seasons , offering only the occasional sign of life, such as:
And see the rivers how they run, Thro’ woods and meads, in shade and sun! Sometimes swift and sometimes slow, Wave succeeding wave, they go. A various journey to the deep, Like human life to Endless sleep. Sir Gawain Essays? (93-98)
Dyer made several tours of England and Wales, travelled to Italy, studied to be a painter long before he became a parson-poet, and there is, certainly, a convincing affection for landscape in “Grongar Hill”—though this is more strongly expressed in The Country Walk , whose concluding lines draw a melancholy comparison between the utopia of landscape and the distopia of human existence. “Grongar Hill” is framed upon the summit prospect of Grongar Hill and, compared to the rhyming couplets of Pope’s “landscapes,” the view is clear and convincing and the subject focused. It is with Dyer’s final and beowulf christianity, greatest—in terms of bigness—poem, however, that the poet’s mutable mediocrity comes to good light. “The Fleece,” praised by Wordsworth—which is perhaps condemnation enough, a certain sign that the egotistical sublimian felt no literary threat—is an anachronistic georgic written thirty years after “Grongar Hill.” Dyer hoped “The Fleece” would provide necessary information allowing sheep farmers to improve their stock and the quality of beowulf wool; to improve the fortunes of combers, dyers and weavers; to improve Britain’s trade by advocating expansion abroad. A georgic with such—conventional—pragmatic goals finds high poetic diction and frequent digressions a serious impediment. It is difficult bordering on impossible to imagine one tenth of a valediction forbidding those concerned in the industry with the faculty and willingness, not to mention leisure time, to read such a long run-around poem. If ever there was a case for abandoning classical models, this georgic, begging for the mercy of simple prose, pleads guilty and stands duly condemned. Essentially, Dyer proclaims here his affiliation with Dryden’s now ageing notion, expounded in “Parallel betwixt Poetry and Painting” (1695), that the primary end of Painting is to please, though the ultimate end of Poetry is to instruct. Dyer’s affection for rural landscapes is perhaps all the beowulf more remarkable for this utilitarian and mercantile disposition.
Unlike Wordsworth, Dyer saw no injurious contiguity between industry and trade. Of Education? Quite the contrary: “Trade,” he wrote, “is the daughter of peace” (qtd. Williams, 98). Williams, in his biography of Dyer, continues, . . . traders and merchants, he felt, were promoters of peace and therefore of civilisation.. Thesis Statement Beowulf? And by aiding them to bring natural resources and industries together, to studying abroad develop new resources, new manufactures, and statement, new means of transportation, Dyer felt that he too was promoting peace and civilisation. (98) The same, in fact, is true of The Seasons , though Thomson’s approbation of mercantilism—as well as the didactic insertions—is less the business of the sir gawain critical poem and more an statement beowulf unfortunate by-product. If “Grongar Hill” makes a step forwards towards the romantic movement, “The Fleece” takes several backwards. Mourning Thesis? In his preface to the second edition of thesis statement beowulf Winter , Thomson mentions Virgil’s Georgics as one of his models. He insists, however, that Winter bore a closer resemblance to the devotional literary tradition which included the Pentateuch, the Book of Job, and essays, Paradise Lost . “The Fleece,” on the other hand, is not only beowulf fully georgic but formally inappropriate to its purpose.
There is, then, in Dyer something of the neo-classical romantic dichotomy, the day-dreamer and the practical day-worker and it is in sir gawain essays this context that he is best read and makes most sense. Neo-classicists’ adoption of the thesis Picturesque, with Claude recognised as the precursor, was initially perhaps not inevitable though certainly understandable. There was, however, a certain incongruity to this adoption, for the geometry of contemporary gardens and regularity of versification were essentially antithetical to essay regarding the Picturesque. Statement? Besides, the regarding of education serenity and thesis statement beowulf christianity, classical nostalgia of Claude was losing ground to essay regarding the importance the wildness of the more rugged Rosa (see figure 9) whose craggy cliffs and toothed trees and desolate domains were closer to both lakeland scenes and romantic sensibilities. Neo-classicism and formative Picturesque then were uneasy partners. Upon the crumbling and thesis christianity, tumbling columns of neo-classicism was slowly builded an ever more refined picturesque aesthetic. Tentative attempts at ronald reagan president essay, picturesque typified in The Seasons and “Grongar Hill” provides a background for an entirely new landscape of aesthetic appreciation and beowulf christianity, artistic expression that was quite simply blowing through the temporal winds and disturbing everything in its path.
For all the aesthetic developments taking place as the for and eighteenth century progressed, neo-classicism was reluctant to give up the battle. Beowulf Christianity? Thomas Warton, in Poems on Several Occasions, (1748) includes such key terms as “Nature’s Landscapes,” “Dark woods and pensive waterfalls,” “Desert Prospects rough and rude,” “a green Valley’s wood-encircled Side.” However, translations and paraphrases of forbidding mourning Horace rub shoulders with “Ode to Taste”: Leave not Britannia’s Isle; since Pope is fled. To meet his Homer in Elysian Bowers, What Bard shall dare resume. His Various-sounding Harp?(180) Warton then demonstrates the literary discord at beowulf christianity, this time, the venerational prestige of against abroad Pope, and the staying power of thesis christianity neo-classicism. As late as 1775 and calling to mind Gilpin’s examination of natural and moral beauty in Stowe , Samuel Johnson, in Journey to regarding of education the Western Islands of Scotland wrote: An eye accustomed to beowulf christianity flowery pastures and waving harvests is astonished and repelled by against abroad this wide extent of hopeless sterility.
The appearance is that of matter incapable of beowulf form or usefulness, dismissed by nature from for and her care and disinherited from her favours. (qtd. Andrews, 197) There was no extensive digging and thesis christianity, chiselling, no blasting of hill and dale, no landscaping on a geographic scale, no remoulding or recasting of for and abroad this northern nation, no topographical development. The only conceivable change was internal: aesthetic conception; and with this mightiest of change, the Scottish Highlands would soon become—and remain—one of the most picturesque areas in thesis statement beowulf christianity all Britain. Figure 8: Turner, Thomson’s Aeolian Harp, from for and essay Bicknell. Figure 9: Salvator Rosa, Mountain landscape, from thesis statement Bicknell.
“This mountainous landscape is of a type which particularly appealed to English taste. It could be a Salvatorian of a scene in the Lake District or North Wales” (Bicknell, 5) The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. The artistic and mba essay books, aesthetic links established in Section One now become particularly significant. This section will include an important aetiological component, identifying the thesis articles of faith employed in establishing the standard—and erroneous—critical guiding conception of the Picturesque. Having, hopefully, and to a valediction thesis some degree, divested Wordsworth (1770-1850) of the prophetic, revolutionary inspired vestments which modern scholars intimatingly fancy his dress, the entire fabric of the venerational and statement beowulf, vituperative theory of reagan good essay Wordsworth and the Picturesque respectively becomes bare supposition, allowing, finally, a more valid and thesis beowulf, useful appraisal of the dessertation meaning two. The influence of the Grand Tour in fostering an intense and popular interest in scenic tourism—it was in the 1780s that the word ‘tourist’ entered the English language—the increasing familiarity of landscape paintings, philosophical enquiries which intellectualised landscape, the religious symbolism which initially justified landscape not only for the French but for the Hudson River Group in beowulf christianity North America, the mourning popularity of thesis statement beowulf landscape gardening, all these were elements in a new cultural and aesthetic picture. And yet, as mentioned in the previous section, the critical essays neo-classical constituent, as much a symbol of thesis “quality” as Friedrich’s Cross On the Mountain was of faith, stubbornly persisted. Mba Essay Books? The prestige of the classical past essentially allowed the prestige of the thesis statement christianity present, and with nature already running wild in picturesque landscape gardens, neo-classicism endured like an old marble statue, certainly, its arm’s severed at the shoulder and missing a leg, yet still solid and strong. Reagan President Essay? Romantic poetry would provide the final cutting edge, individuality and originality and subjectivity and emotional response would allow a cultural coming of age; and if the statue would always remain, at least now the head could be lopped off.
In addition to the impetus provided by this new and burgeoning cultural and statement beowulf, aesthetic picture, there was also some imperative to fill a literary void. Sir Gawain Critical Essays? Sonnets, long castrated of statement beowulf christianity their erotic themes, momentarily seduced by religion and politics, were by now only a literary footnote. Similarly, allegory seemed an regarding the importance anachronistic way of describing a shovel by digging a hole. The epic itself existed only beowulf christianity as a mockery. Worst of all, newer innovations like the invariable antithetical rhyming couplet inevitably lost their heroic gloss and seemed more like a tired knave than a tireless knight. Ronald President? Only satire and burlesque—seventeenth century developments—retained any semblance of staying power. In simple terms, literary convention increasingly lacked invention. The cause and effect relationship between this void and the development of a new aesthetic is perhaps too metaphysical and thesis beowulf christianity, certainly too immaterial for this examination, though the for and against studying possibility at beowulf christianity, least suggests mandate for change. It is within the context of this paradigm shift that Wordsworth reads not as literary prophet, but as a poetic designer involved in a movement already re-fashioning the cultural and social fabric. By the time Wordsworth published Lyrical Ballads (1798), the appreciation of nature had reached the philosophical—if not numerical—levels prevalent in mba essay books the present day. Nature now becomes the focal point, no longer limited to a laudation of man and ownership, nor a Pope-like praise of beowulf ancient Mediterranean insinuation.
Clearly, such mimetic representations will no longer answer. Literature, within this context and essay, with its associative ability, can treat nature with a new respect and generosity: can actually turn the silence of centuries into articulations of statement beowulf moment. There is general agreement that Wordsworth’s early poetry borrows from Picturesque aesthetics. A brief survey will therefore suffice. “An Evening Walk,” published in 1793 and written in regarding the importance heroic couplets, is essentially a conventional attempt at picturesque verse, replete with cascade scene, precipice, mountain farm, female beggar, rocky sheepwalks and tremulous cliffs: a topographical poem in which Wordsworth’s authorial voice remains only thesis christianity a whisper. Unconfined to any particular place, the poem provides a composite image consistent with typical picturesque sketches and suggestive—ironically—of Beaumont’s ruinous castle ruin.
As J. R. Watson demonstrates, “Tintern Abbey” (1798) begins with a canvas-like description with three planes of depth. The poem then moves on: The day is mourning come when I repose. Here, under this dark sycamore, and view. These plots of cottage-ground, these orchard-tufts, Which, at this season, with their unripe fruits.
Are clad in one green hue, and lose themselves. ’Mid groves and copses. Once again I see. These hedge-rows, hardly hedge-rows, little lines. Of sportive wood run wild: these pastoral farms, Green to the very door; and wreaths of smoke. Sent up, in silence, from beowulf christianity among the trees! With some uncertain notice, as might seem.
Of vagrant dwellers in the houseless woods, Or of some Hermit’s cave, where by his fire. The Hermit sits alone. (9-22) Here the sycamore serves as both frame and point of perspective to for and studying abroad the scene; typical picturesque elements appear: the thesis christianity wildness of the wood, pastoral farms offering contrast as well as an echo of against studying Virgil’s Georgics , an attention to foreground and background. But the beowulf christianity scene is extra dimentionalised, beyond—at least for those with a literary bias—the possibilities of brush and colour: “Once again I see” underscores both memory and a personal reaction to the scene; whilst the reagan good president essay bromidic picturesque figure—the hermit—appears not to the eye but to the imagination. And yet, although the poem, by virtue of the medium, achieves that extra-dimension, it remains within the Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin, for example, also recorded his impression of thesis beowulf Tintern Abbey years before Wordsworth: Every thing around breathes an air so calm, and tranquil; so sequestered from the meaning commerce of life, that it is easy to conceive, a man of warm imagination, in monkish times, might have been allured by such a scene to become an inhabitant of it. ( Obs.
Wye , 32) Watson admits that this might perhaps have provided the “forerunner”  of Wordsworth’s hermit; but also that Gilpin here is beowulf christianity concerned with the for and essay abroad “kind of relationship between man and the landscape” (81) that Wordsworth was later to develop.  Not surprisingly, “Tintern Abbey” soon moves away from Tintern Abbey and thesis statement, becomes the familiar Wordsworthian recollection filled in with the “moral and ronald good essay, mystical” (Watson, 84) of landscape. Thesis Statement? And yet the poem’s structure can serve as an outline of Picturesque application in romantic poetry: the picturesque provides the subject—and initially the ability to see that subject—which then allows the expanded vista possible through literature. Memory, subjectivity and imagination—Wordsworth categorical—together act as an augmentative device which transforms flat canvas into romantic tapestry. There is, in addition, some hint of the egotistical sublime combined with the ability of nature to mould character: . . . For I have learned. To look on nature, not as in a valediction forbidding thesis the hour. Of thoughtless youth, but hearing oftentimes. The still sad music of humanity, Not harsh nor grating, though of ample power. To chasten and thesis beowulf christianity, subdue. (89-94) “Michael” (1800), though not specifically a picturesque poem, nevertheless is based upon a nostalgic view of rural England intrinsic to the Picturesque school and a offers a nationalised and temporalised form of the neo-classical Golden Age.
The poem alludes to contemporary political and economical conditions turning peasants into the manufacturing poor, who, nomadic and meaning, landless, drift into London like the flotsam of some vast socio-economic flood. Indeed, many districts at statement beowulf christianity, that time remained completely excluded from urban economics, with foreign products as foreign as the products themselves. Even at the beginning of this century the meaning Yorkshire yeoman was ignorant of thesis statement beowulf sugar, potatoes, and cotton; the Cumberland dalesman, as he appears in Wordsworth's Guide , lived entirely on the produce of his farm.  The half finished sheep-pen of the poem, a heap of rocks that remain after the poem’s closure, symbolises old Michael and his half finished ambitions for his son, now gone from the protective fold and corrupted by modernity. A Valediction Forbidding Mourning? If the poem then is not strictly picturesque, it speaks with picturesque philosophy and provides an example of a more subtle picturesque application. Clearly, Wordsworth’s early poetry borrowed liberally from thesis both the Augustan tradition as well as Picturesque convention. His poetical path, however, gradually meanders away from neo-classicism and towards an expanded and critical essays, less categorical mode of Picturesque philosophy. Hugh Sykes Davies’ insistence upon statement beowulf “Wordsworth’s subjection to for and essay studying abroad the ‘picturesque’ fashion” (236) in these early days, culminating in the poet’s decortication of the christianity entire model, smacks of an obscurantist philosophy turned barrier to the imagination and denies the jagged foundation the Picturesque provided for the appreciation of countryside as a highly refined aesthetic.
But more of that right now. The Gospel According to Wordsworth. We have finally reached the first of two sources which together have prescribed the modern critical assessment of the Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry—at least for against essay, scholars of literature. Descriptive Sketches—the Footnote  Pope’s Dunciad conclusively proved the potential of the humble footnote to statement beowulf subvert a text. In the case of critical Descriptive Sketches , a single footnote has subverted much of modern scholarship on the Picturesque.
Here it is, in all its humble magnificence: I had once given to these sketches the christianity title of forbidding thesis Picturesque; but the Alps are insulted in applying to them the term. Whoever, in attempting to describe their sublime features, should confine himself to the cold rules of painting would give his reader but a very imperfect idea of those emotions which they have the irresistible power of communicating to the most impassioned imaginations. (Note to line 299) Davies descends upon this “cold rules of thesis statement beowulf painting” as if the very death of the Picturesque depended upon it. In actual fact, this criticism suggests Gilpin as the principle target; and the reproof, despite Wordsworth’s implied intention, is narrow rather than general. In fact, there is nothing original or remarkable here: it is essentially a restatement of Richard Payne Knight, who, we recall, offered a “Curse on the pedant jargon, that defines / Beauty's unbounded forms to given lines!” ( The Landscape: a Didactic Poem , 6) Indeed, it was only Gilpin’s first publication, Essay on Prints , which placed particular stress on the “rules of essay the importance of education painting” and for the simple reason that the volume was, essentially, a “How-To” manual on landscape painting rather than a treatise on the Picturesque. It seems strange too that Davies, here upholding the merits of the imagination compared to statement beowulf those “cold rules of painting,” mentions that Knight had “ meddled extensively with the ‘Imagination’”  (my italics, 205); though assumedly anyone connected with the Picturesque and not poetry really can only “meddle”—even “extensively.” Watson also picks up on this footnote; but, realising that there are nevertheless acres of the essay regarding Picturesque in statement Descriptive Sketches , prevaricates hither and thither, jumping from one explanation to another like so many stepping stones where only the essay wetness of the beowulf christianity river is certain.
His first tentative foothold comes from the forbidding thesis fact that Wordsworth carried through the Alps a number of Picturesque guidebooks, causing him to suggest, “It is beowulf christianity therefore not surprising that the regarding poem should contain a number of picturesque appreciations” (73-74). The stepping stone here sinks without further comment. Statement Christianity? Next, Watson suggests—with depth defying penetration—that Wordsworth had a “divided mind” (74); and further, that it is this “which makes Descriptive Sketches such an unsatisfactory poem” (74). A Valediction Forbidding Mourning Thesis? This is thesis statement clearly a dangerous place to stand, since, I would suggest, when it comes to the Picturesque, Wordsworth’s mind was always divided. Watson jumps again: Wordsworth is.
struggling to essay the importance express qualities which the writers on the picturesque did not sufficiently recognise. In the first place there are atmospheric effects of thesis beowulf light which transcend the tonal range of contemporary painting. (75) This is on the same footing as the meaning earlier: “Wordsworth was envisaging effects of light which were not to be mastered on Canvas until Turner” (72). In fact such “effects of light” had long since been mastered, by Claude. In fact, he was to some extent the statement christianity originator: Andrew Wilton, in his introduction to Turner’s Picturesque Views in England and Wales , identifies Claude as the inventor of the “‘Sunset Harbour theme” (Shanes, 6). This then is clearly an example of a literature critic wiggling his fingers in the pool of the art historian; rather than catching a fish, he is bitten by a school of aesthetics. Watson must once again skip onward. His final place of rest is to suggest that Wordsworth here was concerned with “liberty,” although, since the “subject” of the poem is the Swiss Alps, “he could not omit the scenery” (75).
This, in mba essay books fact, is true, though most elements are undeniably Picturesque, like this blending of the beautiful and sublime: How blest, delicious scene! the eye that greets. Thy open beauties, or thy lone retreats; Beholds the unwearied sweep of wood that scales. Lo, where she sits beneath yon shaggy rock,
A cowering shape half hid in curling smoke!(177-78) Other examples of Picturesque idiom include: “water's shaggy side”; “Thy lake, that, streaked or dappled, blue or grey”; “Hermit”; and “antique castles.” It seems strange too that Wordsworth should frame the topic of liberty in his supposed antithesis of liberty: those cold picturesque rules. Watson clearly recognises the dichotomous anomaly at work, and his stepping and side stepping is an attempt to bring resolution within the framework of standard literary theory on the relationship between Wordsworth’s poetry and the Picturesque. Clearly, Watson gets a good wetting and explains nothing. So what is the solution? The fact that we are dealing, for the moment, with a footnote provides the perfect analogy: Wordsworth’s Picturesque criticism should be read as nothing more than a footnote, and a footnote in the style of thesis beowulf The Dunciad at that. When literary theory, even—and perhaps especially—from the original poet himself, is at regarding, odds with the literature itself, then the obvious conclusion is to abandon the statement beowulf theory; instead, Wordsworth’s musings are taken as gospel and an altar of theory is builded upon them. Ronald Reagan Good? The only truly cold rule, it seems, is that Wordsworth “transcends” the picturesque because he says so himself. Turning now from general to particular, it should be clear that this “cold rules” versus “imagination” is altogether a red-herring, easily caught by literary critics and used to feed a thousand other misconceptions.
William Combe’s brilliant satire, A Tour in Search of the Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax (see figure 10)—clearly derived from Gilpin—reveals his neo-classical bent by thesis statement christianity ridiculing the very idea of the imagination versus the true copy of Nature: Upon the bank awhile I’ll sit, And let poor Grizzle graze a bit; But, as my time shall not be lost, I’ll make a drawing of the ronald president post; And, tho’ a flimsy taste may flout it, There’s something picturesque about it: ’Tis rude and rough, without a gloss.
And is well cover’d o’er with moss; And I’ve a right—(who dares deny it?) To place yon group of asses by it. Aye! this will do: and now I’m thinking, That self-same pond where Grizzle’s drinking, If hither brought ’twould better seem. And faith I’ll turn it to a stream. Statement Beowulf? (9) Of course, the exaggeration is for and against essay studying as sparkling as the beowulf christianity pond that flows into the stepping-stone stream; but we should consider Constable’s Flatford Mill from the Lock , which is meaning exactly this kind of composite picture and deserves—indeed, receives—only approbation. There are indeed rules of composition, in painting as well as poetry, but to define the Picturesque according to these is to define poetry. according to thesis grammar and spelling. There is, in both the Picturesque and poetry, imagination and expression.
Returning to the original point. W. M. Merchant, in his introduction to Wordsworth’s Guide , also cites this same footnote as proof of Wordsworth’s asperity to Picturesque theory and goes on to say how singular Wordsworth’s guide is. More forthright still, Rhoda L. Meaning? Flaxman, Victorian Word-Painting and thesis christianity, Narrative: Toward the Blending of Genres , understands the note to be “an abrupt declaration of of education independence from eighteenth-century picturesque aesthetic” (67). All these evaluations, however, neglect several important points: firstly, Wordsworth’s footnote continues, the unique and. . . . peculiar features of the thesis beowulf christianity Alps. . Essay Regarding? . . Thesis Statement Beowulf? The fact is, that controlling influence, which distinguishes the Alps from all other scenery, is derived from images which disdain the pencil. Had I wished to dessertation meaning make a picture of this scene I had thrown much less light into it. But I consulted nature and my feelings. The ideas excited by the stormy sunset I am here describing owed their sublimity to that deluge of light, or rather of thesis statement beowulf fire, in which nature had wrapped the ronald reagan president essay immense forms around me; any intrusion of shade, by destroying the unity of the impression, had necessarily diminished its grandeur. Thesis Christianity? (Note to mourning thesis line 299) So the Alps then are not like the mountains of Cumberland, Yorkshire, Wales and Scotland; and rather than offering an “abrupt declaration of independence,” Wordsworth actually points homeward for authentic picturesque scenes. Secondly, this so called “reaction against the Picturesque” (Davies, 240) entirely disregards chronology: Descriptive Sketches was published in 1793; Wordsworth’s own Guide , which, as we will see, makes great use of statement beowulf christianity Picturesque sensibility and essay of education, idiom, in 1810. Thirdly, as already mentioned, the fact remains that Wordsworth footingly denounces the limitations of the Picturesque yet, in the poetry itself, he delivers Picturesque description.
Book XII of The Prelude , tintilatingly entitled “Imagination and Taste, How Impaired and Restored,” provides most to the fodder for modern critical understanding of thesis statement beowulf christianity Wordworth’s relationship to the Picturesque.  The offending lines begin: What wonder, then, if, to a mind so far. Perverted, even the visible Universe. Fell under the dominion of a taste. Less spiritual, with microscopic view. Was scanned, as I had scanned the against studying abroad moral world?(88-92)
Unworthy, disliking here, and thesis statement beowulf christianity, there. Liking; by sir gawain essays rules of mimic art transferred. To things above all art; but more,—for this, Although a strong infection of the age, Was never much my habit—giving way. To a comparison of scene with scene, Bent overmuch on thesis statement, superficial things, Pampering myself with me agre novelties.
Of colour and proportion; to the moods. Of time and thesis, season, to the moral power, The affections and the spirit of the place, I speak in recollection of a time. When the bodily eye, in every stage of christianity life. The most despotic of our senses, gained. Such strength in sir gawain critical essays 'me' as often held my mind. In absolute dominion. (127-130) There are in our existence spots of statement beowulf time, That with distinct pre-eminence retain. A renovating virtue, whence—depressed.
By false opinion and contentious thought, Or aught of heavier or more deadly weight, In trivial occupations, and the round. Of ordinary intercourse—our minds. Are nourished and invisibly repaired. (208-215) This then is the stuff that contemporary critics have adopted without regard to the dangers of accepting the critical artist’s views of his own work. If the creative mind were so simple , the rive gauche would likely as not have moved to Silicon Valley. There can be no doubt that “taste” refers to the Picturesque. Thesis Statement? There can be no doubt either that Wordsworth declares the Picturesque an impairment to the imagination.
Several important points, however, should be noted: The Prelude , as was the critical essays case with Descriptive Sketches , contains ample picturesque passages, too numerous and too obvious to quote. Here, nevertheless, for the benefit of the incredulous, are a few: In summer, making quest for works of art, Or scenes renowned for beauty, I explored. That streamlet whose blue current works its way. Between romantic Dovedale's spiry rocks; Pried into Yorkshire dales,  or hidden tracts. Of my own native region. (VI, 190-95)
In the final Book (XIV), fresh from the restoration of his imagination and taste, with hardly time to catch a breath between, Wordsworth recounts his gasping ascent of thesis statement beowulf christianity Snowdon, from whence he sees: “A fixed, abysmal, gloomy, breathing-place— / Mounted the president essay roar of waters, torrents, streams / Innumerable, roaring with one voice!” (58-60). Topography ensues. The plot thickens: soon after, there is a twist to all that domination of the eye business, with Nature making her presence known. . . . by putting forth, 'Mid circumstances awful and sublime, That mutual domination which she loves. To exert upon the face of outward things,
So moulded, joined, abstracted, so endowed. With interchangeable supremacy, That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, And cannot choose but feel. Thesis Statement? (79-86) That domination now shifts from subject to object: man is no longer dominated by the ocular sense; instead the outward forms of picturesque scenery, by their very nature, captivate man. In any case, the point is that even in The Prelude the Picturesque is pictured and admired: The single sheep, and the one blasted tree, And the bleak music from that old stone wall, The noise of wood and water, and critical, the mist. That on the line of each of those two roads. Advanced in such indisputable shapes;
All these were kindred spectacles and sounds. To which I oft repaired, and thence would drink, As at a fountain. (XII, 319-26) Here also is one of Wordsworth’s well-cited spots of time, which often find their source in statement beowulf christianity Picturesque moments inspired by the wildness of regarding the importance nature, where that idiomatic “sublime” is kindled. In this example, we are provided a veritable catalogue of beowulf christianity picturesque materials, though again this spot of time incorporates non-visual invocations, composed, not as a sovereign landscape, but more as a sensationscape, an emotional response to news of his father’s death.
In effect, Wordsworth acknowledges the sir gawain essays aesthetics of this picturesque catalogue, though he moves towards emotive sense. Further, Wordsworth’s understanding of the subject was undoubtedly clouded, a myopia based upon a narrow definition of the Picturesque—the meaning of which, after all, was always a point of debate and rarely of thesis statement beowulf conclusion. Indeed, his criticism of the Picturesque is on thesis, the same lines as Uvedale Price’s, who, we might recall, stated that picturesque qualities are “extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received.” In other words, “That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, / And cannot choose but feel.” The thing which Wordsworth most condemns—this supposed ocular obsession in the Picturesque—is strangely absent in thesis beowulf A Tour in Search of the Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax . For example: “. Essay? . . while you chase the flying deer, I must fly off to Windermere. / ’Stead of hallooing to a fox, I must catch echoes from the rocks” (50). Thesis? It seems apparent from these few lines the exceptional quality of the satire; strange then that Combe, for all his excellence, should miss what seems to be the most objectionable aspect of Picturesque theory. This, perhaps more than anything else, demonstrates that Wordsworth’s dissatisfaction was not empirically with the Picturesque but emphatically with his own conception. For And Abroad? The error was his, and the error of those modern critics who unquestioningly accept Wordsworth at his word. Watson suggests further that Wordsworth’s interest in the Picturesque waned due to its inherent “wrong attitude to nature” (97), by which he means a lacking of “humility.” To this, it is thesis christianity perhaps worth re-visiting Gilpin:
Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers, Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign. Great archetype in all. ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30)
Also, Wordsworth’s increasing spirituality offers an sir gawain critical essays unstated though likely cause of further dissatisfaction, that “dominion of a taste / Less spiritual.” Gilpin states in thesis statement christianity his preface to Tours of the Lakes : “The author hopes that no one will be so severe, as to dessertation think a work of this kind inconsistent with the profession of a clergyman” (xxxi). J. R. Thesis? Watson understands this as evidence that Gilpin saw nature not as the handiwork of God—as does Thomson, for essays, example—but “as a matter of mere amusement” (40). Statement Beowulf? As Section One made clear, Gilpin here is actually alluding to critical essays the amorality of the Picturesque. Nevertheless, from this supposed “mere amusement”, Watson, no doubt now weary of those treacherous stepping stones, makes an astounding leap in logic and concludes: With such an aim, sight alone becomes important, for there is rarely any attempt to ponder the significance of thesis statement beowulf christianity landscape, or the viewer’s emotional relationship towards it. (40) Entirely skipping over the “mere amusement” hypothesis, we might yet wonder at the kind of logic that allows a passage from “mere amusement” to “sight alone.” We might also recall, despite the evidence outlined in Section One demonstrating that Gilpin was not concerned uniquely with sight alone, that Gilpin indeed wrote on the Picturesque from a painterly point of view and so any stress that exists upon forbidding mourning the visual is thesis statement beowulf rather like the stress upon dessertation meaning the aural in an analysis of music.
The importance of all this is to demonstrate the tendentiousness of the support for Wordsworth’s domination of the eye theory. There is, in Gilpin’s preface, nothing whatsoever about “mere amusement” and from that nothingness there is beowulf christianity decidedly no logical step to “sight alone.” What we really discover here is Watson’s attempt to support subtly Wordsworth’s notion, which, as is becoming increasingly apparent, actually had no validity in Wordsworth’s own work. This then is one tiny element in mba essay books the construction of the predominant Picturesque/romanticism theory. In fact, Gilpin’s note is thesis beowulf nothing more sinister than an acknowledgement that God is largely excluded from the critical essays Picturesque view. Although Wordsworth might have thought this unfortunate, in terms of christianity historical artistic development, removing God from the picture was essential in bestowing intrinsic validity to nature and landscape. Finally, Wordsworth’s own vision grew from an aesthetic arboretum that was the Picturesque. He descended not from heaven, fully formed and ready to pen; but rather was shaped by the multitudinous historical, social, economic, artistic and aesthetic factors. Without the continuum in which the Picturesque was contained, Wordsworth and romanticism would have remained a pipe dream piped perhaps by a transplanted neo-classical Roman shepherd. Watson himself reluctantly admits that “in spite of his condemnations of the picturesque and his awareness of the regarding the importance despotic eye, Wordsworth remains interested in landscape as it is seen” (104); and yet the penny never drops and a change of statement beowulf christianity view never takes place. Davies similarly pays great attention to forbidding The Prelude , albeit with a more diction-based argument. “In rejecting the ‘picturesque’,” Wordsworth is “running counter to [the] predominant fashion” (249), and deliberately selects bare and naked scenes. This notion re-creates Wordsworth as an artist removed from historicity, a one man cultural band not only playing his own tunes but inventing his own scales, an idea suggestive even of deification.
As proof, Davies provides a table of “unpicturesque”—nay, “anti-picturesque” (250)—terms harvested from The Prelude . Unfortunately, at least half of them are perfectly picturesque: “cliffs,” unless we imagine a polished cliff; “old stone wall,” unless expurgated of beowulf lichen and moss and the old stone wall reformed as a new stone wall; “whistling hawthorn,” unless de-thorned, de-whistled and well pruned; “craggy ridge” and “craggy steep,” de-cragged; “perilous ridge,” de-periled. Even those terms which seem marked by a smooth unpicturesque character are often un-picturesque red-herrings: the “naked pool,” is perhaps “water of which the surface is broken, and the motion abrupt and irregular” ( On the Picturesque , 84); or perhaps reflecting the Picturesque scenery in which it resides. More astounding than erroneous, Davies includes “mountains” in his anti-picturesque catalogue! Davies’ crowned prince of proofs then turns out to be a beggar boy in disguise, with all the airs and graces and sir gawain critical, robes of royalty, yet concealing a shallow mind and dirty underwear. In addition, even if Davies’ brief was bona fide , the thesis christianity fact remains that Burke’s smooth beauty is, in regarding part, elemental to the Picturesque scene. The absurdity of Davies’ position in this respect is made conspicuous when, ever contrary, he examines the before and thesis statement beowulf christianity, after Gilpin prints (see figures 11 and 12) and insists that, “This second print, in its way, is charming enough.
But the first is impressive” (229)! It is mba essay books this irony, this inconsistency, this disparity that suggests Wordsworth’s professed aversion to the Picturesque should be taken not only with a grain of salt, but with a veritable variety of spices—grown, of course, in a garden suitably picturesque. In the final analysis, it is the poetry itself which must provide the statement christianity theory, rather than the poet himself; and indeed, this is the whole point. The Sublime and the Beautiful. Davies’ suggestion that only a valediction thesis Wordsworth frequently used “sublime” and “beautiful” conjunctively, to which he devotes several pages, besides being erroneous, reveals a scant familiarity with Gilpin, for, as we have seen, it was the combination of the beautiful and sublime— “. Thesis Statement Beowulf Christianity? . Sir Gawain Essays? . so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque” ( Three Essays , 52)—which, for Gilpin, produced the Picturesque and so was central to his own understanding. Whether or not Gilpin offers these words conjunctively once or a thousand times, the point is thesis statement that the conjunction is omnipresent in his definition of the Picturesque. Just as Brownlow suggests that John Clare transcends the Picturesque by discovering the good microcosmos, he also insists that Wordsworth “transcends” the Picturesque by experiencing the “Sublime.” (25) Of course, he is also wrong, and for the same reasons. Since the Picturesque never evolved into statement beowulf, a finalised coherent theory, remaining vast in scope, since its primary concern was with landscape and graphic art—Price notwithstanding—the very notion of poets’ “transcending” the Picturesque is one which seems born of an intellectualised mule; and although modern critics seem intent to ride this mule for all it might be worth, the beast is dessertation meaning clearly an ass of their own imagination. Guide to the Lakes. Davies correctly points out that the vigorous and much-publicised Picturesque debate raged during the period when Wordsworth was most active as a writer.
As Davies states: “The reader of christianity Wordsworth cannot for long go ignorant of the for and essay studying part played by the Lakes in making him everything he was” (3). Indeed, the thesis christianity popularity of the Lake District is inextricably tied with that of for and against essay studying Wordsworth. His own A Guide Through the District of the Lakes in the North of England , is, to a large degree, typical of this sub-genre. Not surprisingly, Davies thinks otherwise: Gilpin, he says, believes landscape significant “not for the sake of the people who live in it” (230) but “simply for the painter” (230)—and this despite the following quotation, from Gilpin, two pages earlier: “These smooth-coated mountains, tho of little estimation for the painter’s eye, are, however, great sources of plenty. They are the nurseries of sheep; which are bred here, and fatted in the valley” (228). Gilpin proceeds to describe the thesis beowulf difficult life of the shepherds. According to Davies, in writing his own Guide , Wordsworth’s “approach was the opposite one” (230)—though it seems that Gilpin’s approach also was opposite. In actual fact, Wordsworth’s guide, as suggested above, is pretty much par for the Picturesque course. Mba Essay Books? Wordsworth even commits the cardinal sin: “The want most felt, however, is that of timber trees. There are few magnificent ones to statement beowulf christianity be found near any of the lakes” (79). Here Wordsworth censures a scene for lacking a particular pictorial element—so much for the opposite approach. Wordsworth’s Guide also demonstrates an eloquent command of Picturesque idiom: “. . . by bold foregrounds formed by the steep and winding banks of the river” (43); “None of the other lakes unfold so many fresh beauties . . Mba Essay Books? . “ (39); “ . . . agreeably situated for water views” (40); “. . . constitute a foreground for ever-varying pictures of the majestic lake” (50).
Besides idiom, Wordsworth participates in thesis statement beowulf Picturesque politics, supporting Gilpin in his criticism of white painted houses, and sustaining Price’s landscape gardening theories. Neither is Wordworth’s inclusion of poetry in his Guide anything more than standard. Even the prosaic Handy Guide to the English Lakes , now a rare and a valediction mourning, anonymous sixpenny edition likely destined for the more affluent working class tourist, features such verse as Wordsworth’s: “A straggle burgh of ancient charter proud / And dignified by statement beowulf battlements and towers / Of stern castle, mouldering on the brow / Of a green hill (17). Besides the outbreaks of essay abroad poetry, the Handy Guide inevitably features numerous Picturesque line drawings, including one particular example which offers further indication of the popularity of Picturesque tourism: an uninteresting depiction of Furness Abbey disinherits the usual foreground grouping of statement christianity rustic figures, replacing them with a party of pic-nicking holiday makers. Davies’ suggestion that Wordsworth’s Guide is “antithetical” (230) to Gilpin’s, for it insists that “the real importance of mountain scenery was not visual, but mental” (230), sounds nice, though unfortunately is nonsense. Certainly, Gilpin examines landscape from critical essays a painterly point of view, though his lengthy guides are filled, as we have seen, with imagination and local human considerations, auditory appreciation and thesis statement, tactile expressions, emotion and admiration. In his Guide , Wordsworth provide a lengthy extract from Dr. John Brown’s verse Fragment : Now sunk the sun, now twilight sunk, and night.
Rose in her zenith; not a passing breeze. Sigh’d to the grove, which in the midnight air. Stood motionless, and in the peacefull floods. Inverted hung: for now the billows slept. Along the shore, nor heav’d the deep; but spread. A shining mirror to the moon’s pale orb, Which, dim and waning, o’er the shadowy cliffs,
The solemn woods, and spiry mountain tops, Her glimmering faintness threw: now every eye, Oppress’d with toil, was drawn’d in deep repose. Save that the unseen Shepherd in his watch, Propp’d on his crook, stood listening by the fold, And gaz’d the starry vault, and pendant moon; Nor voice, nor sound, broke on the deep serene; But the soft murmur of swift-gushing rills, Forth issuing from the mountain’s distant steep, (Unheard til now, and now scarce heard) proclaim’d. All things at mba essay books, rest, and imagin’d the still voice.
Of quiet, whispering in the ear of night. (84) Wordsworth honours Brown as “one of the first who led the way to a worthy admiration of this country” (84); though in a footnote adds: Dr. Brown, the author of thesis statement this fragment, was from his infancy brought up in Cumberland, and should have remembered that the practice of folding sheep by night is unknown among these mountains, and that the image of a shepherd upon the watch is out of place, and belongs only to countries, with a warmer climate, that are subject to the ravages from reagan good beasts of statement beowulf prey. It is pleasing to notice a dawn of regarding the importance of education imaginative feeling in these verses. Tickel, a man of no common genius, chose, for the subject of a Poem, Kensington Gardens, in preference to statement beowulf christianity the Banks of the Derwent, within a mile or two of which he was born. But this was in the reign of Queen Anne, or George the First. Progress has been made in the interval; though the good president essay traces of it, except in Thomson or Dyer, are not very obvious. (84)
The mention of Tickel immediately invokes neo-classicism and its inability to adopt real landscape, and the shepherd of the fragment becomes an Arcadian figure. At this point we need only recollect Pope’s comment on thesis statement beowulf, shepherds “as they may be conceiv’d then to have been,” to realise the for and against essay studying abroad distance already travelled: what once was a rule of statement beowulf christianity poetry is now a grave error. Davies, brimming with “limitations” of the Picturesque, takes Wordsworth’s footnote and regarding the importance, informs us: “This ‘progress’, however, he clearly regarded as limited” (220). Clarity aside, we might wonder how progress can ever be limited, unless we imagine an acorn limited for not already being an oak. To suggest, by extension, that the Picturesque is therefore limited seems to reject a hill for beowulf, not being a river. But there is more than a call for reagan good essay, accurate realism in thesis christianity this note, for essays, the “mile or two of which he was born” suggests a sentiment both regional—nationalistic in the larger context—and also, applying Post-colonial hindsight, a conflict between the centre and margin. Treatment of real British landscape without reference to Virgil and Horace and Company insists upon a new centre. This is clearly manifest when both Wordsworth and Coleridge choose between the Alps, the traditional site of the European sublime, and domestic mountains. In The Prelude , for statement, example, Wordsworth dismisses the Alps, shifting the focus to Snowdon, whilst Coleridge's Scafell experience becomes a celebration of sir gawain critical Mont Blanc in the “Hymn before the statement beowulf Sunrise in the Vale of a valediction forbidding thesis Chamouny.” As Woodring suggests, “Sometimes implicitly but often with a militant defensiveness, exponents of the picturesque declared it a distinctively English answer to the sublime of the Alps” (48).
Concomitantly, Wordsworth’s regional loyalty suggests a similar centre/margin dichotomy between urban London and the rural north. In another example of thesis statement beowulf christianity Picturesque nationalism, Wordsworth draws a comparison between the Alps and local scenes: The forms of the mountains, though many of them in some points of view the noblest that can be conceived, are apt to run into spikes and needles, and present a jagged outline which has a mean effect, transferred to canvas. (74) Wordsworth was a great explorer of the countryside, and, it seems, actually a Picturesque explorer. As Dorothy Wordsworth wrote in her journal of a Scottish tour: When we were within about half a mile of Tarbet, at a sudden turning, looking the left, we saw a very craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones; the rocks on the summit distinct in shape as if they were buildings raised up by man, or uncouth images of meaning some strange creature. We called out with one voice, “That’s what we wanted!” alluding to the frame-like uniformity of the side-screens of the lake for the last five or six miles. (qtd. Watson, 104) Note the “craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones,” the statement beowulf christianity “frame” and “side screens.” Note also “in one voice,” or, “as three persons with one soul,”  as Coleridge wrote.
They had then found “what they wanted,” and mba essay books, clearly they wanted the Picturesque. In addition to this, a letter written by statement Dorothy to Coleridge in March 1804 includes mention of the importance of education a beck discovered by statement beowulf christianity Wordsworth: “It is a miniature of all that can be conceived of savage and grand about a river, with a great deal of the beautiful. William says that whatever Salvator might desire could be there found” (qtd. Watson, 104). With all this travel and exploration it seems more than natural that Wordsworth would one day write his own Picturesque guide, if only regarding he was not so absolutely clearly and undeniably in opposition to and transcendent of the whole thing. . . . Wordsworth’s Guide was first published anonymously in 1810 and then, ten years later, in a collection of his own verse. According to W.M. Mercant’s introduction, reviews of the verse were “critical” though the Guide met with “almost unanimous approval” (Guide, 31). Post Apostolical Poetry.
The notion that Wordsworth adopted his own critical assessment—dethroning the monarchical sense of vision—has been seriously questioned from beowulf various angles. Regardless, if we are indeed to take Wordsworth at his word, the expectation would be that only this transcendental picturesque—if any picturesque at all—would henceforth appear. Wordsworth, after all, has accused, judged and condemned the Picturesque and we are told by ronald reagan good president essay a jury of modern critics that he will no longer be shackled to thesis beowulf christianity that blasted bastion of narrow thinking. A Valediction Forbidding Thesis? How strange then that with the Gospel clearly spelled out, Wordsworth continues to seek the Picturesque and thesis beowulf, often with an entirely conventional viewpoint. For example:
And not a voice was idle: with the din. Smitten, the precipices rang aloud; The leafless trees and every icy crag. Tinkled like iron; while far-distant hills. Into the tumult sent an sir gawain critical alien sound. Of melancholy, not unnoticed while the thesis statement beowulf stars, Eastward, were sparkling clear, and in a valediction forbidding mourning the west.
The orange sky of evening died away (“Influence of Natural Objects,” 39-46). Understanding the Picturesque in all its theoretical variety—which now, hopefully is the statement beowulf christianity case—reveals this extract clearly and undeniably as picturesque in sound and not a transcending of the Picturesque. We have already seen how Wordsworth’s own Guide was written years after the momentous formulation of judgement. In terms of his poetry, there are numerous other examples which similarly contradict the generally accepted view. The sonnet “Between Namur and Liège,” from Memorials of a Tour on the Continent, 1820 , for example:
WHAT lovelier home could gentle Fancy choose? Is this the stream, whose cities, heights, and plains, War's favourite playground, are with crimson stains. Familiar, as the Morn with pearly dews? The Morn, that now, along the silver MEUSE, Spreading her peaceful ensigns, calls the swains. To tend their silent boats and ringing wains, Or strip the mba essay books bough whose mellow fruit bestrews. The ripening corn beneath it. As mine eyes.
Turn from the fortified and statement beowulf, threatening hill, How sweet the prospect of yon watery glade, With its grey rocks clustering in pensive shade— That, shaped like old monastic turrets, rise. From the smooth meadow-ground, serene and still! This is the entire poem and so quintessentially Picturesque as to thesis require no further comment. Beowulf? More frightening than this—at least for the jury who surely now must be out to lunch—is the attached footnote: The scenery on the Meuse pleases me more, upon the whole, than that of the for and against studying abroad Rhine, though the river itself is statement beowulf much inferior in grandeur. The rocks both in form and colour, especially between Namur and Liege, surpass any upon the Rhine, though they are in sir gawain essays several places disfigured by quarries, whence stones were taken for the new fortifications.
This is much to be regretted, for they are useless, and the scars will remain perhaps for thousands of years. A like injury to a still greater degree has been inflicted, in thesis beowulf my memory, upon the beautiful rocks of sir gawain Clifton on the banks of the Avon. There is probably in existence a very long letter of thesis beowulf mine to mba essay books Sir Uvedale Price, in which was given a description of the landscapes on the Meuse as compared with those on the Rhine. This is the entire footnote and now comes the terrible blind taste test: who could, who would, write such staple, such superficial judging of thesis statement one scene with another as if they were paintings: Gilpin? Knight? Wordsworth. “Epistle to Sir George Beaumont”—Beaumont, connoisseur, collector, painter, “befriended and encouraged many painters, notably Constable and Ibbetson” (Bicknell, 15) and was a conservative follower of Picturesque tenets (see figure 13)—offers an example where scenery is described for reagan good, its own sake, where its very worth is sufficiently innate to need virtually no additional coinage: Within the mirror’s depth, a world at thesis statement beowulf christianity, rest— Sky streaked with purple, grove and craggy bield.
And the the importance of education smooth green of many a pendent field. And, quieted and soothed, a torrent small, A little darling would-be waterfall. One chimney smoking in its azure wreath, Associate all in the calm pool beneath, With here and there a faint imperfect gleam. Of water-lilies veiled in misty stream. (174-83) Of course, the beowulf richness here is owed largely to the loveliness of the wordscape, a place opulent in picturesque elements: the craggy bield , waterfall, chimney, the stream. This epistle, penned in ronald essay 1811, is a veritable treasure trove of picturesque landscape and elements. Never actually sent to Beaumont, it was clearly intended as a publishable poem.
Another typically Picturesque poem is statement beowulf christianity “The Pass of Kirkstone,” published in 1817: Oft as I pass along the fork. Of these fraternal hills: Where, save the rugged road, we find. No appanage of human kind; Nor hint of against essay studying man, if stone or rock. Seem not his handy-work to mock. By something cognizably shaped;
Mockery—or model—roughly hewn, And left as if by earthquake strewn, Or from the Flood escaped:— Altars for Druid service fit; (But where no fire was ever lit. Unless the glow-worm to statement christianity the skies. Thence offer nightly sacrifice;) Wrinkled Egyptian monument;
Green moss-grown tower; or hoary tent; Tents of a camp that never shall be raised; On which four thousand years have gazed! (3-20) Gone then is the Pope-like catalogisation, the very antithesis of Wordsworth’s methodology; instead, though the poetic eye might survey a scene, the poetic voice is essay the importance of education selective of Constable-like charged spots: the fork in the road, one branch leading to reverie, the richly connotative fraternal hills, the rugged road, which by its very presence admits the absence of man, and thesis beowulf, finally the rock, whose shape suggests still another landscape: imagined and drawn of history. There is, in “Composed Among the Ruins of a Castle in North Wales” (1824), a parallel to Price’s theories of landscape gardening, where the patina of time is a valediction forbidding recommended to beowulf christianity provide an unfinished roughness to stonework, to ronald reagan good replace bunched bush with unexpected tree and shiny brick with sombre block. Beowulf Christianity? This aesthetic was, as we have seen, actually focused not merely upon the importance visually based appreciation, but upon associated emotional reaction.
The acute interest in ruins demonstrated by artists during the Picturesque period was entirely germane with the general elegiac mood and graveyard melancholy. Thesis Statement Beowulf Christianity? This interest in ruins, obviously, was shared by Wordsworth. Regarding Of Education? “Composed Among the Ruins,” after a conventionally ominous opening: “Through shattered galleries, ’mid roofless halls, / Wandering with timid footsteps oft betrayed (1-2), finally becomes a eulogium: Relic of Kings! Wreck of forgotten Wars, To winds abandoned and the prying Stars. Time loves Thee! at his call the Seasons twine.
Luxuriant wreaths around thy forehead hoar; And, though past pomp no changes can restore, A soothing recompense, his gift is Thine! (9-14) There can be no clearer example of poetic philosophical perspective—Father Time and Mother Nature, the benevolent patrons of Ruin—entirely born of picturesque aesthetic theory. Doubtless there is also a playfulness here, and one reminiscent of Gilpin:
What share of picturesque genius Cromwell might have, I know not. Certain however it is, that no man, since Henry the Eighth, has contributed more to adorn this country with picturesque ruins. The difference between these two masters lay chiefly in the style of ruins, in which they composed. Henry adorned his landscape with the ruins of statement beowulf abbeys; Cromwell, with those of castles. I have seen many pieces by this master, executed in a very grand style. . . . (II, 122-3) All this seems further indication of the longevity of the Picturesque. Landscape and (small case) nature clearly are the central rubric of late eighteenth and early nineteenth century cultural movement; and Wordsworth’s transformation of poetry occurs in a context where new values and aesthetic parameters are well established. It is the colourful mixing of both palettes which is Wordsworth, and which defines early romanticism. Compared to for and against essay earlier treatments of beowulf christianity landscape and nature, offering that flat canvas description, Wordsworth adopts the criteria of picturesque aesthetics, but incorporates the emotional dimension offered by for and essay abroad the associative value of word, of memory, of subjective response. The elements of Picturesque landscape then become “the stuff that dreams are made of”: dreams reflective, dreams nostalgic, dreams dreaming, and dreams born of a learned appreciation for beauty that is particularly and properly Picturesque.
There is statement christianity a final plot twist: Watson cunningly has stacked the deck. Essay The Importance Of Education? He swiftly explains away the Picturesque in Wordsworth’s later poetry by suggesting that this is thesis statement christianity merely the sir gawain critical work of “his uninspired years” (92). Christianity? Of course, this is much too glib, especially when we remember the voracity with which critics inform us of Wordsworth’s rejection of the Picturesque, stressing and re-stressing its “limitations.” Again, what seems a more reasonable explanation is that the Picturesque provided not only the foundations for romantic poetry, but that without the Picturesque there would have been no romantic poetry at all. In simple terms, one can perhaps take the poet out of the Picturesque, but you cannot take the Picturesque out of the poet. Figure 10: Kenneth Clark, Doctor Syntax sketching a lake, from Bicknell. Figure 11-12: Gilpin, Non-picturesque and picturesque mountain landscape.From Three Essays.
Figure 13: Sir George Beaumont, Landscape , from Bicknell. The Foreground: Keats. This section will firstly consider particular difficulties in mba essay books approaching Keats and the Picturesque, moving then to Keats’ Picturesque view, its effects and statement beowulf christianity, influence. The non-faddish longevity and ultimate importance of the Picturesque is finally determined. Wordsworth, born with and nurtured on the Picturesque, could never escape its influence and sustenance. Indeed, Wordsworth without the Picturesque seems himself a destitute and thesis, picturesque half-starved figure. Keats, although temporally distant from the eighteenth century Picturesque development, attempts to see with the Picturesque vision, to thesis christianity adopt the general philosophy, providing compelling evidence against for and against studying, the standard cultist and faddish judgements offered by thesis beowulf faddish modern literary scholars and serves as testimony not only to the Picturesque’s diuturnity, but also its fundamental value. An examination of Keats in terms of the Picturesque, however, involves a number of initial problems. The Problem With Keats. Firstly, Keats (1795-1821) published his first solitary poem—“O Solitude,” in The Examiner —in 1816.
In simple terms, Keats came of mba essay books age with landscape firmly entrenched as an aesthetic concept that required no further exploration. The Picturesque, initially the only means of discovering landscape, now stood like an thesis old well-travelled train puffing steam on some siding. Landscape was omnipresent, on main lines and branch lines, an aesthetic form no longer solely the stuff of a valediction thesis agriculture and ownership. This is not to imply that exploration could no longer take place, only that the thesis beowulf christianity imperative was now only an implication. Secondly, the title of Keats’ first penned poem—“Imitations of Spenser” (1814)—suggests Keats’ propensity to look backwards, not particularly to the neo-classicist’s Golden Age—though his use of myth glances in that direction—but most particularly to a Golden Age of English poetry: Spencer, Shakespeare, Milton. Not surprisingly, poetic drama and epic seemed the fairest genres. Thirdly, as Keats claims, his interest was in people not pictures: “Scenery is ronald essay fine, but human nature is statement christianity finer” ( Letters , I, 242). However, as with Wordsworth, autotelic acceptance of such claims overlooks the need to ronald good mine more valid resources in other areas and risk faulty and perhaps fatal conclusions. Finally, Keat’s interest in language itself, in imagery and metaphor—in addition to the “felicity and variety” ( Letters , xxxi)—leads him towards the adoption of diction born of those same grand masters; as well as to thesis christianity the inevitable effect of the unexpected: his singular phraseology. Standard Picturesque idiom, by now somewhat hackneyed, is unable to convey this effect and Keats’ early poetry provides the lion’s share of colloquialisms.
Further, it becomes quite clear quite soon that Keats’ goal was to essay the importance depart from stylistic norms, particularly those of the statement beowulf eighteenth century and achieve some degree of originality. All this notwithstanding, the sustaining power of the Picturesque—and so its importance—can still be discovered in both the life and works of reagan essay Keats. “O Solitude,” reveals a vision of landscape which is particularly picturesque: O SOLITUDE! if I must with thee dwell, Let it not be among the jumbled heap. Of murky buildings; climb with me the beowulf steep,— Nature's observatory—whence the dell, Its flowery slopes, its river's crystal swell, May seem a span; let me thy vigils keep. ’Mongst boughs pavillion’d, where the deer’s swift leap.
Startles the wild bee from the fox-glove bell. But though I'll gladly trace these scenes with thee, Yet the sweet converse of an innocent mind, Whose words are images of mba essay books thoughts refin’d, Is my soul's pleasure; and it sure must be. Almost the highest bliss of human-kind, When to thy haunts two kindred spirits flee.
Here, Keats paints no landscape with his words; rather, he adopts an attitude to nature which stems not from the statement southern regions close to home, but from the studying abroad heartland of quintessential Picturesque scenery. It is here, amongst the steep windswept hills, the spilling streams, the dells and lonely haunts, that a true sense of sublime solitude is experienced. Beowulf? Rather than suggest unsupported influence, merely compare “O Solitude” with Wordsworth’s sonnet on dessertation meaning, the sonnet, “Nuns Fret Not At Their Convents’ Narrow Rooms,” clearly contextualised in the Lakelands: “. Statement Christianity? . . bees that soar for bloom, / High as the highest Peak of mba essay books Furness-fells, / Will murmur by the hour in foxglove bells” (5-7). In “Sleep and Poetry” (1816), Keats demonstrates a simple gratification in simple Nature descriptions, beginning his description of Poesy—the highest calling—entirely in naturalistic terms: Should I rather kneel.
Upon some mountain-top until I feel. A glowing splendour round about me hung, And echo back the voice of thine own tongue? (49-52) Here the mountain top serves as altar to the poet-priest: both the material manifestation and thesis christianity, the token picturesque echo of poetry’s voice, the situation and mba essay books, inspiration. This soon progresses to a unclouded analogy between literature and landscape: Will be elysium—an eternal book. Whence I may copy many a lovely saying.
About the leaves, and flowers—about the playing. Of nymphs in woods, and fountains; and the shade. Keeping a silence round a sleeping maid. (63-68) The opening, “What is more gentle than a wind in summer” (1), “More healthful than the leafiness of dales?” (7) sets the initial tone: composed of statement a sappy repetition of feminine rhymes that describes entirely the sappy nature Keats first has in mind. Mba Essay Books? The centre weight of “Sleep and Poetry” is sweetness (the word sweet occurs ten times) rather than picturesqueness.
Interestingly, Poetry—the answer to thesis statement christianity this famous string of rhetorical interrogations—is described in terms familiar to the Picturesque. There is the beautiful: “beautiful,” “smooth,” “wings of a swan”; intermixed with the sublime: “awful,” “fearful claps of thunder,” “low rumblings,” and “sounds which will reach the Framer of all things.” Keats then once again rambles in his southern fields of “joy,” to “woo sweet kisses,” amongst fanciful “Flora”; all in all, “A lovely tale of sir gawain critical essays human life.” Briefly, Poesy is statement beowulf itself a kind of Edenesque landscape, where the gentle white dove wafts its wings in cooling wind for the resting poet. And yet Keats knew such joys he must “. . . pass . . . for thesis, a nobler life,” and there “find the agonies, the strife / Of human hearts. . . Statement Beowulf Christianity? . Essay? (122-124). This re-introduces Poetry, this time in terms of beowulf “calling,” and again Keats offers images drawn from the picturesque landscape, eloquent as allegory for the solitude, agonies and transience of the human experience: “cragginess”; “winds with glorious fear”; the sky is no longer filled with fluffy white, but “ a huge cloud's ridge”; there are now “mountains” filled with “Shapes of delight, of mystery, and fear.” Keats, aspires to become the powerful “charioteer,” understanding “the agonies, the strife” of sir gawain essays “thousands” of statement christianity different men. Clearly and a valediction forbidding, undeniably—and here we can be thankful that the thesis literary jury who generally overlook Keats and the Picturesque are not only mba essay books out to lunch but almost completely out of the picture—Picturesque allusions best express those agonies, that strife. The final verse paragraphs provide an extra dimension, an inventory of the christianity art decoration in his friend Hunt’s house situated within the larger context of poetic fancy. Landscape is reframed as landscape painting, providing an sir gawain essays early indication of Keats’ frame of mind: his leanings toward art. It seems clear from all this that Keats already understands the symbolic value of the picturesque scene: its ability to conjure up the essence of man’s existence: the beauty of youth coupled with the awful of age, that dialogue which utters mutual pity and ultimate evanescence.
At the same time there can be little doubt that Keat’s cheerful disposition at this time makes the Picturesque an uncertain subject. “I Stood Tip-Toe” (1816) offers another early effort at landscape poetry. Almost at once the statement beowulf christianity view from the “little hill” becomes an exercise. To peer about upon variety; Far round the horizon's crystal air to skim, And trace the dwindled edgings of its brim;
To picture out the quaint, and curious bending. Of a fresh woodland alley, never ending; Or by the bowery clefts, and leafy shelves, Guess where the jaunty streams refresh themselves. (16-22) Unfortunately, there is no unity in a valediction forbidding thesis Keats’ picture—despite the superlative editorial annotation of thesis christianity “pure nature-painting”—only a variegated catalogue of nature confused by occasional legends of Hellas and compounded by relentless rhyming couplets. If the landscape speaks to Keats, the voice again has sappily sweet tendencies, as with the for and essay feminine rhyme, “Nature's gentle doings” which are “softer than ring-dove's cooings.” Even quintessential picturesque elements become, like “the quaint mossiness of aged roots,” quaint rather than symbolic or expressive. If Keats found any authentic feeling in statement christianity this landscape, the poem offers barely a sigh. This becomes clear when we compare: My spirit is too weak—mortality. Weighs heavily on mba essay books, me like unwilling sleep, And each imagined pinnacle and steep.
Of godlike hardship tells me I must die. Like a sick eagle looking at the sky. (1-5) This contemplation comes not from the vision of landscape but “On First Seeing the Elgin Marbles,” written the following year. During this early period, then, Keats is more often touched in a vague spiritual sense not by landscape nor nature but by christianity art. As Maureen B. Roberts explains in her somewhat chimerical The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in the Works of John Keats : Within these few lines are themes and symbols which come to feature prominently in Keats’ mature poetry: the eagle as the transcendent victory of beauty—the vision of mba essay books unity—over the “dizzy pain” of the “undesirable feud” of beowulf christianity opposites; the motif of critical essays heaviness representing the Gnostic “sleep” as imprisonment in beowulf the world, and sickness as the self-division which must be transcended in a valediction forbidding mourning thesis order to attain the ascent. (Roberts) Whatever the extent of Gnostic influence, the fact remains that the Elgin Marbles lead Keats inwards, towards fundamentals, while the tip-toe view results in little more than a dance through the tulips; indeed by the end of the poem we can only imagine Keats tired of his tip-toe prance. And yet, in “To Haydon,” written concomitantly with the Elgin Marble sonnet, Keats composed another in which he speaks of beowulf men who stare at sculptures “with browless idiotism.” The sonnet also includes: . . Essays? . forgive me that I cannot speak. Definitively of these mighty things; Forgive me that I have not eagle’s wings,
That what I want I know not where to seek. (“To Haydon,” 3-6) Keats then is still searching, rambling, as we shall see, between the vicarious and the actual. There is some certitude: the unbreakable link between landscape and poetry: “Some flowery spot, sequester'd, wild, romantic, / That often must have seen a poet frantic” (“Epistle to George Felton Mathew,” 37-8)  ; and the particularly evocative effects of picturesque scenery which speak to Keats of thesis statement christianity Poetry as vocation. Yet still the searching, which eventually will lead him towards the Picturesque. People not Pictures. March 13, 1818, Keats writes to his friend Bailey: “Give me a barren mould so I may meet with some shadowing of Alfred in the shape of a Gipsey, a Huntsman or as Shepherd.
Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” ( Letters , I, 242). Essay Regarding? As an addendum to this, Keats felt that the principal use of poetry was to sharpen “one’s vision into the heart and nature of man” (qtd. Bate, 337). Although this seems to exclude any exploration of the Picturesque, Keats’ catalogue of thesis characters are, perhaps inadvertently, certainly importantly, all of the Picturesque scene. Further, Turner’s series of Picturesque landscapes of England and Wales, which beyond doubt are Picturesque studies, nevertheless express the idea that “man is as much a phenomenon of the natural world as are mountains, fields and oceans” (Shanes, 8). It seems clear that Keats, familiar with the beauty of southern landscape, still lacked in dessertation any actual experience of the Picturesque sublime. An exhibition of the American painter, Benjamin West, where “. . . Keats was altogether receptive to statement beowulf christianity any effort to dessertation meaning attain the ‘sublime’”(Bate, 243), featured one particular painting, “Death on the Pale Horse,” known for stirring such feelings. Keats was ultimately disappointed: . . Thesis Beowulf Christianity? . Ronald Reagan Good Essay? there is nothing to be intense upon; no women one feels mad to thesis statement christianity kiss; no face swelling into reality. . . Essay Regarding The Importance Of Education? . The excellence of every Art is its intensity, capable of making all disagreeable evaporate, from their being in close relationship with Beauty and christianity, Truth—Examine King Lear you will find this exemplified throughout. (qtd. Bate, 243)
Although this does underscore the focus of Keats’ main interest, his dissatisfaction with this painting seems singular. A letter to Reynolds (25 March, 1818), for regarding the importance, example, contains the following: You know the Enchanted Castel, it doth stand. Upon a rock, on the border of a Lake, Nested in trees,
A mossy place, a Merlin’s Hall, a dream. You know the clear lake, and the little Isles. The Mounts blue, See what is coming from the distance dim! A golden galley all in silken trim.
O that our dreamings all, of sleep or wake, Would all the colours from the sunset take. . . . ( Letters , 260-261) Keats explains in an endnote to this poem that his inspiration was Claude’s “Enchanted Castle” in “ Sacrifice to Apollo ” ( Letters , 263) . Further, Manwaring suggests that the thesis statement beowulf same canvas was transmuted into certain lines of “Ode on a Grecian Urn”—itself formed of pictures; and perhaps a sense of Claude is mba essay books still heard in “. Thesis Statement? . . magic casements, opening on essay regarding the importance, the foam / Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn” (“Ode to a Nightingale, 69-70). Although Keats will discover a sense of sublimity in landscape during his 1818 Picturesque tour, art provided the source from statement beowulf which he would most often and most naturally drink. The sense of for and studying sublimity through the subjective contemplation of objects is common to the romantics, but Keats’ “Ode on a Grecian Urn” demonstrates his variance with Wordsworth: for Keats it is the Urn rather than Nature which provides lessons of thesis statement beowulf christianity truth.
And yet there is a striking similarity, for the main theme is not the figures on the Urn but the poet’s own response. The “Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” notion requires further definition: Keats, by his own confession, states: “. . . my head is sometimes in such a whirl in considering the million likings and regarding the importance, antipathies of thesis beowulf our Moments” ( Letters , 324); “I carry all matters to an extreme—so that when I have any little vexation it grows in five minutes into a theme for Sophocles” ( Letters , 340). In other words, his youthful mind changes with the frequency of English weather. His comment here is in essay particular reference to landscape scenes seen in real life: the letter was written during a prolonged stay in Devonshire, during a period described as, “splashy, rainy, misty snowy, foggy haily floody, muddy. . . .” ( Letters , 241). Even if we willingly expand his scenery/human nature comment to all landscapes and all sunny days—the effect, for example, of offering the quotation without the context in order to prove a point—as ridiculous as this might seem, there still remains, as suggested by thesis statement beowulf christianity the “Gipsey,” “Huntsman” and “Shepherd,” the Picturesque character . The Picturesque Tour  We have so far seen reasons why a Picturesque Tour was long on mba essay books, the books, not least of which is the thesis beowulf christianity fact that literature cannot be writ from an exploration only of literature.  Keats’ keen literary vision and his initial rural blindness are unwittingly confessed in “To one who has been long in mba essay books city pent”: To one who has been long in thesis city pent, ’Tis very sweet to look into the fair.
And open face of heaven,—to breathe a prayer. Full in against the smile of the blue firmament. Who is more happy, when, with heart’s content, Fatigued he sinks into some pleasant lair. Of wavy grass, and reads a debonair. And gentle tale of love and languishment. (1-8) Certainly there is pleasure in this dulcet southern domain, though finally, typically, Keats turns his full attention to a book. Sidney K. Robinson, Inquiry into the Picturesque , repudiating the absurdity of comparing landscapes with paintings, states: For the thesis statement christianity Picturesque, of course, studying paintings and reagan, books was the thesis statement christianity clearest recognition that designing the landscape was a complex amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the meaning patterns of arrangement and selection inherent in the operation of the human mind. (Robinson 103) Although the connection might seem somewhat tenuous, designing poetry is equally “an amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of arrangement and selection inherent in the operation of the human mind.” Keats had studied literature and now the necessity of experiencing raw nature at first hand could no longer be denied. By mid 1818, Keats realised “there is something else wanting to thesis beowulf one who passes his life among Books and thoughts on essays, Books” (qtd.
Bate, 340). In April, Keats proposed. within a Month to put my knapsack at my back and make a pedestrian tour through the beowulf christianity North of England, and part of Scotland—to make a sort of Prologue to the Life I intend to pursue. . . . ( Letters , 264) As a citizen of the mba essay books romantic province, experiencing nature at length and up-close was a moral imperative, not only statement beowulf christianity because other poets had trod that path, but because nature, especially the grander and awful, are essential for imaginative energy. Keats knew this and essay, Keats went a-wandering. Beowulf Christianity? In late June, his travelling companion, Charles Brown, wrote in his journal: The country was wild and essay studying abroad, romantic, the weather fine, though not sunny, while the fresh mountain air, and many larks about us, gave us unbounded delight. As we approached the lake, the scenery became more grand and beautiful; and beowulf, from time to time we stayed our steps, gazing intently on it. Hitherto, Keats had witness nothing superior to studying Devonshire; but, beautiful as that is, he was now tempted to speak with indifference. At the first turn from the road, before descending to the hamlet of Bowness, we both simultaneously came to thesis statement christianity a full stop.
The lake [Windermere] lay before us. His bright eyes darted on a mountain-peak, beneath which was gently floating a silver cloud; thence to a very small island, adorned with the foliage of trees, that lay beneath us, and surrounded by reagan good essay water of a glorious hue, when he exclaimed: “How can I believe in thesis statement beowulf christianity that?—surely it cannot be!” He warmly asserted that no view in the world could equal this—that it must beat all Italy. ( Letters , 425-426) (See figure 14. ) It is against studying abroad perhaps difficult for the sensorially saturated modern to thesis beowulf imagine the provocativity and, yes, the sublimity, of such landscape; this lengthy extract, however, makes clear the power of the Picturesque, temporally contextualised, when such scenes were relatively unfamiliar. In a sense, we have here the spectacular importance of the Picturesque, an indication of why a revolution it caused in of education aesthetics and christianity, art; and the comparison with Italy—the fountain-head from which swelled the Picturesque—is beyond doubt no chancy happening. Keats’ own record of the tour, his correspondence, is equally mottled with superlatives: What astonishes me more than anything is the mba essay books tone, the colouring, the beowulf slate, the stone, the moss, the rock-weed; or, if I may so say, the the importance of education intellect, the countenance of such places. Thesis? The space, the against essay studying abroad magnitude of mountains and waterfalls are well imagined before one sees them; but this countenance or intellectual tone must surpass every imagination and defy any remembrance. ( Letters , 301) (See figure 15.)  Here then Keats finally discovers the Picturesque (note the catalogue) as well as its associational value. Statement Beowulf Christianity? Paraphrasing Archibold Alison, Hipple states: “An object is picturesque if it is such as to awaken a train of associations additional to what the scene as a whole is calculated to mba essay books excite” (164). Again, the picturesque then is a term whether in landscape, painting or literature which has everything to do with associationism; and thesis, we see that Price’s attempt to divorce the term from its reference to pictorial representation is by no means peculiar. Thesis?  Keats, clearly, has imagined such scenes, imagines them as he hikes, and yet the thesis beowulf christianity intellect seems suddenly insignificant once confronted with the actual. Keats goes on to tell Tom: I shall learn poetry here and mba essay books, shall henceforth write more than ever, for the abstract endeavour of thesis beowulf christianity being able to add a mite to that mass of for and essay studying beauty which is harvested from these grand materials, by the finest spirits, and put into etherial existence for the relish of thesis one’s fellows. I cannot think with Hazlitt that these scenes make man appear little.
I never forgot my stature so completely—I live in the eye; and my imagination, surpassed, is at rest. President Essay? (301) There is too much for coincidence in these two passages: to “defy remembrance,” to thesis christianity “live in the eye,” to “forget my stature,” besides an echoing of mba essay books negative capability, is thesis clearly to defy Wordsworth—an assertion that though perhaps he follows in sir gawain critical essays the old poet’s footsteps, he will find his own way in the Picturesque. Indeed, Keats himself admits this point: As to the poetical Character itself, (I mean that sort of thesis which, if I am anything, I am a Member; that sort distinguished from the wordsworthian or egotistical sublime; which is a thing per se and forbidding thesis, stands alone) it is not itself—it has no self—it is everything and nothing. Statement? ( Letters , 386-7) In a similar vein, Keats comments on Windermere, which makes. . . . one forget the divisions of life; age, youth, poverty and riches; and essay regarding, refine ones sensual vision into a sort of north star which can never cease to thesis statement christianity be open lidded and steadfast over the wonders of the great Power. A Valediction Forbidding Mourning? ( Letters , 299)  At the end of June, Keats visits the “Druids’ Circle.” Gilpin, in his tour of the Lakes, discovered this same temple, which he admits is not particularly picturesque, though conjured up pictures of Druid priests and ritual sacrifice. A romantic fancy? Surely not! The pit-falls, obstacles and hardships of the tour increasingly insinuate themselves into his correspondence.
Brown was a veteran hiker. For Keats—by no means weak-kneed nor namby-pamby—the going becomes too tough. The Picturesque of northern Britain is a landscape of antagonistic elements, gentleness is anathema, where the only comfort can come from discomfort. All this, compounded with climactic and topographical alienness, becomes apparent in “On Visiting the thesis statement beowulf christianity Tomb of Burns,” written during the tour: The town, the mba essay books churchyard, and the setting sun, The clouds, the thesis beowulf trees, the rounded hills all seem, Though beautiful, cold—strange—as in a dream, I dreamed long ago, now new begun. The short-liv’d, paly Summer is but won.
From Winter’s ague, for one hour’s gleam; Though sapphire-warm, their stars do never beam: All is cold Beauty, pain is never done: For who has mind to relish, Minos-wise, The Real of meaning Beauty, free from statement that dead hue. Sickly imagination and sick pride. Cast wan upon it? Burns! with honour due. I oft have honour’d thee.
Great shadow, hide. Thy face; I sin against the native skies. ( Letters , 308) Although largely a fault finding mission, a remonstrance, penned by a southerner spoiled by reagan languid southern summer sunshine and summer warmth, there is here, as there is not in “I Stood Tiptoe” and other early poems, an authentic sense of feeling, a sense of being touched by landscape and nature, a genuineness that foreshadows “Ode to Melancholy.” There is also an important associational element, translating to the problem of judging beauty when both our judgement and beauty itself are tinged with the thesis christianity omnipresence of brevity and death. If the northern summer is only a brief delivery from winter, then what of our lives? The headiness of the essay first fine weather days are followed by an account of a country dance, which Keats concludes with what is becoming a familiar refrain: “This is what I like better than scenery” ( Letters , 307).
In Scotland he writes: “I know not how it is, the Clouds, the sky, the Houses, all seem anti Grecian anti Charlemagnish—I will endeavour to get rid of my prejudices, tell you fairly about the Scotch” ( Letters , 309). Statement? At the same time, there is mourning thesis a clue to Keats’ understanding of picturesqueness: “The barefooted Girls look very much in statement beowulf christianity keeping—I mean with the mba essay books Scenery about thesis statement beowulf christianity, them. . . . They are very pleasant because they are very primitive” ( Letters , 318-19). Steeped in literature, with much of a valediction mourning thesis his experience experienced vicariously, Keats can never entirely lose his prejudice. As hinted above, Keats takes great delight in picturesque characters: Imagine the worst dog kennel you ever saw placed upon two poles from a mouldy fencing—In such a wretched thing sat a squalid old woman squat like an ape half starved from a scarcity of Biscuit in its passage from Madagascar to the cape,—with a pipe in her mouth and looking out with a round eyed skinny lidded, inanity—with a sort of horizontal idiotic movement of her head—squat and lean she sat and puffed out the smoke while two ragged tattered Girls carried her along. ( Letters , 321-2) Notice the skill with which Keats intensifies the picturesque effect: the mixed dog/ape metaphor, the alliteration and repetition.
This, certainly, is a different Picturesque, though nonetheless Picturesque. The detachment we witnessed in Wordsworth—that frequent remoteness from the thesis statement real trials and tribulations of country life—is also manifest in Keats. Essay Studying Abroad? John Clare, Keats’ contemporary, similarly notes: . . . his descriptions of scenery are often very fine but as it is the case with other inhabitants of great cities he often described nature as she appeared in thesis beowulf his fancies not as he would have described her had he witnessed the things he describes—Thus it is he has often undergone the the importance stigma of Cockneyism what appears as beautys in the eyes of a pent-up citizen are looked upon as conceits by those who live in the country—these are merely errors but even here they are merely the beowulf christianity errors of poetry—he is often mystical but such poetical licences have been looked on as beauties in Wordsworth Shelley and in Keats they may be forgiven. (qtd. Watson, 23) The idea that such romanticisms are “merely errors of poetry” is indicative of the times, a kind of Claudian perspective where both the Picturesque and sir gawain, poetic vision could often turn a blind eye to social reality and thesis beowulf christianity, see instead a dislocated ideal. The subject then is not merely inaccuracy in “descriptions of essay scenery” but the general anti-utilitarianism of romantic poetry.
This, it seems, is much more “comic and faddish” (Brownlow, 43) than learning to appreciate landscape through painting. It is also entirely common to all the romantic poets. Again, to statement quote Clare: And een the fallow fields appear so fair. The very weeds make sweetest gardens there.
And summer there puts garments on so gay. I hate the plow that comes to dissaray. And man the only object that disdains. Earths garden into deserts for his grains. Leave him his schemes of gain—tis wealth to me. Wild heaths to trace—and not their broken tree. Which lightening shivered—and which nature tries.
To keep alive for poesy to prize. Meaning? (Clare, 80) Interestingly, however, such romanticism of christianity country life is mba essay books often omitted during the tour, where Keats comes face to face with the squalor—and a foreign squalor to such a southerner—of poverty and often describes it in thesis empathetic or political terms: On our walk in Ireland we had too much opportunity to see the worse than nakedness, the mba essay books rags, the dirt and misery of the statement beowulf poor common Irish—A Scotch cottage, though in that some times the Smoke has no exit but at mba essay books, the door, is a palace to an Irish one. ( Letters , 321) There is perhaps some implication that a philosophical shift occurs in moving from poetry to prose, as if the picturesque vanishes with the replacement of smock for Wellington boots and overalls, a justification for beowulf christianity, the might of “modern” prose. The subject of Keats’ complaint was also the subject of a Picturesque sub-category: the the importance Gainsboroughesque “cottage Picturesque,” where sublimity is replaced by romantic rusticity, where such squalor is marked by its absence: in essence, a gentle Picturesque (see figure 16 ). In a gasping effort at brevity, much has been overlooked. In summary, Keats’ correspondence during the tour is overgrown with the Picturesque, from poems such as “Ailsa Rock” (see figure 17) and “Ben Nevis,”—which, in statement beowulf its stumbling uncertainty, seem neither a Ben nor a Nevis—to comments such as “evey [sic] ten steps creating a new and beautiful picture—sometimes through little woods—there are two islands on the Lake each with a beautiful ruin—one of essays them rich in ivy ( Letters , 338).  In early August, after covering 642 horizontal and vertical miles in sometimes cold wet conditions with sometimes poor food and thesis, indifferent accommodation, after suffering a fortnight from a cold and sore throat, Keats abandoned the tour and left his friend to continue alone. 
Watson—in his singular modern study of Keats and dessertation, the Picturesque, which continues the standard criticism instituted with Wordsworth—provides a succinct panorama of the refracted light of statement christianity influence the Picturesque tour radiates over Hyperion , and there is no need therefore to offer excessive focus.  In summary, Watson points out that the power of the poem stems from Keats’ “mythologising imagination” and the sublime “terrifying landscapes which form the background for the colossal figures” (155). Mba Essay Books? But the christianity picturesque, in addition to background, also serves as a form of characterisation, externalising the internal: . . . Sir Gawain Essays? where their own groans. They felt, but heard not, for the solid roar. Of thunderous waterfalls and torrents hoarse. Pouring a constant bulk, uncertain where. Crag jutting forth to crag, and rocks that seem’d. Ever as if just rising from a sleep,
Forehead to forehead held their monstrous horns; And thus in a thousand hugest phantasies. Made a fir roofing to this nest of christianity woe. (II,6-14) On similar lines, “The quiet sublime imbues the sorrow-worn face of Moneta within the temple of Western memory built by Keats in The Fall of Hyperion ” (Woodring, 40). There are, however, a few additional points which Watson fails to note.
Firstly, the poem opens with Saturn and Thea postured “. . . Essay Abroad? motionless / Like natural sculpture in cathedral cavern” (I.85-86). The scene is represented through copious visual images at the expense the beowulf christianity auditory. Regarding The Importance? Recollecting, “I live in the eye” from his picturesque tour, there is thesis statement some hint of the of education visual memories which form the scenery of christianity Hyperion’s stage. The “fallen divinity” of Saturn exists in essay regarding the importance a mythico-historical landscape formed of the transcendental imagination and nature experienced during the beowulf tour: the forbidding thesis “thousand hugest phantasies.” Watson’s closing comment—“ Ode to Autumn originated in the Hampshire harvest-time, not on a Lakeland mountain; and the nightingale, like Keats, sings only in the south of England” (157)—scores high marks for rhetorical tune and statement beowulf christianity, poetic twang; unfortunately, it is ronald reagan president essay falsely based upon the premise that the thesis statement beowulf Picturesque is heterogeneous to Hampshire as well as drawing attention to his ornithological dullness. Following the Picturesque Tour, Watson states: “. Reagan Essay? . . and there, apart from Canto I of The Fall of Hyperion , Keats turned his back upon the picturesque for ever” (157). Although, again, rhetorically right and conforming to the standard ignominiously moulded analysis of the statement Picturesque, this is not, in actual fact, the case. The influence of Claude’s Sacrifice to Apollo on “Grecian Urn” and “Ode to a Nightingale” has already been mentioned. In more general terms, and as Bate mentions: “It is interesting to note the number of spontaneous phrases and images in his letters now that are later echoed in the poetry, especially in forbidding the Odes“ (358). Although instances are numerous, a couple will prove the point. In terms of diction, compare: “There is no great body of water, but the accompaniment is delightful; for it ooses out from a cleft in perpendicular Rocks, all fledged with Ash. . .” ( Letters , 306) with, “ Fledge the wild-ridged mountains steep by steep” (“Ode to Psyche,” 55).
In terms of thesis statement beowulf a specific memory, compare the excursion to forbidding mourning thesis Ambleside waterfall: “. . Beowulf Christianity? . it is buried in reagan good president trees, in the bottom of the valley—the stream itself is interesting” ( Letters , 300), with, “. . Thesis? . over the still stream, / Up the hill-side; and now 'tis buried deep / In the next valley” (“Ode to a Nightingale,” 76-8). The Picturesque continued to work through Keats’ poetry: not always clearly; but the lines still are drawn. Recalling Keats’ comments on first seeing Windermere, which included “refine ones sensual vision into a sort of north star,” we move easily to its later transmutation: Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art- Not in lone splendour hung aloft the night, And watching, with eternal lids apart, Like nature’s patient, sleepless Eremite, The moving waters at their priestlike task.
Of pure ablution round earth’s human shores, Or gazing on the new soft-fallen mask. Of snow upon essays the mountains and statement beowulf christianity, the moors; No-yet still stedfast, still unchangeable, Pillow’d upon my fair love’s ripening breast, To feel for ever its soft fall and swell, Awake for critical essays, ever in a sweet unrest, Still, still to hear her tender-taken breath, And so live ever-or else swoon to death. ( Complete Poems , 329) One of the problems of looking at Keats in a Picturesque context, as mentioned above, is his unwillingness to statement adopt standard phraseologies, choosing instead to create fresh imagery. Although this is indeed a “problem,” it is also a solution.
Knight was perhaps the most adamant proponent of “novelty” in Picturesque scenes. A vast expanse of lawn is boring not simply for its smoothness, but for its lack of surprise. Abrupt variation produces mixture through novelty. Richard Payne Knight recognised the salutary effect of mba essay books “irritation” as an thesis beowulf interruption of sensations that had become “stale and vapid” through repetition. (Robinson, 7) It seems fair therefore to suggest that poetic coinings—“large dome curtains,” ( Hyperion ) and “massy range” ( Fall of Hyperion ), for example—are a form of such abrupt variation producing mixture through novelty. Mba Essay Books? In a sense, Keats’ poetical methodology stems directly from the lessons of the Picturesque, at statement beowulf, least in terms of “the noble metaphor, when it is placed to Advantage, casts a kind of Glory round it, and darts a Lustre through the whole sentence” (qtd. Robinson, 9). That dart of lustre provides the interruption, the irritation, the unexpected that is “novelty.” This is key not only to the Picturesque but to much of Keats’ better poetry.
Although perhaps out on essay of education, strechified limb, in danger of statement christianity barking up the wrong tree, the suggestion merely provides some indication of the less obvious influence of the Picturesque. Hipple points out that the term “picturesque” can and is used solely as a literary term: “Blaire,” he says as a case in point, “repeatedly praises epithets, figures and descriptions as ‘picturesque’ as conjuring up distinct and ronald reagan president, forcible images.” (186) Indeed, compared with Robinson’s analogy between the complexity and mixture of the Picturesque and identical constituents of the 18th century Whig party, (“Compositions of Politics and Money”)—the picturesque here seems more associated with the wig than the party—the claim seems modest enough. The Liberty of the Picturesque. The difficulty of defining romanticism, which we have deliberately over-looked, stems of course from the diversity of poetry, of thesis beowulf christianity styles, of influences and of diction of romantic poets. That variety is itself a product of the times and the liberty that the mba essay books Picturesque supported—liberty both in the political and personal sense. Knight, in Progress of a Civil Society , points out the connection between the thesis beowulf christianity picturesque landscape garden—and by extension, the Picturesque in general—and the composition of society:
As when in forbidding mourning thesis formal lines, exact and true, The pruner’s scissors shear the ductile yew, Amused, its shape and symmetry we see, But seek in vain the likeness of a tree; And while the artist’s pleasing skill we trace, Lament the loss of every native grace: So when too strictly social habits bind, The native vigour of the roving mind, Pleased, the well-ordered system we behold.
Its justly regulated parts unfold, But search in vain its complicated plan. To find the native semblance of a man, And, ’midst the charms of equal rule, deplore. The loss of graces art can ne’er restore. Thesis Statement Beowulf Christianity? (qtd. Robinson, 134) In a sense, an examination of the Picturesque in the context of dessertation meaning its influence on romanticism—even when fairness, as here, is the ultimate goal—does a certain injustice to the subject and filters out thesis beowulf christianity, much of the important material. Thus, for example, the liberating effect seems somewhat arbitrary. Hipple, in The Beautiful, the Sublime and the Picturesque , occupies a unique position in modern Picturesque analysis, going beyond the positivism of for and against essay art historians and suggesting that the Picturesque is consequential in and of itself.
Although Hipple rarely ventures beyond summary and conflation of individual Picturesque theories, his treatise is thesis comprehensive, detailed and offers an critical important concluding point: The aestheticians of thesis statement beowulf christianity this period [eighteenth century] all found their subject to the importance be psychological: the central problem for them was not some aspect of the cosmos or of particular substances, nor was it found among the characteristics of human activity or of the modes of symbolic representation; one and all, they found their problem to be the specification and beowulf christianity, discrimination of certain kinds of feelings, the determination of the mental powers and susceptibilities which yielded those feelings, and of the impressions and ideas which excited them. The Importance? (305) Although the Picturesque, despite Hipple’s unqualified assertion, does indeed concern itself with particular substances: the elemental material of a scene; and with human activity: the hiking and picturesque tours, the picturesque guide books and plain and simple painting and poetry; and with modes of thesis statement symbolic representation: the Picturesque itself is a mode of essay regarding of education symbolic representation; Hipple’s stress upon the psychological basis is nevertheless an beowulf christianity important point, especially when we look forward to essay the importance the psychological aspect of romantic poetry. One of the difficulties with the Picturesque is that it never became a unified system; the saving grace of the Picturesque is that it never became a unified system. It is fundamentally concerned with the native vigour of the roving mind, allowing for thesis beowulf, nature and art to stroll arm in arm, allowing and even insisting upon the liberty of variety and change: the liberty then of Wordsworth and Keats. Keats, for forbidding, all his youth and gentle disposition, found the Picturesque health threatening to walk through and almost anomalistic to incorporate in his verse; as a serious poet with ambitions of beowulf immortality,  he nevertheless realised its essentiality to his artistic development. As Robinson explains: “Picturesque colors are not fresh, delicate ones of spring, but those of autumn whose age and decay bespeak fullness and repose tinged with memory and the sharpness of abrupt terminations” (101). Keats then is seeking, not for something to save his life, but his immortality. Keats never reached an age when these colours could clearly be seen and so we find glimpses here and there and the constant desire to “bid these joys farewell”: those bright colours of youth. Figure 14: Joseph Farington, Windermere, from dessertation meaning Watson. Figure 15: Joseph Farington, The Waterfall at Rydal , from thesis statement christianity Watson (visited by Keats)
Figure 16: Francis Wheatly (1747-1801), Girls washing in mba essay books a stream, from Bicknell. Figure 17: Ailsa rock, from thesis beowulf Bate. Four years after the death of Keats, engraver and a valediction forbidding thesis, publisher Charles Heath and Turner came “to an agreement that Turner would produce a large quantity of water-colours over thesis christianity a number of years, from which Charles Heath would choose 120 to be line-engraved and subsequently published under the title of “Picturesque Views in England and for and against abroad, Wales.”(Shanes, 5) The Picturesque, even at this date, remains a vital force that warrants the attention of England’s finest artist. Indeed, “Turner was undoubtedly at the height of his mature creative powers during the years of this series”(Shanes, 17) The implied perception of the romantic movement as a reaction against eighteenth century neo-classicism or, at thesis beowulf christianity, the other extreme, as spontaneous literary combustion torched by Wordsworth’s egotistical sublime is regarding the importance prescriptivism unleashed, offering barely the bare bones of a story. It is neither immaterial nor coincidental that the 1770s—the decade of Wordsworth’s birth—also saw the beginnings of English landscape painting as a major genre, signifying not only a general artistic reaction but also attraction . The eighteenth century saw landscape modified from statement beowulf traditional perceptions of ownership, agriculture and meaning, trial and trouble to aesthetic material.
This then is the general Picturesque canvass. The Picturesque movement, in providing the initial way of seeing landscape actually encouraged the viewing of statement beowulf landscape, opening the scenery of England to enthusiastic travellers in search of the Picturesque and finally revealing what had always been there though never before seen. This suddenly seen landscape was no longer lit by the golden light of a fanciful Golden Age; no longer mottled with classical sylvan shadows, where Pope’s “Fair Thames, flow gently from thy sacred spring, / While on sir gawain essays, thy banks Sicilian Muses sing”; no longer a continuation of the Works and Days of Hesiod nor theories of Theocritus: now the Island’s landscape might be seen in common light, casting its own shadow, peopled by thesis statement beowulf christianity common people born and bred, the works and days of a new age. In addition to this aesthetic revolution, the heightened status of ronald president essay landscape provided an environment in which nature, the individual elements of landscape—already of increasing importance by statement virtue of developments in the natural sciences—might find its aesthetic value enlarged. The Picturesque movement proved its importance and for and essay studying, viability by its very popularity and success.
Picturesque theory intellectualised landscape, transforming it into something that could only be truly appreciated through learning, just as neo-classicism had done previously, though now it was no longer classical learning but aesthetic learning that was sought; and the focus was decidedly the landscape itself rather than a superimposed classicism. Thesis? It this manner, it was increasingly intellectually acceptable to study landscape, in painting, in poetry, and in pastime. For And Against Studying? As Christopher Hussey suggests in The Picturesque : The picturesque view of nature was the new, the only, way of beowulf christianity deriving aesthetic satisfaction from landscape. Previously, Englishmen had simply failed to connect scenery and painting in their minds. They had liked certain views and certain lights, just as all men like sunshine and verdure, for their own sakes.
But landscape as such gave them no aesthetic satisfaction. Regarding The Importance Of Education? (2) The notion of thesis beowulf complete detachment from an thesis aesthetic appreciation of scenery—essentially the unfamiliarity of the familiar—seems, at least at christianity, first glance, rooted in a certain outlandishness. Additional proof comes from regarding the importance Wordsworth himself, who lodged for a time near Derwentwater. under the roof of a shrewd and sensible woman, who more than once exclaimed in my hearing, “Bless me! folk [picturesque tourists] are always talking about prospects: when I was young there never was sic a thing neamed.” (qtd. Christianity? Andrews, 153-4) On a hike through Wales, Uvedale Price came upon a series of natural cascades and expressed his delight to the landowner: He was quite uneasy at sir gawain critical essays, the pleasure I felt, and seemed afraid I should waste my admiration. “Don’t stop at thesis statement, these things,” said he, “I will shew you by and by one worth seeing.” At last we came to a part where the critical brook was conducted down three long steps of hewn stone: “There,” said he, with great triumph, “that was made by Edwards, who built Pont y pridd, and it is christianity reckoned as neat a piece of mason-work as any in the country.” (qtd. Robinson, 11)
Neither is this detachment merely a fact of by-gone days: During a recent journey to a valediction forbidding mourning thesis England, crossing the North Yorkshire Moors in the company of a local retired farmer, I was struck immediately by the picturesque landscape: a region of sudden chasms, blasted trees and weathered rocky outcrops, of bumbling uncertain stone cottages and barns and christianity, shaggy sheep. Ronald Reagan President? My companion was indifferent to its charms. Suddenly, all about the thesis statement meandering road, we came upon an area quite changed, unusually verdant, with thick hedge-rows and trees full grown and full leafed--and decidedly less picturesque. The farmer suddenly came to life. “I did all this,” he began, with an all embracing wave of his hand. “It used to be like all the rest, now’t bar rocks. Ronald Good President? Look at thesis statement beowulf christianity, it now though.” For the next several miles he lectured on his “improvements,” singing praise of its cultivated nature and even claiming to have caused changes in local climate! Soon we re-entered the picturesque and protected national park. “Now, just look at that,” he scoffed with a disdainful shake of his head. Mba Essay Books? “It’s bloody awful.”
The Picturesque was, further, a ubiquitous movement which sought to understand the nature of aesthetic perception and to provide prescriptions which essentially affected an entirely new appreciation for the wild wilderness of places such as the thesis statement beowulf christianity Cumbrian Lake District. Finally, we should not discount the political and social overtones: the against essay abroad license it provided for liberalism, for variety, for change, for originality. For all its seriousness, Picturesque musings were wont to thesis statement wander into regions of a valediction absurdity, sometimes finding their way into statement christianity, the real world, as with Charles Hamilton’s hiring of a hermit to sit in his back garden hermitage; or the estate village of Old Warden in Bedforshire where, in the early nineteenth century, the residents were cajoled into wearing red cloaks and tall hats to harmonise with the red paint work and charming dormers of their cottages. In the fictional world, this absurdity was also made apparent: A lecture on the picturesque immediately followed, in thesis which his instruction were so clear the she soon began to thesis statement see beauty admired by critical him, and her attention was so earnest, that he became perfectly satisfied of her having a great deal of thesis statement natural taste. He talked of fore-grounds, distances, and second distances--side-screens and perspectives--lights and shades;--and Catherine was so hopeful a scholar that when they gained the top of Beechen Cliff, she voluntarily rejected the whole city of essay regarding the importance Bath, as unworthy to make part of a landscape. (Austen 138) Indeed, the very pith of Picturesque theory might, to the cynical—and especially literary minded—modern, seems daubed with inanity, for it sought to mix landscape and painting, allowing the appreciation of a real scene for its likeness to art, rather than art for statement, its likeness to a real scene—a notion which Hugh Sykes Davies, Wordsworth and the Worth of Words , finds particularly “unnatural.” The important thing to remember here, however, is critical that this was, plain and simple, the only way into landscape, the only way to see the invisibly visible.
Such satire stemmed from the excesses of the thesis statement beowulf christianity Picturesque movement and the jocularity sometimes manifest in the debate, and is not a suggestion of ignis-fatuus . Further, as Hussey explains, “the picturesque interregnum between classical and romantic art was necessary in order to enable the for and against essay studying abroad imagination to form the habit of feeling through the eyes” (4). It is unfortunate the modern reading of the Picturesque has turned a blind eye to the real meaning of thesis Picturesque and adopted the more authoritative expression of studying abroad Wordsworth himself as well as satirical expression by writers such as Austin and William Combe. And yet the ridiculous that some have found in the Picturesque is found equally in those that find it. J. R. Watson, for example, provides a fitting conclusion: after a quotation in which Coleridge writes of a rocky climbing episode, he writes: “In both Wordsworth and Coleridge there is an exhalation at the danger and excitement . . . the thesis statement beowulf christianity danger was there. . . . Gilpin penetrated into the valley beyond Rosthwaite, but did not consider it practicable to go further” (186). So there we have it: the against essay studying romantic poets were much braver than those mere writers on the Picturesque! And this is good. Thesis Statement? Watson admits, however, that Coleridge “exaggerated the dangers in his letter” (187)! Equally, the idea that the Picturesque had already run its course well before Wordsworth offered the final denunciating blow is forbidding mourning patently absurd. We have already seen how Keats required some close experience of the Picturesque in order to further develop his poetic potential.
We can remove further, both temporarily and geographically: Blake Nevius, in his slim volume, Cooper’s Landscapes , argues convincingly that the Picturesque strongly influenced his pictorial sense and statement christianity, description subsequent to his 1826-1833 stay in Europe: What Cooper as a visual artist learned from his travels on the continent is apparent in the later romances. His sharper awareness of pictorial values to be sought in the natural landscape and ronald good essay, of the means by which these values could be introduced into imagined landscape is most evident . Beowulf Christianity? . . in the forest romances written after his return. (89) We move forward in a valediction thesis time, we cross the Atlantic, we leap from thesis poetry to prose, yet still the Picturesque remains, exerting its influence. The Picturesque, popularised by sir gawain essays the illustrated guides, general debate, fashionable sketching tours, the thesis christianity national fealty of mourning thesis Gainsborough’s work and so on, portrayed a populist and recognisable landscape. Moving away from seventeenth and early eighteenth century depictions of myth-laden Italian scenes, the Picturesque embraced rustic England and adopted a visual idiom from common life.
Bermingham’s suggestion that the concomitant “. . Statement Beowulf? . improvement in real landscape, increasing its agricultural yield, raised its commercial and monetary worth” (1), provides a pragmatic exegesis for the new picturesque fashion and underscores changing cultural values. Against Studying Abroad? If agricultural developments—enclosure, consolidation of statement beowulf christianity small holdings and so on—endowed land with new nummary worth, they also caused the physical transformation of large tracts of countryside, working at odds with the increasing sense of cultural and forbidding mourning, aesthetic worth. As a result, remote rustic regions such as Cumbria’s Lake District, were discovered as “ . . Christianity? . the image of the homely, the stable, the ahistorical” (Birmingham 9). If at the last of the century—beginning with Cowper—there came poets and painters who . . . found beauty in hedge-rows and corn-fields, and in Hampstead and Mousehold Heaths, it was because of a long training in seeing landscape pictorially,—a training which of necessity began with the most elaborate and heightened forms of landscape, with the richest and most obvious appeal, and on meaning, the most vast and impressive scale. (Manwaring, 232) The importance of the Picturesque stems from the fostering of an intellectual approach to the appreciation of architecture, gardening and beowulf christianity, scenery which in turn opened up new vistas of artistic subjects. The emphasis upon feeling and associational values which grew from analysis of the sublime and beautiful and blossomed in the Picturesque finally allowed those new vistas to dessertation be expressed in subjective and romantic terms. Romanticism, then, was, to a large degree, the natural development of Picturesque aesthetics. Of course, the story continues: Ted Hughes, (1930-) born in West Yorkshire and appointed poet laureate in 1984, has written several volumes which testify to the renewed interest in thesis christianity topographical poetry. And all my holiday snapshots are Picturesque.
Andrews, Malcolm. Mourning? The Search for the Picturesque: landscape aesthetics and tourism in Britain, 1760-1800 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1989. Austen, Jane. Northanger Abbey . Beowulf? New York: Dell, 1962. Bate, Walter Jackson. John Keats . Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1963. Benedict, Barbara M. Making the Modern Reader: cultural mediation in early modern literary anthologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. Bermingham, Ann. Landscape and Ideology: the English rustic tradition, 1740-1860 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
Bicknell, Peter. Beauty, Horror and mourning thesis, Immensity: Picturesque Landscape in beowulf christianity Britain , 1750-1850. Cambridge: The Museum, 1981. Brownlow, Timothy. John Clare and Picturesque Landscape . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Combe, William. Doctor Syntax his three tours: in search of the picturesque, of essay consolation, of a wife . London: F. Warne, 1890. Davies, Hugh Sykes. Thesis Statement Beowulf Christianity? W ordsworth and the Worth of Words. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Dayes, Edward, A Picturesque Tour in Yorkshire and Debyshire . London: J. Nichols Son, 1825. Denham, John, Sir. Against Essay Abroad? The Poetical Works . Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1969. Dyer, John. Poems . Ed. Edward Thomas. Beowulf? Lampeter: Llanerch Enterprises, 1989.
Gilpin, William. Essay on Prints. London: 1781. ---. Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape. London: Printed for R. Blamire, 1792. ---. Observations, relative chiefly to picturesque beauty; made in.
the year 1772, on several parts of England; particularly the mountains, and lakes of Cumberland, and Westmoreland . London, Printed for R. Blamire, 1792. ---. A dialogue upon the gardens of the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Cobham at against studying, Stow in Buckinghamshire . Los Angeles: Williams Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1976. --- . Observations on the River Wye . Richmond: The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd, 1973. Greenshields, E.B. Landscape Painting and Modern Dutch Artists . Toronto: Copp, Clark, 1906. Gray, Thomas. Complete Poems of Thomas Gray.
Oxford: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1966. Handy Guide to thesis statement christianity the English Lakes . Kendal: T. Wilson, undated. Hipple, Walter John. The Beautiful, the Sublime, and the Picturesque in Eighteenth-Century British Aesthetic Theory. Mba Essay Books? Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1957. Hughes, John. The Poetical Works of thesis statement beowulf christianity John Hughes . A Valediction Forbidding Thesis? Edinburgh: At the Apollo Press, 1779. Hussey, Christopher. The Picturesque: studies in a point of view . London: Cass, 1967. Johnson, Ben. “To Penshurst” The Norton Anthology of English Literature . Ed. Abrams, M.H.
London: W. W. Norton Company, 1975. Keats, John. Complete Poems and statement beowulf christianity, Selected Letters . New York: Odyssey Press, 1935. ---. The Letters of John Keats 1814-1821, Volume One. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958. Knight, Richard Payne. The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in against Three Books Addressed to thesis statement beowulf Uvedale Price . London: Printed by W. Bulmer and Co., Shakespeare Printing, 1794. Nevius, Blake. Good President? Cooper's Landscapes: an essay on the picturesque vision. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
Pope, Alexander. The Poems of Alexander Pope. Ed. John Butt. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. Price, Uvedale. On the Picturesque . Edinburgh: Caldwell, Lloyd, 1842.
Roberts, Maureen B., The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in the Works of John Keats . 1997. http://www.cgjung.com/articles/keats1.html. Robinson, Eric , ed. Selected Poems and Prose of thesis beowulf christianity John Clare . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967. Robinson, Sidney K. Inquiry into forbidding mourning thesis, the Picturesque . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Ruskin, John. (www.stg.brown.edu/projects/hypertext/landow/ruskin) Serle, John. A Plan of Mr.
Pope's Garden . Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1982. Turner, J. M. W. (Joseph Mallord William), Turner's Picturesque Views in England and Wales, 1825-1838 . Ed. Eric Shanes. London: Chatto Windus, 1983. Thomson, James. The Seasons and The Castel of Indolence . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. Watson J. R. Thesis Statement? Picturesque Landscape and English Romantic Poetry . London: Hutchinson Educational, 1970. Watkin, David.
The English Vision: the picturesque in architecture, landscape, and garden design . New York: Harper Row, 1982. West, Thomas. A guide to the lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire . 4th ed. London : W. Mba Essay Books? Richardson, 1789. Williams, Ralph M. Beowulf? Poet, Painter and forbidding mourning, Parson the Life of John Dyer. New York: Bookman Associates, 1956.
Woodring, Carl. Nature into beowulf, Art : cultural transformations in ronald president nineteenth-century Britain . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989. Wordsworth, William. Guide Through the District of the Lakes in beowulf the North of England . London: Oxford University Press, 1970. ---. Poems.
The poetical works of reagan good president Wordsworth . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982. As the title suggests, this is a cross disciplinary study. What might seem, initially, a grand tour—with hefty baggage—into remote realms outside literature proper is, in fact, a survey of the thesis statement foundations of romanticism. Up until the 19th century, French Salon duries in state-run competitions adhered to a strict hierarchy of subjects determined in 18th century Rococo and mba essay books, Neo-Classical art: history and religious subjects, portraiture, still life and, lastly and leastly, landscape. Thesis Beowulf? Even the French Academy's coveted Prix de Rome for art students had no landscape category until 1817, when historic landscapes with some narrative event were reluctantly allowed. As David Watkin, The English Vision , points out, a similar state existed in the area of architectural paintings: . . . the celebrated architectural competitions for the Grand Prix awarded by the French Academy and forbidding mourning, later by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts: from the statement beowulf christianity first competition held in 1702 up until 1962 no site was ever specified. In England, however, the simple outline elevation in the form of a diagram on an otherwise blank background gradually gave way to drawings which show the building in its setting and eventually, as in the work of Blore for example, to a valediction mourning thesis fully developed water-colours of thesis statement christianity landscape in which the essay the importance of education house appears as an incident. (x) When eighteenth century Britons referred to statement “Poussin” it was normally to Gaspard Dughet and not his now more famous brother-in-law, Nicolas Poussin. Other influential artists, though less important to Picturesque developments, were Tintoretto, Ruisdael and Hobbema. One such example, as E. Forbidding Thesis? L. Manwaring notes, is Jonathan Richardson’s An Account of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs, Drawings, and Pictures in Italy, France, c. (1722) which became, for some time, a standard guide.
The section on landscape pictures, tellingly, features a prefatory note explaining precisely what landscape pictures are! cite - Manwaring 62 63. Watkin essentially makes the thesis christianity same point, though contextualised within the standard literary bias: The history of amateur sketching in the nineteenth century in the manner of De Wint and for and essay studying, Cox affords another example of the way in which a particular mode of vision became established as a thing so “natural” that its artificiality and its debt to the theories of Sir Uvedale Price were generally forgotten. (xi) Roundhay Park—its central stately mansion now a noble pub—in my own home town of christianity Leeds, still features a mock ruin. Over-grown with bramble, nettles, grass and dandelion, it is generally understood—by locals and visitors alike—to be as ancient as it is meaning picturesque. See Manwaring, (8). Johnson’s dictionary, although avoiding the difficulty of defining Picturesque , actually employed it to thesis define other words. Strange then that Burke’s Inquiry is as familiar to academics as the Gospel, whereas Gilpin ideas have become the Apocryphia. The very success of president essay this codification played a prominent role in making banal the very theory it sought to sanctify. The importance of the thesis statement beowulf christianity imagination and subjective vision in landscape painting goes back at least as far as Claude.
Samuel Palmer wrote: “When I was setting out for Italy I expected to meaning see Claude’s magical combinations; miles apart I found the thesis statement christianity disjointed members, which he had “suited to for and essay studying the desires of his mind”; these were the beauties, but the statement beautiful ideal Helen was his own” (qtd. Greenshields, 16). Gainsborough’s rustic figures were influenced by those of Wynant. (1620-1684) . Amongst the sagging shelves of picturesque guide-books were those by Thomas Gray, James Clark and Thomas West. Besides Landscape and An Analytical Enquiry into the Principles of Taste , Knight published books ranging in ronald reagan essay subject from sexual symbolism to Greek philology. This note by Knight is reprinted as a preface to statement beowulf christianity Price’s The Landscape . Importantly, the dominance of the ocular sense which, in reference to sir gawain critical essays the Picturesque, so bothered Wordsworth and is often adopted in literary analysis in reference to Gilpin was most singular to Knight; and was, in fact, a cornerstone of the debate between Knight and Price. For a detailed historical analysis of enquiries into thesis statement, the sublime and the beautiful, as well as the dessertation debt owed by Blake to Joseph Addison, see Walter John Hipple’s The Beautiful, the Sublime and the Picturesque . Somewhat ironically, Wordsworth once rebuked his friend Beaumont for painting-in an thesis christianity imaginary ruined castle in one of his favourite views. Constable was born in Suffolk, and though he found the Lake District too solitary a place, it was there, in 1806, that he met Wordsworth and Coleridge.
See Bermingham for reproduced illustrations. C. The Importance? Meeks, The Railroad Station, An Architectural History. Early pastoral romances—Sidney’s Arcadia (1580-1582) , for example—were resplendent in romance, requiring their courtly readers to possess a familiarity not with nature but classical texts and the conventions of courtly behaviour and are thus excluded from this study. Besides the forced confinement of the heroic couplet, Abraham Cowley in Pindarique Odes (1665) set the example for deliberate irregularity, breaking the chords of the standard Pindaric precedent in an effort to thesis stimulate more intense feeling. This is meaning typical Pope: compare, for example, The Temple of Fame : Here naked Rocks, and empty Wastes were seen, There Tow’ry Cities, and the Forests green:
Here sailing Ships delight the statement beowulf wond’ring Eyes. There trees . . . (15-18) Only myopic—perhaps: Lines 79-80 of ronald reagan good essay Pastorals: Summer : “Your praise the thesis christianity tuneful birds to heaven shall bear,/And list’ning wolves grow milder as they hear.” In a footnote, Pope explains: So the ronald reagan president essay verses were originally written. Thesis Statement? But the author, young as he was, soon found the absurdity which Spenser himself overlooked, of introducing Wolves into England. (131) Pope’s modesty here, of the importance of education course, is overshadowed by the impressive achievement of discovering something even Spenser missed.
A fortunate discovery too, for thesis statement beowulf christianity, the absurdity of the wolves was noticed by the “ Naiads ,” “Jove,” and dessertation meaning, “Satyrs” to name only a few native English characters included in the poem. Notwithstanding Wordsworth’s recognition of Thomson as the first poet since Milton to offer new images of “external nature.” Gilpin, in thesis statement particular, was fond of quoting Thomson in a valediction thesis his various tours. The quotation in thesis statement beowulf Section One, from The Castel of dessertation Indolence , Canto I, XXXVIII, sufficiently demonstrates Thomson’s familiarity with the great European painters of statement landscape which, as we have seen, played a crucial role in ronald reagan good president essay the development of the English Picturesque school. Constable, for example, quoted several lines from “Summer” for his Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows . Topographical poems from thesis beowulf as early as John Denham’s Cooper’s Hill , published in 1642, which provides a very early example of a genre that was to win increasing popularity, invariably involve the poet ascending a peak, surveying the whole and then painting a word picture of ronald interesting prospects. After Wordsworth’s death, a volume of Keat’s poems was discovered amongst his possession, a gift, the pages still uncut. Read an unwillingness to use the word source . Of course, between the lines we discover the implication that Gilpin developed nothing. My own parents, as Yorkshire as Yorkshire Pudding, received, as children of the 1930s, the rare gift of a rare orange for Christmas, finding it to be the ultimate in exotic luxury! Davies’ enclosing imagination within the confines of quotation marks subtly suggests that Knight meddles with something that was not, in actual fact, imagination, but some pale imitation, a phantasmagoric and fraudulent imagination, an imagined imagination.
Watson’s discomfort is palpable, etched in every repetition of the beowulf problem: “Yet the pugnacity of the note needs some explaining” (72); “Yet the poem also contains a direct attack on the picturesque in its footnote” (74); “Yet, as we have seen, the poem also contains an explicit rejection of the habits of picturesque viewing” (77). Turning to The Prelude , Watson offers the standard glib solution: another “yet”: “Yet the energy and power of the experience seen in the light of memory transforms the picturesque scene into something much more powerful” (76). Even Wordsworth’s initial premise, that the “jagged outline . . . has a mean effect, transferred to essay canvas,” is thesis statement beowulf christianity perhaps a sentiment more nationalistic than artistic. Indeed, the influence of this book extends beyond Wordsworth into other critical examinations of the Picturesque and literature, forming the general thesis, for meaning, example, of Brownlow’s study of Clare, who rides the contemporary critical aversion to the Picturesque like a hobby-horse in the Grand National to the point where either the beast dies a sudden death or the race is cancelled: “The Romantics . . . Thesis? inherited the picturesque way of looking at nature, but realised that it, in turn, had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of feeling” (16). On a personal note, I would mention that the Yorkshire Dales are in fact much more picturesque than the Lake District—as are its native inhabitants. It is typical of Davies’ double-dealing study that these particular pictures are excluded from his pages. Compare this to Wordsworth’s complaint, quoted above, that the picturesque eye sees “Less spiritual, with microscopic view.” Davies also draws attention to Wordsworth’s familiarity with other Picturesque guides, including those of Thomas Gray, Dr. John Brown, Thomas West and James Clark. In addition: John Harris [“English Country House Guides, 1740-1840,” Concerning Architecture, ed. J. Summerson, 1968.] has catalogued as many as ninety guides . A Valediction Thesis? . . including no less than thirty-one editions of guides to a single house, Stowe.
We can thus see how far the Picturesque had helped to foster a literary and intellectual approach to the appreciation of architecture, gardening and scenery. (vii) Wordworth’s almost exclusive employment of his own poems, however, might be considered—by some—as egotistically sublime. Although the edition is statement undated, an advertisement section features a blurb from against essay studying a Kendal photographer citing an award won at the Edinburgh International Photographic Exhibition in beowulf 1890-91. Such is the longevity of this “faddish cult.” This picturesque apperception took place in 1803. The Prelude was begun in 1799, and completed in the summer of mba essay books 1805. Thesis Statement Beowulf Christianity? The conclusion is as obvious as it is unavoidable.
We might even waggishly hazard that this superlative picturesque experience took place during the meaning very period of Book XII’s composition. Although Watson provides the fairest literary based analysis of the Picturesque, it is nevertheless incredible that he includes such evidence yet still endorses conventional assumptions. Keats, as a schoolboy, began a translation of the Aeneid . Alternatively, as Walter Jackson Bate informs us in his minute biography, Keats felt that Pope was “no poet, only a versifier” (49). The notion of originality is statement christianity itself a legacy of the romantic ethos: originality becomes vital in art and in life; experimentation with new experiences, diction, systems of thought all become the hallmark of the true romantic genius. Indeed, critics’ unwillingness to give the Picturesque the for and against importance it deserves as both the statement beowulf inaugurator of a new aesthetic vision and as a factor of lasting literary influence stems, perhaps, from the critical romantic desire to see originality rather than acknowledge the temporal continuity of beowulf christianity artistic development. Wordsworth’s preface to Lyrical Ballads disdains overworked poetical diction, though his adoption of Picturesque terminology speaks of following rather than leading. Thomas Gray, in “The Progress of Poesy” (1754), expresses a similar bond between poetry and landscape: Awake, Aeolian lyre, awake, And give to rapture all thy trembling strings. From Helicon's harmonious springs. A thousand rills their mazy progress take:
The laughing flowers, that round them blow, Drink life and fragrance as they flow. Now the essay regarding rich stream of music winds along. Deep, majestic, smooth, and strong. Thro' verdant vales, and Ceres' golden reign: Now rolling down the steep amain, Headlong, impetuous, see it pour; The rocks and statement, nodding groves rebellow to the roar. (I.i.1-12) The central image here is Poetry in general global expansion, finding echo in both the objects of essay of education nature and poets of various ages. Interestingly, even though Keats himself occasionally uses the thesis statement christianity word Picturesque in his correspondence; even though his companion Brown, in Walks in the North , offers the clear sign-post: “Here are the beautiful and sublime in unison,” ( Letters , 428), Bate, in his tomeish biography, avoids such inkish sully.
Keats’ early literary life was marked by mba essay books constant frustrations: “. . Christianity? . I have not an Idea to put to paper—my hand feels like lead . . Mba Essay Books? . I don’t know what to thesis beowulf christianity write” (qtd. Bate, 342). Indeed, Keats shortly hereafter saw the first waterfall of his entire life. Perhaps suffering still from a mind “in such a whirl in considering the million likings and antipathies of our Moments,” Keats, in a letter filled with similar portrayal, ironically concludes: “. . . descriptions are bad at all times” ( Letters , 301). Compared to John Hughes’ comment (Section Two), this represents by no means a development in the poetic continuum as Keats’ leanings towards the dramatic. Supporting this, and in the context of the picturesque: “Turner undoubtedly had what John Gage has perceptively called ‘an almost obsessive readiness to associate ideas’” (Shanes, 21).
Indeed, Keats’ “negative capability,” unless we suspect that he, like Coleridge, was—to quote Edgar Allen Poe—”buried in for and against studying metaphysics” seems a direct challenge to statement Wordsworth. Essay Regarding The Importance Of Education? The notion itself germinated from a lecture on Shakespeare given by Keats’ friend, Hazlitt, who stated that Shakespeare. was the least of an egotist that it was possible to be. He was nothing in himself; but he was all that others were, or that they could become. He had in himself not only the germs of every faculty and feeling, but he could follow them by anticipation, intuitively, into all their conceivable ramification . . . Thesis Beowulf? He had only to of education think of anything in order to become that thing, with all the circumstances belonging to it. Thesis Beowulf? (qtd. Bate, 260) It is no surprise that Keats should whole-heartedly adopt the idea, not only since there is no superior poet to mba essay books emulate, but because it was so oppositional to the crowned King of romantic poetry: Wordsworth. Perhaps in thesis statement christianity revolt against regarding the importance of education, the popular, Keats, as in this instance, makes a studious, though far from thesis statement beowulf christianity successful, effort to avoid the word picturesque , even when the description itself spells out the word.
Also, ruins are the single most common scenic feature of the tour. In 1739, on a tour of the Alps, Thomas Gray cunningly wrote: Mont Cenis, I confess, carries the permission mountains have of being frightful rather too far; and its horrors were accompanied with too much danger to give one time to reflect upon their beauties. (qtd Woodring, 34) In 1803, Coleridge, overwhelmed and over-tired, abandoned a tour with William and Dorothy Wordsworth. Proof, perhaps, that the sublime can get the better of the essay the importance egotistical. A continuation, perhaps, of the question, “How is it they did not [various picturesque and sublime scenes] beckon Burns to thesis statement christianity some grand attempt at mba essay books, Epic” ( Letters , 331). The reappearance of the Druid Circle is taken as a given.
“. . Beowulf Christianity? . to sir gawain essays one whom you understand intends to be immortal” ( Letters , 305).