When writing a reflective essay about an experience in your life
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Employees#039; Motivation at British Telecom. Employee engagement is defined as how an employee thinks about the organization; feels about the organization; and is proactive in the achievement of writing an experience life organizational goals for customers, colleagues and other stakeholders (Cook, 2008). Research! Engagement is the when writing a reflective about an experience life positive attitude of the employee towards the organization and its values (Armstrong, 2010). An engaged employee contributes effectively towards the of nature benefit of the organization. There exists a close relationship between employee engagement, employee commitment towards the organization and organizational citizenship. Benefits of Employee Engagement. Engaged employees perform better Lower employee turnover ratio Better attendance. BT is one of the writing a reflective essay leading communications services companies of the world that serves the essay in tamil needs of customers in the UK and more than 170 countries of the world (BT, 2014). Various services provided by the company include fixed line, broadband, mobile, TV and IT network services (BT, 2014). When Writing A Reflective About An Experience! 32000 employees each quarter provide feedback on employee engagement. Engagement levels at essay BT have improved from 3.69 in February 2013 to 3.82 in February 2014 on a scale of 5. Aspects of Employee Experience that showed improvement: a) Job Satisfaction: Enriched and challenging job. b) Team Engagement. c) Manager: Quality of employee supervisor relationship. d) Senior Leaders: Quality of employee supervisor relationship. e) Company Perception: Quality of employee-organization relationship.
Methods of Employee Engagement at BT. Annual Customer Challenge Cup Competition: 783 teams participated in the competition working on projects that improved local processes and customer services. The teams identified ?80m benefit from cost reduction, cost avoidance and revenue generation that also contributes significantly to customer satisfaction. Managerial compensation and benefits are linked to business performance and their personal contribution at BT. Incentives for senior leaders are associated with business performance over a time frame.
Internal communication has improved by 22% in the last three years. Employees are informed about company decisions, company performance and other issues through digital channels. Leaders connect with their teams through roundtable meetings, town hall debates, site visits, web casts and blogs. Employee input is utilized to transform human resource support methods. When A Reflective Essay In Your! The BT Academy helps employees in the development of professional skills related to strategic planning, culture and communication, effective management, performance management and people development. The academy has trained nearly 5000 employees including leaders from senior management to junior managers for in tamil, leading, coaching and supporting their teams. A global program equips employees with the skills, tools and when essay about life techniques to serve customers in a better manner.
International volunteering program enables employees to use three working days to support causes they are concerned and dissertationen passionate about. When Essay An Experience! In 2013, 16% of BT employees volunteered over 46000 days of time in supporting over 1300 charities and community groups on a global scale. More than 200 BT Volunteers help made BT Young scientist and Technology Exhibition a success. Seven employee networks at on importance of nature in human BT include women, ethnic minorities, disability, lesbian gay bisexual and transgender (LGBT), Christian, Muslim and Carers (BTPLC, 2014). People in these networks support each other and collaborate together for an efficient functioning of the company. As many as 6000 BT employees are a part of these networks. The model demonstrates the when essay about an experience benefits of taking a strategic and proactive approach to employee wellness and engagement (BITC, 2014).
The model highlights the need for collaboration and a persuasion also advocates that employees are responsible for their own wellness and health. Companies that work well have the when a reflective about an experience life following characteristics: a) Employees feel trusted that their work is valued and makes a difference (BITC, 2014). b) Employees believe that their views are respected and considered (BITC, 2014). Dissertationen Uni Tuebingen! c) Customers and business partners want to when a reflective about an experience in your work with the company (BITC, 2014). d) Company and view dissertations employee goals are aligned with each other (BITC, 2014). Better Physical Psychological Health. The Company leadership bears the responsibility and challenge to engage the workforce. BT should focus on leadership development initiatives within the company to train managers to a reflective essay an experience in your be better leaders. Engagement must happen at all levels in BT. The involvement of employees at all levels shall ensure better employee relationships and commitment towards BT. On Trees! BT should focus on developing its internal communication system.
Employee empowerment initiatives should be encouraged so as to allow employees to take decisions for the company and get involved in BT operations. Armstrong, M., 2010. Writing An Experience In Your! Armstrong#8217;s Handbook of Reward Management Practice: Improving Performance Through Reward. 3rd ed. London: Kogan Page Publishers. BITC, 2014.
Better Physical Psychological Health. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BITC, 2014. A Better Resume Service Reviews! Better Relationships. When Writing About An Experience! [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BITC, 2014. Working Well. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. In Human! BITC, 2014. Workwell Model. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BT, 2014. About BT Group. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BT, 2014. BT Group PLC Annual Report and Form 20-F 2014, London: BT Group.
BTPLC, 2014. Engaging our people. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. Cook, S., 2008. Writing A Reflective Essay About An Experience Life! The Essential Guide to Employee Engagement: Better Business Performance Through Staff Satisfaction. London: Kogan Page Publishers. Dulye, L., Quinlan, T., Grossman, D. Vanstone, C., 2007.
Essential techniques for employee engagement, Chicago: Melcrum Publishing. Employees#8217; Motivation at British Telecom. Employee engagement is defined as how an employee thinks about the organization; feels about the organization; and is proactive in the achievement of a persuasion organizational goals for customers, colleagues and other stakeholders (Cook, 2008). Engagement is the positive attitude of the employee towards the about an experience in your life organization and its values (Armstrong, 2010). An engaged employee contributes effectively towards the benefit of the organization. There exists a close relationship between employee engagement, employee commitment towards the organization and organizational citizenship.
Hay Group Model of essay Employee Effectiveness. Engaged employees perform better Lower employee turnover ratio Better attendance. BT is writing a reflective about an experience life, one of the leading communications services companies of the world that serves the needs of customers in essay life, the UK and more than 170 countries of the world (BT, 2014). Various services provided by writing an experience in your the company include fixed line, broadband, mobile, TV and IT network services (BT, 2014). 32000 employees each quarter provide feedback on employee engagement. Dissertationen Uni Tuebingen! Engagement levels at BT have improved from 3.69 in February 2013 to 3.82 in February 2014 on a scale of when writing a reflective essay about an experience in your life 5. Aspects of Employee Experience that showed improvement: a) Job Satisfaction: Enriched and challenging job. View Dissertations! b) Team Engagement. c) Manager: Quality of employee supervisor relationship. d) Senior Leaders: Quality of writing a reflective essay an experience in your employee supervisor relationship. e) Company Perception: Quality of employee-organization relationship. Methods of Employee Engagement at BT. Annual Customer Challenge Cup Competition: 783 teams participated in the competition working on projects that improved local processes and customer services. Writing Service Reviews! The teams identified ?80m benefit from cost reduction, cost avoidance and revenue generation that also contributes significantly to customer satisfaction. Managerial compensation and benefits are linked to business performance and their personal contribution at BT. Incentives for senior leaders are associated with business performance over a time frame.
Internal communication has improved by 22% in when a reflective essay about an experience, the last three years. Employees are informed about company decisions, company performance and other issues through digital channels. Leaders connect with their teams through roundtable meetings, town hall debates, site visits, web casts and blogs. Employee input is utilized to transform human resource support methods. The BT Academy helps employees in the development of professional skills related to strategic planning, culture and communication, effective management, performance management and people development.
The academy has trained nearly 5000 employees including leaders from senior management to junior managers for leading, coaching and supporting their teams. A global program equips employees with the skills, tools and critical research essay techniques to essay about an experience in your serve customers in a better manner. International volunteering program enables employees to use three working days to support causes they are concerned and passionate about. In 2013, 16% of BT employees volunteered over 46000 days of time in supporting over view dissertations, 1300 charities and when essay about life community groups on a global scale. More than 200 BT Volunteers help made BT Young scientist and Technology Exhibition a success. Seven employee networks at BT include women, ethnic minorities, disability, lesbian gay bisexual and transgender (LGBT), Christian, Muslim and Carers (BTPLC, 2014). People in these networks support each other and analyzing a persuasion collaborate together for an efficient functioning of the company.
As many as 6000 BT employees are a part of these networks. Writing Essay About An Experience! The model demonstrates the benefits of taking a strategic and dissertationen proactive approach to employee wellness and engagement (BITC, 2014). The model highlights the need for writing about in your life, collaboration and also advocates that employees are responsible for their own wellness and health. A Better Service! Companies that work well have the following characteristics: a) Employees feel trusted that their work is essay about, valued and makes a difference (BITC, 2014). b) Employees believe that their views are respected and considered (BITC, 2014). c) Customers and business partners want to work with the company (BITC, 2014). d) Company and employee goals are aligned with each other (BITC, 2014). Better Physical Psychological Health. The Company leadership bears the responsibility and challenge to engage the workforce.
BT should focus on leadership development initiatives within the company to train managers to be better leaders. Engagement must happen at all levels in BT. The involvement of employees at all levels shall ensure better employee relationships and commitment towards BT. BT should focus on developing its internal communication system. Employee empowerment initiatives should be encouraged so as to allow employees to take decisions for the company and get involved in BT operations. M. Dulye Co.’s 3S Engagement Model. Figure 10 L.M. Dulye Co.’s 3S Engagement Model (Dulye, et al., 2007) Armstrong, M., 2010. Armstrong#8217;s Handbook of Reward Management Practice: Improving Performance Through Reward.
3rd ed. On Importance In Human! London: Kogan Page Publishers. A Reflective Essay About An Experience! BITC, 2014. Better Physical Psychological Health. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BITC, 2014. Better Relationships. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014].
BITC, 2014. Working Well. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. BITC, 2014. Workwell Model. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. Essay On Importance In Human! BT, 2014. About BT Group. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. Writing A Reflective Essay About An Experience In Your Life! BT, 2014.
BT Group PLC Annual Report and a better resume service reviews Form 20-F 2014, London: BT Group. BTPLC, 2014. Engaging our people. [Online] [Accessed 31 July 2014]. Cook, S., 2008. The Essential Guide to a reflective an experience in your life Employee Engagement: Better Business Performance Through Staff Satisfaction.
London: Kogan Page Publishers. Dulye, L., Quinlan, T., Grossman, D. Vanstone, C., 2007. Essential techniques for employee engagement, Chicago: Melcrum Publishing. We have 100% correct answers to media following questions: 1. Kinkaid Co. is incorporated at a reflective essay about an experience in your the beginning of this year and engages in a number of transactions. The following journal entries impacted its stockholders’ equity during its first year of operations. 2. How many shares of common stock are outstanding at year-end? What is the amount of minimum legal capital (based on par value) at year-end? What is the total paid-in capital at year-end?
5. What is the book value per share of the dissertationen uni tuebingen common stock at year-end if total paid-in capital plus retained earnings equals $787,000? authorized, issued, and outstanding. What is the current market value (price) of this corporation’s common stock? 2. What are the par values of the corporation#8217;s preferred stock and a reflective essay in your its common stock? 3. A Better Service Reviews! If no dividends are in arrears, what are the book values per when essay about an experience share of the preferred stock and dissertationen the common stock? 4. If two years#8217; preferred dividends are in arrears, what are the book values per share of the preferred stock and the common stock? 5. If two years’ preferred dividends are in arrears and the preferred stock is callable at $90 per share, what are the book values per share of the preferred stock and the common stock?
6.1 If two years’ preferred dividends are in arrears and the board of directors declares cash dividends of writing a reflective essay an experience in your $22,800, what total amount will be paid to the preferred and to the common shareholders? 6.2 What is the amount of essay on importance of nature in human life dividends per share for the common stock? (Round your answer to two decimal places.) You can buy 100% correct solution to this test in just $40. Big Data and Hadoop Eco System Sample Essay. We are in the era of data age and there has been a precipitous increase in the size and the scale of web data.
Big data has distinct and complex unstructured formats this include information from social media, websites, email and video presentation. Therefore, organizations need technologies to extract valuable intelligence from when a reflective essay about life, Big Data (Team YS, 2012). To process large data sets, there is the need of media research having technologies that can accurately, powerfully analyze the big data formats. Google is one of the companies that process data using its Google File systems and MapReduce frameworks (Team YS, 2012). These scalable frameworks motivated the Hadoop initiative.
The Apache Hadoop allows the distributed processing of big data across many machines. The apache Hadoop consists of 2 subprojects that is the MapReduce and the Hadoop Distributed File system. The Mapreduce is a software framework and a programming model that assists in writing applications that process large amounts of data in when writing a reflective essay about an experience in your, parallel on clusters of compute nodes (Team YS, 2012). On Trees! The Hadoop Distributed File System is the storage systems that Hadoop applications use. The popularity of the Hadoop application has grown significantly since it meets the needs of most organization. The Hadoop framework provides flexible data analysis with an unmatched price performance curve.
The feature of flexibility analysis applies to when about in your life unstructured data; semi structured data and structured data (thinkbiganalytics.com, 2013). The importance of Hadoop framework has been recognized in places where massive server farms are used to essay in tamil collect data from when writing a reflective essay about in your life, many sources. This is view dissertations, because it can process parallel questions as large, background jobs on one server farm. Writing Essay About An Experience! The Hadoop ecosystem incorporates some tools to view dissertations enable it address specific needs. This includes Hive (it is when about in your life, a SQL dialect), Zookeeper (used for federating services), Oozie, Avro, Thrift, and Protobuf are description formats. Hadoop has a bunch of advantages since it can handle data from disparate systems regardless of the data’s native format. Sometimes data is a better resume, stored in unrelated systems but it is easy to dump it in a reflective essay in your, the Hadoop cluster without the need of applying a schema (thinkbiganalytics.com, 2013). Hadoop is cost effective as compared to other legacy systems. Having in mind that today there are large data sets, using legacy systems is expensive since they were not engineered to cater for the large data sets. Hadoop is cheap because it relies on a better resume service reviews redundant data structure. The framework is deployed on industry standard servers while other legacy systems are deployed in expensive specialized data storage systems.
Hadoop framework has proved its efficiency in a reflective essay about an experience in your, most organizations but as much as it is fast and a better resume service cost efficient, legacy systems will be required to compliment the use of a reflective essay an experience life Hadoop. The features of Hadoop will make the technology attractive; therefore, it is upon the organizations to take advantage of the framework. With Hadoop, organizations will make important predictions by sorting out and on importance analyzing big data. There is no doubt that Hadoop is the core platform for structuring big data sets. Team YS. (2012) Introduction to big data Hadoop Ecosystem- Part 1 . When A Reflective Life! Retrieved from http://yourstory.com/2012/04/introduction-to-big-data-hadoop-ecosystem-part-1/ On March 3, 2014.
Web. Thinkbiganalytics.com. (2013) Hadoop ecosystem. Retrieved from http://thinkbiganalytics.com/leading_big_data_technologies/hadoop/ On March 3, 2014. Web. A Better! HACKING AS A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING WEAKNESSES IN COMPUTER SECURITY. The 21 st century communication has become a big part of our lives. We now depend on a reflective about in your these technological devices. A person can intentionally abuse another through the on importance method of a reflective essay an experience #8220;hacking#8221; and feel no guilt or remorse.
Inversely this hacking could be used to cure and identify occurring hazards, for example ethical hacking procedures in organisations. View Dissertations! This essay focuses on when an experience in your a set of primary issues which indicate sufficient ethical hacking methods as a means of identifying weaknesses in service, computer security. Furthermore, this essay looks into detail of attackers that are also known as #8216;hackers#8217; who try to access personal, organisational or academic systems to which obtain sensitive information. Writing Essay About An Experience In Your! This form of activity is breaching certain Laws and Acts such as #8220;Unauthorised Access#8221; which is the Computer Misuse Act of United Kingdom 1990 (Legislation 2013). In terms of hacking this method should be acceptable as to ensure vulnerabilities are identified and all systems are secured. For example, ethical hacking is solely done to on importance find system vulnerabilities, to when writing a reflective essay about find weak areas in system security which can cause loss of vital information. It is view, different from peripheral defence and network defence, which enables system owners to adopt stronger security, measures in a way so that an attacker knows if he is committing an attack.
Sharing personal details has become a norm in when writing essay an experience life, today#8217;s society as people still are not aware of what could happen to their information. While such information is stored in banks, hospitals, schools, businesses, governments like the bank account numbers, date of births and personal address which is all stored electronically. We already know that how hackers can cause loss to us. In 2003, hacker generated viruses caused 55 Billion dollar loss to organisations all over the world, which was almost two times as compared to 2002 (SecurityStats.com 2004). Ethical hacking can secure and prevent the on trees in tamil organisation’s data from such incidents. It is a reflective essay about an experience in your life, important that we promote ethical hacking in relation to computer security rather than letting black hat hackers to cause financial and essay analyzing social reputation loss of an individual. Organizations and a reflective essay an experience in your life government agencies have to adopt ethical hacking tools to secure important documents and sensitive information (Harold F. Tipton and Micki Krause, 2004). Professional Ethical hackers are hired in order to test the networks effectively. Ethical hackers perform hacking activity with consent and of nature in human knowledge of owner of the organisation or data in when writing essay an experience in your life, consideration. Ethical hacking can also be known as penetration testing which can be used for networks, applications and operating systems (Jeff Forristal and Julie Traxler, 2001). There are two types of hackers i.e.
Black hat hackers and a better resume White hat hackers. This black-hat hacker analyse computer systems to when writing essay an experience in your life understand the weaknesses and to try to crash computer systems, impairing web pages and theft or damage of confidential information which results in disrupting organisations. What the hackers do is that they try to retrieve our sensitive and private information from ourselves. They find the weakest link in the company, they try to find information about the person or company from the internet, colleagues, employees or whatever can be used to access the secret information. When implementing any ethical hacking method such as Penetration testing, it has been seen as a debate in terms the critical ethical, social and technical issues, and this is writing essay about life, purely due to the security breach in an organizational system that could possibly lead to tough consequences and affect the organization progress overall. An example is the ethical aspect in organizations that could be seen as the principles and morals in essay in tamil, which arises in such an environment. It applies to all aspects of the business conduct and applies to individuals and the entire organization. According to the Ethical theory and business book (Beauchamp Tom, 2007). If ethics are not performed logically then this may breach the Ethical policies of the business and writing in your life may hinder the network computer systems too. In Tamil! 5. Legal Issues relating to hacking.
In terms of the process used to test systems, the testing is when writing essay an experience in your, done on live systems and therefore this means dealing with live scenarios and real confidential data, which would arise legal issues. As well as the organizational policies that are put into place, there are also Laws and Acts that ensure that the testing process is handled in an acceptable and trusted manner. However these Laws and Acts could differ depending on the country testing is preceded in. In the United Kingdom, for example, the Laws are as pointed below are highly acknowledged in the process of testing. We need to essay on importance of nature in human life understand the legal terms involved in ethical hacking. These are: Privacy The Data Protection Act 1998 indicates that data which is held on the computer system such as employees and when writing a reflective essay about an experience clients should not be unauthorised accessed. Copyright The Copyright Legislation 1998, as the law prevents anyone to copy information that has been copy written by the owner and view therefore such content could not be used without the owners’ content. Writing A Reflective Essay In Your Life! If this is done it could be breaching the law. Hacking Hacking is seen under the Computer Misuse Act. Computer hacking is a better resume, illegal and whoever is found could be facing serious consequences. When A Reflective An Experience! Ethical hacking is a legal activity and main purpose of this is to provide security to computer systems within the organisations.
Today almost all major companies are allocating separate funds for the e-security to the company’s data. Under ethical hacking the professional hacker works under a written legal contract. This legal contract makes hacker’s job legal and genuine and dissertations also prevents him from any financial liability in case of when writing a reflective essay life any type misfortune. This is in tamil, one of the emerging career opportunities for many people who want to go in IT security field. Writing A Reflective Essay An Experience In Your Life! An ethical hacker should be reliable and this is dissertationen uni tuebingen, done by screening background checks before employing any. Also it is a reflective an experience in your, essential to be highly skilled in programming as it’s almost seen as a battle field with the attackers. An ethical hacker’s objective is not to gain unauthorised access to any data. Also ethical hacker follows the directions of a better writing service victim organisation to recover the loss suffered by them. Writing About An Experience Life! 7. On Trees In Tamil! Factors supporting Ethical Hacking. When Essay An Experience! “Ethical hacking is significant planning and view dissertations alignment while it performing the access when compared to writing a reflective about an experience life the risk analysis the more information has to be required for the security purpose. This is performed at the end product development when product is developed and essay ready to use. So that the security levels of the product can be tested at last and writing essay life the product will be more secured and the final product should be less question in terms of security point of view”, ( Kevin Beaver and Stuart McClure, 2010 ). Ethical hacking should be part of all types of product development for maintaining security.
The students and professional must be taught about the ethical hacking to save themselves from the attacks from hackers. “The ethical hacker will perform basic tests like testing on local network, testing on remote network, social engineering test and physical entry test is done and a better resume the final report is produced during the evaluation in order to find the hole used for attack because the it has to be done carefully and clearly so as to a reflective about an experience in your clear all the holes for organizations benefit”, (Shon Harris, Allen Harper, Chris Eagle and Jonathan Ness, 2008) . Essay! We can say that ethical hacking benefits the organisation through it various techniques and prevent further loss of data and money by when writing a reflective essay about an experience life providing security to computer systems within the organisation and also by counter attacks by the black hat hackers. In conclusion, hacking does have its justified place in the field of securing computer as a whole. Although there is a risk of white-hat hackers to breach certain laws, however the company would much rather employ someone that is highly talented technically and to ensure in giving them training and a walk-through the company policies before proceeding into the whole process of signing the contract and testing. Many organizations of different complexity levels and sizes would be able to resume service reviews benefit from ethical hacking due to providing third-party expert objective analysis. However, some organizations are still unconvinced on having ethical hacking services, this is due to the uncomfortable in when writing essay an experience life, permitting a third-party to access and view take over their sensitive data and live systems. According to Chris Rodriguez of Frost Sullivan, “ Ethical hacking services are the best way to attain valuable assessments and recommendations necessary to properly tune these complex security measure s”. 1. Legislation (2013) The National Archives, Computer Misuse Act [Online]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1990/18/contents%5B Accessed 1st February 2014] 3. When Writing A Reflective An Experience! Sean Michael Kerner (2011), Small Business Computing.com, 10 Network Security Steps for Every Small Business [Online Article]. Available from: http://www.smallbusinesscomputing.com/webmaster/article.php/3935021/10-Network-Security-Steps-for-Every-Small-Business.htm%5B Accessed 1st February 2014] 4. David Strom (2006) Computer World, 10 tips to essay secure your small business network [Online Article]. Available from: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9003012/10_tips_to_secure_your_small_business_network_#038;gt; [Accessed 1st February 2014] 5. When Writing About In Your Life! Nicole Perlroth (2013) Hackers in China Attacked The Times for Last 4 Months.
The New York Times, 21st February, p1 [Accessed 1st February 2014] 6. Catherine Paquet (2009), Implementing Cisco IOS Network Security, Self-Study Guide .[ Accessed 1st February 2014] 7. Adam Segal and Elcidharth (2013), Chinese Cyber Attacks on NYT [Online Journal], Available from:http://www.mysistermarilynmonroe.com/2013/02/01/chinese-cyber-attacks-on-nyt/%5B Accessed 1st February 2014]. 8. Beauchamp Tom and Bowie Norman. (2007), Ethical Theory and Business (Eighth Edition) Page 6. Critical Research Essay! [Accessed 1st February 2014] 9. Florence (2012) Cloud Tweaks, How important is ethical hacking for enterprise security archeticeture [Online Article]
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Genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice ( Oryza sativa ) varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of writing a reflective essay about, Northeast India. © Choudhury et al.; licensee Springer. 2013. Received: 27 February 2013. The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is essay analyzing a persuasion, home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for when a reflective essay in your life future crop improvement to meet the media essay, ever-increasing demand for food production. When Writing A Reflective About In Your? However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice varieties is crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for dissertationen uni tuebingen developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali , boro , jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species ( O. rufipogon ) using seven SSR markers. A total of 85 alleles and a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the indigenous rice varieties of the region. About Life? Considerable level of genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci.
The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in view, agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of when about an experience life, genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to media, indica and japonica groups were detected in when writing a reflective about in your life, rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in resume writing, various parts of the world. The efforts for conservation of rice germplasm in when about in your life, NE India should consider saving rice varieties representing different types with specific emphasis given to sali and dissertations jum types. The protection against the loss of vast genetic diversity found in indigenous rice varieties in NE India is crucial for maintaining future food security in the changing world. The Asian cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important crops and a major food source for more than half of the global human population. Phylogeographical and archeological evidence suggest that rice was domesticated over 10000 years ago from its wild ancestor O. rufipogon in a reflective essay about life, the region south of the essay in tamil, Himalayan mountain range, likely in the present day Eastern and NE India, extending Eastward to Nepal, Myanmar and Thailand to Southern China (Chang 1976 ; Khush 1997 ; Londo et al. 2006 ). A recent study suggests that one of the writing a reflective an experience in your life, two sub-species of in tamil, Asian rice, O. sativa ssp indica was domesticated in Southeast and South Asia while the other sub-species, O. When A Reflective Essay About An Experience? sativa ssp japonica was domesticated in Southern China (Huang et al. 2012 ). Dissertations? During the domestication process, individuals with desirable traits have been selected leaving most of the genetic diversity behind in writing in your, the progenitors (Doebley et al.
2006 ). Zhu et al. ( 2007 ) estimated that the cultivated rice contains only about 25% of the genetic diversity found in its wild progenitors depicting severe genetic erosion during domestication. Furthermore, a considerable level of genetic diversity was lost during the agronomic improvement of commonly cultivated rice. Map of view dissertations, Northeast India showing sampling sites of traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties. The sali type, which comprises majority of rice varieties of the region is cultivated in low-lying flood plains of NE India, mainly in the Brahmaputra and Barak Valley regions. A Reflective Essay An Experience In Your Life? The boro type is essay on trees in tamil, traditionally cultivated during the winter months (November through May) in low-lying areas where sufficient water is available during the cold and writing a reflective essay about an experience life dry months of the essay, year. When A Reflective Essay Life? Thus, boro type rice varieties may contain genotypes suitable for cold adaptation. The dryland cultivated rice varieties, normally grown in view dissertations, slash and when burn agriculture system, and dissertationen locally known as jum type, show adaptations to when writing a reflective essay about an experience in your life, a wide range of ecological conditions including low levels of soil moisture in media critical research essay, areas at high altitudes reaching over 3000 m above sea level. The glutinous grain type rice is commonly cultivated throughout the region as a source of grain for breakfast and dessert for many ethnic communities in the region. A Reflective Essay About An Experience Life? In addition to cultivated indigenous rice varieties, natural populations of writing reviews, many wild rice species including O. rufipogon , O. A Reflective About An Experience Life? granulata , O. officinalis , O. Dissertationen? nivara , O. meyeriana , Hygrorhiza aristata , Leersia hexandra and in your Zizenia latifolia are also found in essay, the Northeastern region of India (Hore 2005 ).
The indigenous rice varieties cultivated by when about an experience traditional farmers may contain a considerable genetic diversity that can serve as a source of germplasm for genetic improvements of cultivated varieties of rice. Dissertationen Uni Tuebingen? In general, diverse landraces traditionally cultivated by farmers around the centers of diversity and when a reflective essay an experience in your domestication of crops are considered as key natural resources (Pusadee et al. Media Essay? 2009 ) important for maintaining the future food security in light of the changing climate. Although a few studies have examined the population genetic structure of O. Writing A Reflective An Experience Life? sativa germplasm at a global scale (Glaszmann 1987 ; Garris et al. 2005 ), region specific studies are limited.
Earlier studies based on morphology and agronomic traits (Vairavan et al. 1973 ; Borkakati et al. 2000 ; Sarma and Pattanayak 2009 ) as well as molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, ISSR) demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity among indigenous rice varieties in NE India (Glaszmann et al. 1989 ; Sarma and Bahar 2005 ; Bhuyan et al. 2007 ). However, these studies were limited either to a particular group of varieties ( e.g. glutinous rice and lowland varieties) or to essay analyzing a persuasion, a narrow geographic region. In particular, no extensive studies have focused on the genetic structure of some of the when writing an experience in your, widely cultivated indigenous types such as boro (cultivated in low-lying perennial water bodies during winter season), jum (cultivated in upland areas in essay on importance life, hill-slopes and low soil moisture condition), sali (most widely cultivated rice during monsoon season) and glutinous (sticky rice with cultural importance) covering the wider geographic area. The ongoing rapid changes in writing essay about life, agricultural practices that favor agronomically improved varieties has become a serious threat for the persistence of indigenous rice varieties in NE India. Thus, conservation and management strategies are urgently needed to prevent further loss of genetic diversity inherent to indigenous rice varieties in media, the region.
A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity is about in your life, needed for the planning and implementation of effective conservation, management and utilization of rice germplasm in the whole region. The objectives of the media research, present study are to (1) assess genetic diversity among indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of the NE India, (2) compare the genetic diversity in indigenous varieties with agronomically improved varieties (3) assess distribution of genetic diversity among different types and when writing a reflective essay about life (4) infer the population genetic structure of rice varieties in NE India. Cultivation type, location and genetic diversity values of traditionally cultivated indigenous and agronomically improved rice varieties including the wild rice ( O. rufipogon ) in Northeast India (AP, Arunachal Pradesh; AS, Assam, ML, Meghalaya, MZ, Mizoram) A = Observed no. of allele; Na = Average no. of alleles per view, 7 loci; Npo = No. of polymorphic loci; Npe = Percent polymorphic loci; R A = Rare allele; I = Shannon information index; H e = Nei gene diversity. Details of SSR loci used in writing a reflective about an experience in your life, the present study and their genetic diversity parameters.
Chr, Chromosome location; Na, Observed number of alleles; He, Nei ( 1973 ) genetic diversity. The size of critical essay, each amplified fragment was determined by comparison with the size standard and scored to prepare the genotype matrix. To determine the optimum number of individuals per variety to be genotyped to about an experience, capture the total diversity, the number of individuals analyzed were increased one by essay of nature in human one until the writing essay about an experience, number of alleles reached to a maximum with no further increase for a given locus. Accordingly, we determined that 10 individuals per variety was sufficient to capture the on trees, total genetic variation in a given variety. Therefore, we genotyped 300 individuals (10 individuals per variety for 30 varieties) at seven SSR loci for the present study. The SSR genotype data matrix was used for assessing genetic diversity and structure in a hierarchical manner from overall (all indigenous varieties), through different types and each variety. The among type genetic diversity was calculated by considering all genotyped individuals of a given type as one population while genetic parameters for among variety was calculated based on 10 genotyped individuals per variety.
The observed average number of a reflective about in your, alleles per locus ( N a), average allelic richness ( R S ), population differentiation ( F ST ) and Nei gene diversity ( H e) (Nei 1973 ) were calculated using FSTAT 22.214.171.124 (Goudet 2001 ). Allelic richness is the resume writing service reviews, number of alleles for each population averaged over loci and standardized for the smallest population size. Writing About An Experience Life? Average effective number of view, alleles ( N e) and Shannon information index ( I ) were calculated using PopGene version 1.31 (Yeh et al. 1999 ). When Essay Life? Average pairwise genetic differences between varieties was calculated using Arlequin 3.5 (Excoffier and Lischer 2010 ). Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) (Excoffier et al. Media Research? 1992 ) within variety, among variety and essay about an experience in your among types was performed in Arlequin 3.5 (Excoffier and Lischer 2010 ) to determine the critical, distribution of variation at different hierarchical levels. The statistical significance of the variance components was tested with 1000 permutations.
Genetic distance among varieties were estimated using chord genetic distance method (Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards 1967 ). The genetic distance based clustering was performed with the unweighted pairgroup method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) using PowerMarker v3.25 (Liu and Muse 2005 ), and the dendrogram was constructed using MEGA software (Kumar et al. When Writing A Reflective Essay In Your Life? 2001 ). Principal component analysis (PCA) of pairwise genetic distance between individuals was performed using GenALEx v. 6.4 (Peakall and Smouse 2006 ). Resume Writing Service? The Bayesian model-based clustering analysis was used for determining the writing a reflective about an experience life, optimal number of genetic clusters found among rice varieties using the software STRUCTURE 2.3.3 (Pritchard et al. 2000 ), which partitions individuals into number of essay analyzing a persuasion, clusters ( K ) based on the multilocus genotypic data. Writing About An Experience? The admixture model and correlated allele frequencies were applied for each run with 10,000 burn-in period (iteration) and dissertations 100,000 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) replication. The optimum K value, which indicates the number of genetically distinct clusters in a reflective essay about an experience in your, the data, was determined from 10 replicate runs for each value of K (Evanno et al. 2005 ). The ? K was based on the change in the log probability of the data between successive K values. Software program Structure Harvester v6.0 (Earl and essay analyzing a persuasion von Holdt, 2011 ) was used for calculating parameters of Evanno et al. An Experience? ( 2005 ). The results of five independent runs were consistently converged to the same values. The seven selected SSR loci amplified DNA fragments from 29 O. On Trees? sativa varieties and O. rufipogon with consistent reproducibility. A total of 96 alleles with an average of writing essay about in your, 13.57 alleles per locus were detected among all studied samples. The highest number of alleles (21) was detected in the locus RM264 and the lowest (4) was in the locus RM130.
The indigenous rice varieties were genetically variable, while agronomically improved varieties were monomorphic within varieties at of nature in human, all loci. The highest gene diversity value of 0.884 was detected at RM264 and writing a reflective an experience in your the lowest value of dissertations, 0.419 detected in RM130 (Table 2 ). Indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high level of genetic diversity with an overall allelic richness of 10.205 per locus and a gene diversity value of 0.776, while the agronomically improved varieties had significantly lower average allelic richness of when writing a reflective essay about, 2.857 per locus and in tamil gene diversity was 0.459. A very high level of differentiation ( F ST = 0.754) was also detected among the when a reflective essay in your, rice varieties. The average observed number of alleles among indigenous rice varieties ranged from 1.14 ( Joha and essay on importance life Bherapawa ) to 3.29 ( Lallatoi ) while the corresponding value was only an experience life 1.00 for the agronomically improved varieties. Some of the a better service, elite traditional rice varieties (including Lallatoi , Mulahail , Aubalam , Mimutim ) showed very high levels of genetic diversity as measured in average numbers of alleles, rare alleles and when writing essay about in your Nei gene diversity. Two of in tamil, those varieties exhibited relatively high numbers of rare alleles ( Lallatoi = 4; Mimutim = 3).
Locus wise allele frequencies are presented in Additional file 1 : Table S1. Nei’s gene diversity values ranged from when essay in your life 0.051 ( Bherapawa ) to 0.498 ( Lallatoi ) with an average of 0.223 across all indigenous varieties. Shannon information content varied widely across varieties from 0.072 ( Bherapawa ) to 0.854 ( Lallatoi ) and the average was 0.338 across varieties. The diversity parameters across varieties are presented in Table 1 . The pairwise genetic differentiation among varieties ( F ST ) ranged from 0.375 to uni tuebingen, 1.000 and when a reflective an experience in your highly significant ( p 0.001). Writing Service? The pairwise F ST values are given in Additional file 2 : Table S2. Population structure and F-statistics of a reflective essay an experience, different types of indigenous and agronomically improved rice varieties in uni tuebingen, NE India. Allelic richness is based on minimum sample size of 30 diploid individuals. Writing A Reflective Essay About An Experience? H S(W) = average genetic diversity within type; F ST(W) = genetic differentiation within type. Values in parenthesis represent standard deviation.
Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on 7 SSR loci of traditional and a better reviews agronomically improved rice varieties in Northeast India. df, degree of freedom; SS, sum of square; MS, Means of square. UPGMA tree based on writing chord genetic distance (Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards 1967 ) showing genetic relationships among 29 rice varieties in Northeast India. The UPGMA tree revealed that rice varieties clustered into media critical essay smaller sub-groups based on type, grain qualities or geographic origin. For example, boro , jum , glutinous, and agronomically improved varieties clustered together into smaller sub-groups within Group-I ( indica ) while the Group-II ( japonica ) formed two sub-groups corresponding the geographic locations (Additional file 3 : Figure S1). A few sub-groups and when writing a reflective about in your life varieties (marked with double asterisk), however, did not cluster with respective types or grain quality (Additional file 3 : Figure S1).
Principal component analysis of indigenous and agronomically improved rice varieties based on 7 SSR loci. Different varieties grouped together corresponding to uni tuebingen, two sub-species ( indica and japonica ). The relationship between ?K and K showing the highest peak at K = 2. Population structure of traditionally cultivated indigenous and a reflective an experience in your life agronomically improved rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region. The optimal value of K = 2. The present study revealed exceptionally high genetic variation, with an average allelic richness of dissertations, 10.205 and when about an experience an overall Nei’s gene diversity of 0.776 among indigenous rice varieties in NE India as compared to significantly low average allelic richness (2.798) and gene diversity (0.459) in agronomically improved types. The levels of essay, genetic diversity were also variable across different varieties and writing about much higher than the agronomically improved varieties (Table 1 ). Although the varieties represent only view dissertations a sub-set of total rice varieties in the region, the gene diversity detected is higher than the overall gene diversity of essay in your, rice varieties reported from service reviews Yunnan province in China (0.706) (Tu et al. 2007 ) and Indonesia (0.68) (Thomson et al. Writing A Reflective An Experience? 2007 ). The gene diversity detected in essay, our study is comparable to the overall gene diversity of wild rice O. When A Reflective Essay In Your? rufipogon (0.77) and dissertations O. nivara (0.64) populations of the Vientiane Plain of Laos (Kuroda et al. 2007 ) and the gene diversity of O. rufipogon in China (0.670) (Gao 2004 ). A previous study based on allozyme markers revealed a moderate genetic variability (Nei gene diversity = 0.341) among 289 rice varieties from NE India (Glaszmann et al. When Writing A Reflective About An Experience In Your Life? 1989 ). The higher gene diversity values detected in the present study could be attributable to resume, high resolving power of writing an experience in your, microsatellite markers.
The present study revealed several indigenous rice varieties with high genetic diversity, which includes Lallatoi , Mulahail , Aubalam and Mimutim (Table 1 ). Despite the on importance of nature life, low yield, the traditional farmers in Hailakandi area (Barak Valley region of Assam) have been cultivating Lallatoi , Mulahail and when writing essay about an experience Aubalam for over many generations presumably for its superior nutritional quality and media better taste (personal communication). The local tribal group members in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya pointed out the superior agronomical qualities of Mimutim. Our study revealed high genetic diversity in Mimutum , one of the highly valued rice varieties by native tribal groups. This reflects the importance of traditional knowledge in evaluation and conservation of indigenous crop genetic resources (Brush and Meng 1998 ). Most of the indigenous rice varieties are maintained and cultivated by when about traditional farmers in uni tuebingen, narrow geographic regions.
However, traditional farming practices are in decline due to preference for agronomically improved varieties for higher yield. Therefore, appropriate conservation measures should be taken to promote the cultivation of indigenous varieties with local traditional knowledge. The genetic diversity maintained in a species is considered as a function of its ecological and evolutionary history (Hamrick and Godt 1996 ). The high genetic diversity among NE Indian rice varieties have been described in relation to morpho-physiological characters (Vairavan et al. 1973 ), enzymatic characters (Glaszmann et al. Writing A Reflective In Your? 1989 ), agro-morphological traits (Borkakati et al. 2000 ) and molecular markers including RAPD (Sarma and Bahar 2005 ) and ISSR (Bhuyan et al. 2007 ). The high genetic diversity among rice varieties in the NE Indian region could be attributable to combined effect of wide eco-geographical conditions, diverse agro-ecosystems associated with various rice farming practices and diverse human cultural preferences. High genetic diversity is also reported for other crop plants such as Zingiber officinale (Sajeev et al. 2011 ), Chilli (Yumnam et al. Dissertationen? 2012 ), Curcuma species (Das et al. 2011 ), Citrus species (Hazarika 2012 ) commonly cultivated in NE India, highlighting the importance of the region for germplasm conservation of when writing a reflective about life, many crop plants.
We compared the levels of genetic diversity among different types of rice cultivated in NE India, and found that sali type possessed the essay analyzing a persuasion, highest gene diversity value of 0.747 and average allelic richness of 7.585. A Reflective Essay? The majority of sali varieties are maintained by traditional farmers for essay analyzing specific traits such as aroma, grain size and shape, and when a reflective about in your life tolerance to drought, insects and pests, which may contribute to the maintenance of high genetic variation. Jum type also showed high level of heterogeneity with gene diversity of uni tuebingen, 0.627 and average allelic richness of 5.056. The traditional farming systems and when essay life local environment associated with adaptation to diverse conditions including water deficient habitats on the slopes of hilly regions may have contributed to the maintenance of high genetic variability among the jum type. Due to their inherent high genetic diversity, sali and uni tuebingen jum types should be prioritized in conservation and management plans and future breeding programs. The high F IS values among rice varieties of the writing essay, region could be due to predominantly selfing breeding system with a very low outcrossing in O. sativa species (Oka 1988 ). The F ST results (Table 3 ) are also supported by critical AMOVA (Table 4 ) which indicated that 66% of the an experience in your, total variation was due to differentiation among varieties.
This indicates that rice varieties of the Eastern Himalayan region are highly differentiated. The UPGMA analyses using genetic distance data clustered rice varieties into dissertationen two groups, which corresponded to O. sativa sub-species indica (Glaszmann and japonica 1987 ; Oka 1988 ; Khush 1997 ). These results agree with the when essay an experience in your life, previous isozyme data based finding that showed the occurrence of two major groups of rice varieties in research, NE India (Glaszmann 1987 ). The PCA analysis and Model-based clustering method implemented in the STRUCTURE software also suggested the existence of when essay about in your life, two major groups corresponding to indica and japonica sub-species. Essay A Persuasion? The majority of varieties including agronomically improved rice varieties clustered as one group within the when a reflective essay life, sub-species indica . Most of the varieties were grouped into indica sub-species cluster while few varieties clustered into on importance in human japonica sub-species. Vairavan et al. ( 1973 ) also reported similar results on the basis of amylose content, agronomic, and morphological characteristics. Our findings were similar to the study involving Indonesian landraces where 68% of the when in your, varieties were assigned as indica and 32% as japonica (Thomson et al. 2007 ). However, a study of European rice collection revealed that 89% of the accessions belonged to japonica type (Courtois et al. 2012 ). The O. Essay Analyzing A Persuasion? rufipogon showed intermediate position between indica and when life japonica types suggesting a possible common ancestry of both indica and japonica types. Although there was no clear differentiation among jum , sali , boro , and glutinous varieties in on importance of nature, the UPGMA and STRUCTURE analysis, the writing a reflective about an experience in your life, PCA analysis separated the agronomically improved varieties into a distinct group (Figure 3 ) closely associated with the indica type.
This is expected as agronomically improved varieties included in the present study were derived from indica type. The STRUCTURE analysis did not show evidence for essay a persuasion admixture between the essay an experience life, indica and japonica types in uni tuebingen, almost all varieties. When Writing A Reflective Essay About? This could be attributable to predominantly selfing or autogamous nature of the on importance in human, breeding system and associated restricted gene flow among populations. Only a few varieties showed mixed ancestry of indica and japonica type (Figure 5 ), which may be either due to partial differentiation or rare introgression between the two types. Similar structuring reported among Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa could be due to partial sharing of their ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or recent gene flow (Gao and Innan 2008 ). Glaszmann et al. ( 1989 ) identified seven groups using isozyme markers and reported typical indica and japonica sub-species, suggesting that varieties mostly grown in mountainous areas of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh belong to japonica . However, the present study revealed that varieties in the mountainous areas of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh represent both japonica and indica types. Our results did not correspond to the five major groups described in Garris et al. ( 2005 ). In summary, high genetic diversity detected among traditional rice varieties in a reflective about life, the Eastern Himalayan region of NE India is comparable to genetic diversity detected in wild rice populations in various parts of the world. Several varieties with high genetic diversity and a better service reviews cultural importance were found in Barak Valley region of Assam and Garo Hills of when an experience in your life, Meghalaya. The sali and jum type showed significantly higher levels of genetic diversity compared to agronomically improved types. Essay On Trees? Rice varieties in NE India clustered into two major groups corresponding to when a reflective in your, two sub-species, namely indica and japonica . Our findings highlights the importance of conservation of rice varieties in NE India as a means of preserving genetic diversity to maintain food security in the changing world.
Authors thank farmers in northeast India and International Rice Research Institute, Philippines for providing samples for the present study. The study was financially supported by NSERC, FRQNT and Concordia University. We also gratefully acknowledge the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments which helped to essay analyzing a persuasion, improve the when writing a reflective life, manuscript. Electronic supplementary material. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. BC, MLK and view dissertations SD contributed to when writing a reflective essay an experience, the conceptual development of the resume, project. BC carried out the molecular genetic work and a reflective in your life data analyses guided by SD. BC, MLK and SD drafted the manuscript. All authors read and view approved the final manuscript. Bhuyan N, Borah BK, Sarma RN: Genetic diversity analysis in writing about an experience, traditional lowland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) of analyzing a persuasion, Assam using RAPD and ISSR markers. Writing Essay About An Experience In Your Life? Curr Sci 2007, 93: 967-972.
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A Cold War without Nuclear Weapons. Writing A Reflective Essay In Your Life? The Cold War is given its name for a reason. The term ‘cold’ refers to indirect conflict, competition and sour relations between the USA and USSR from, in this author’s opinion, the dropping of the media research second American atomic bomb on Nagasaki in August 1945 to the fall of the USSR in 1991. The development and deployment of nuclear weapons was a pivotal point in human history. When Writing A Reflective Essay About In Your? These weapons increased the state’s destructive power, particularly after the development of thermonuclear weapons, with effectively no limits. With greater destructive yields and shorter delivery times courtesy of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM), it is common understanding that had the cold war turned hot, it would have been the end of civilisation as we know it. Critical? The most critical factor in the preservation of the cold , in a manner of speaking, in when this author’s opinion was one of the dynamics elaborated upon by Robert Jervis’ theory of the nuclear revolution. While imperfect, there are observations that have plausible logic.
The most relevant to this essay is that nuclear weapons made wars suicidal and unwinnable, therefore major interstate war should be unlikely, if not likely to occur at all if leaders were sensible. The aim of this essay is to speculate whether, in essay the absence of nuclear weapons, would the confrontation between the USA and the USSR remained cold, or erupted into a conventional Third World War. Jervis claims that a bipolar system is when a reflective an experience life inherently stable. Essay? This author believes otherwise due to Jervis’ own admission of other bipolar systems that have precipitated violent clashes. This author believes that if nuclear weapons were taken out of international relations at a point of divergence in the 1945, a total war between the capitalist West and when writing an experience in your, communist East would have been far more likely to occur. Rather than a nuclear standoff and a long peace developing, I would speculate on dissertations a return to great-power politics. A brief counterfactual survey of actual history is required to speculate with any degree of realistic expectations of another world system. This author will predominantly look at the immediate post-war period and attempt to shape a bipolar international system without the shadow of mutually assured destruction (MAD).
Nuclear weapons did not create the bipolar system, they merely strengthened it. Continental Europe was ruined, and Britain was financially wrecked. When Writing About? The USSR and the USA would still come out ‘on top’ from the ashes of World War II. However, the conventional capabilities of the allied/client states on both sides would factor more into war planning in the absence of nuclear weapons. Whilst such a topic as this is view not a stranger to science fiction and alternate history in popular culture, this is a useful test of one of Jervis’ logics on the effect of when writing in your life, nuclear weapons on the relationship between force and statecraft. This author intends to answer the question by taking out nuclear weapons from the calculations of states over dilemmas and on importance of nature life, crises. Also, this essay will prove to be a vindication of the essay life importance of nuclear weapons to major state relations stability. Our violent human nature has been forced to come to terms with advances in technology. View? This author believes that the speculation that nuclear weapons prevented another conventional total war will argue against humanity ever aiming for a non-nuclear international system. Such insights are valuable, especially when the US president is keen to express his desire for an end to nuclear weapons.
He has insisted that such a goal would not be achieved within his lifetime. One here would speculate that the USA, with its clear superiority in conventional forces, power projection and logistics would benefit greatly in a world without nuclear weapon-states to trump its advantages. A return to 3 rd Generation Warfare in a multipolar international system would contain some of the hallmarks of European politics in the inter-war period in the 20 th Century. The point of divergence in this counterfactual alternate history could be in 1945, when American attempts to when writing about, develop an atomic bomb failed. Truman would not have been able to notify Stalin of his new weapon of tremendous power at the Potsdam conference. Uni Tuebingen? In turn, Stalin’s spies would have been able to when writing about in your, notify him of the failure, concordantly stopping Stalin from media critical, pursuing his own bomb. After scrapping all other research and development linked to the Manhattan project, I would first speculate that those resources would have be diverted to a reflective in your, conventional weaponry, particularly to the American strategic bomber force. Essay? On the Soviet side a similar re-armament programme could have been initiated, perhaps to a reflective essay, replace Stalin’s nuclear ‘national problem #1’. This is by no means asserting that this is what would certainly have happened had the Manhattan project been a failure, there could have been another brainwave for another super weapon, but for the sake of the argument here we shall apply these factors to known circumstances of the period.
Japanese Conditional Surrender. Before studying an dissertationen uni tuebingen, alternate bipolar system in further detail, the when essay question of Japan must be addressed. There is considerable academic debate on whether the atomic bombs were needed to end the a better writing Pacific war, and whether they were used to end Japanese resistance as opposed to intimidating the Soviets. The argument that atomic weapons were not used on Japan to force a surrender is a compelling one in this author’s view. Alperovitz and Messer in the correspondence argue against Bernstein’s view that the effect of atomic weapons use on the Soviets was merely a bonus to forcing surrender and saving American lives. However, for the purpose of this essay, this author will accept Alperovitz’s and Messer’s argument that an atomic bombing of Japan made the Soviets ‘more manageable in Europe’. Speculating on a joint Soviet-American invasion of Japan or a fast Japanese surrender before Soviet involvement are both equally valid conjectures. In Your Life? However, to maintain simplicity in critical research this essay’s scope, this author will preserve our historical line and maintain American occupation in Japan as we knew it. Taking away the atomic weapons in the Japanese case nullifies any effect of a growth in American power.
The ‘changed power balance’ that Stalin perceived would not have happened. The ‘political offensive’ from the West would not have been as strong (had it occurred at writing a reflective an experience in your life all) without the American atomic monopoly. Dissertationen? With the Red Army’s superiority in numbers in Europe, although Russia was an a reflective essay an experience in your, ‘exhausted giant’, it was not to be trifled with. Stalin was a ruthless realpolitik er, as much as in analyzing his domestic politics as he was on the international stage. Zubok states that Stalin was already planning for writing a reflective essay in your the next revolutionary war before the in tamil struggle over when a reflective an experience life, the survival of his own state was finished. Unease in the Grand Alliance drove both sides to a better writing reviews, consolidate their spoils of war.
Existing Unease and Premier Molotov. Nuclear weapons were not the cause of the political divisions of the Cold War. When Life? Ever since the Bolsheviks took power in 1917 the West had attempted to overthrow or marginalise the USSR. Uni Tuebingen? Not until the USSR became essential in war planning had she been courted. In the late 1930s Stalin had a healthy choice of ‘allies’. As already cited, Zubok states that Stalin wanted the capitalist powers in Europe to fight amongst each other. Stalin hoped to ferment worker’s revolutions in other European states in a similar fashion to that of the 1917 October revolution, despite his inward tendency on when essay the international stage in the 1920s and 1930s. The West had rightly contracted the Red Terror.
The USSR and dissertationen uni tuebingen, Stalin was the when a reflective an experience anti-Christ of on importance of nature life, Western liberalism, democracy and capitalism. An Experience? In the absence of nuclear weapons, and given the intense ideological differences between East and West, the inherent power-fear relationship on both sides would have been very acute. In the absence of MAD, Molotov’s views as opposed to Khrushchev’s on “peaceful coexistence” would be more valid. Molotov had remained a staunch critic of view dissertations, Khrushchev’s foreign policy. There would have been no dilemma on trying to reconcile Molotov’s desire to spread revolution through violence with the implications of MAD. A Reflective An Experience? This author believes that Molotov would have stood a greater chance of a better resume writing service, assuming power after Stalin for these reasons. Molotov had accumulated vast experience during his tenure as Foreign Minister and as one of Stalin’s closest allies, and the post-war period in this alternate history would certainly allow Stalin (and those that behaved like him in the international system) to feel perfectly comfortable. Molotov would certainly have taken a similar line to Stalin, and there was a genuine fear of this in the West in our real history. Kennan’s containment strategy would still have been applied. In the absence of the atomic monopoly, there would have been a greater impetus for the US to when essay, control geo-strategic vantage points to make up for the Soviet’s vast numerical advantage.
Controlling (or at analyzing least allying with states in) areas such as Western Europe and Japan was a vital objective. It is hard to imagine a tougher American policy in these times, nuclear weapons or not. More confrontational attitudes between the when a reflective essay an experience in your two sides would not have been as dangerous to the survival of the state if conventional war was its result. Jervis’ ‘hostage’ logic is view dissertations useful to explain how a war would be more likely in this non-nuclear bipolar system. States can prepare for a conventional war. All technologies and when a reflective an experience, military applications have their corresponding defensive measures. Although the USSR had no strategic air force compared to the USA, the USSR could certainly take measures against bombing. The western Europeans could certainly undertake fortifications to increase the difficulties for Soviet infantry and resume writing, tanks to proceed westward in a war in Europe. There is in your life no anti-nuclear weapon or strategy, apart from not participating in a nuclear war. Therefore, the game of chicken between states would not fit this alternate bipolar system.
Also, in a Soviet attack on Western Europe, the US would not have to essay, immediately sacrifice its own cities to aid its European allies. Conventional deterrence, and writing essay in your, US reassurance would be more credible. Alternate Berlin Airlift and Korean War Outcomes? Assuming that the immediate post-War carving of Europe remained as we knew it, what could have gone differently in during the Berlin Airlift in the absence of media research, nuclear weapons? Stalin could have given the orders to shoot down Allied aircraft, likely resulting in a war. A conventional war. Would Stalin have readily contemplated war with the when a reflective about in your West, knowing that the USSR have to take on the economic-industrial giant that was the USA? Perhaps the Red Army could overwhelm Western Europe, but the USSR would invite the consequences of long-range American bombers based in the UK, Japan and media research, other bases.
Jervis argues that states can inflict massive costs on each other without weapons of mass destruction. The USSR lacked the same kind of strategic bombing capability, therefore no credible means of inflicting costs on the American heartland. Writing Essay About An Experience Life? An even darker suggestion would be that Stalin could have decided to simply move into West Berlin without notice and hope that the view West would accept the loss. When A Reflective Life? To a similar degree we can speculate on the Korean War. Would Douglas MacArthur have wanted to contemplate a further advance into essay of nature in human life, China after eliminating North Korean forces without the use of writing a reflective essay, nuclear weapons? Chinese forces could easily overwhelm UN forces through numbers. Ergo, would Mao have decided on of nature life kicking UN forces out of the entire Korean peninsula? Removing the nuclear factor in these two crises leaves many possible avenues unexplored, and includes the potential for an ever-widening conventional conflict that could have erupted into World War III. Realist Victory and the Continued Superiority of writing a reflective essay about life, 3 rd Generation Warfare. A return to great-power politics would have made a mockery of the United Nations (UN). As the nuclear revolution may have forced states to media essay, compromise, it is doubtful cooperation would have been so frequent in this alternate bipolar system.
Going to war would not seem insane. As the League of Nations failed to bring states into line when they preferred to use force, the UN could not hope to stop the USSR or the writing a reflective about in your USA from engaging in military operations against each other. Essay On Importance Of Nature Life? Kennan could have been very accurate in attaching little significance to the UN. Decolonisation would most certainly have occurred, but it would hardly have affected the grand strategy between East and West. According to when essay life, Mearsheimer, great powers fear each other because of the of nature fear of aggression and the offensive military capabilities of other states. However this author disagrees with Mearsheimer’s claim that alliances are marriages of convenience. In the NATO camp, there was a shared view of capitalism, liberal democracy and personal freedoms. Also the NATO alliance secured America’s marketplace.
A common fear bound those states too. In the Warsaw Pact states, they were held down from Moscow. Not an alliance per when a reflective essay in your, se, perhaps more akin to imperialism. However, the US was dominant in the NATO alliance. Nevertheless, fear pervaded US society at the time, and gave rise to the McCarthy communist witch-hunts. This red terror, placed on top of Mearsheimer’s state behaviour and the security paradox from a conventional arms race (which in this alternate history could have replaced a nuclear arms race) would seriously increase the likelihood of World War III. This would make a mockery of Jervis’ views on bipolarity as an inherently stable system. Without nuclear weapons the weight of numbers, technology and battlefield tactics would come into play once more. The nuclear asset in the early Cold War served as an equaliser (and advantage) to the West against the Red Army’s massive size. How would NATO compensate for this?
This would increase the usefulness (and therefore the essay on trees importance and influence) of when life, NATO’s European members. Britain’s Royal Navy and RAF would be very useful in a conventional war against the Soviet Union. The French could once again provide mass troop numbers and West Germany would once more be an economic powerhouse. All these could complement US superiority on the sea and in the air. Essay Analyzing A Persuasion? There was a genuine fear from Moscow that the west could whip the Soviets’ ‘asses’. The perpetuation of 3 rd generation warfare would solidify the when writing a reflective about importance of media research essay, numbers, technology and tactics to the state’s security and war planning.
There would not be the writing a reflective an experience luxury of existential deterrence. A conventional war could be winnable in the eyes of the essay on trees opposing sides, and when writing a reflective life, the states could be more willing to test their opponent’s strategies and military technologies. It would not mean the end of civilisation. Conflict would be slower and immediately less destructive than a nuclear one. Uni Tuebingen? Any ICBM would be fitted with conventional warheads, and writing a reflective essay an experience in your life, would have a limited destructive capability and would have to be extremely accurate to make them useful in war.
With the destructive utility of ICBMs diminished, could Sergei Korolev’s and Wernher von Braun’s dreams of human spaceflight have ever been recognised? The lack of a space race would definitely have deprived the essay on importance in human Soviet Union of one its most tremendous propaganda coups. The importance of satellite reconnaissance could have been ignored after losing interest in the ICBMs’ destructive delivery capability without nuclear warheads. This author believes the above speculations and removing the nuclear factor from state thinking in when writing essay an experience in your the early Cold War has painted a credible picture of how international politics could have progressed (or not at all) after the Second World War. The maintenance of essay on importance in human, a (initially biased to the Americans) bipolar system between the when in your life two most powerful states on Earth would have been likely. Dissertationen Uni Tuebingen? The US would have had a lead over when writing a reflective essay in your, the USSR in a persuasion the balance of power for writing a reflective about an experience life longer than the ‘atomic monopoly’ years in this alternate history.
The USA’s homeland was not materially ravaged by war. This economic preponderance would serve the West well in view a conventional confrontation with the communists. In our timeline the existential deterrence from nuclear weapons diminished the when essay about an experience in your life US notion of ‘free security’. This decline in American security would still have happened, especially once the Soviets would have developed their own strategic bomber force as the most effective way of dissertationen, levelling the playing field. However, I believe the economic importance of Europe and Japan to the US would have guaranteed the Americans against a reversion to the interwar isolationist policies. With American preponderance and relative security of its homeland, a pre-emptive war against the Soviet Union would have been a very credible option, in this author’s opinion.
If the writing a reflective about in your life Soviet ideology was to be believed, a future war would have been unavoidable. Stalinist or Molotovian politics would have stirred up the system to promote the cause of on importance of nature, communism. Without MAD, force would have been a viable means to when writing an experience in your, end communism. There would have been no dilemma of conciliating the use of nuclear weapons with the irrationality of a suicidal war. On the other side of this non-nuclear Cold War the a better resume writing service USSR would not be pressured to when writing about an experience in your, seek coexistence, and could have benefited from the constant fear of invasion and crisis. For these reasons this author believes that nuclear weapons saved humanity from a darker Cold War that could have been more likely to have turned hot. Alperovitz, G., Messer, R.L. and Bernstein, B.J. (1992) ‘Correspondence’, International Security , 16:3. Booth, K. and a better service, Wheeler, N.J. The Security Dilemma (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008) Craig, C. and Logevall, F. America’s Cold War: The Politics of when a reflective about, Insecurity (London: Harvard University Press, 2009) Fursenko, A. and Naftali, T. Essay Analyzing A Persuasion? Khrushchev’s Cold War (London: W.W. Norton Company, 2006) Gaddis, J.L. Strategies of Containment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) Hammes, T.X.
The Sling and the Stone: On War in the 21 st Century (St. Paul: Zenith Press, 2006) Jervis, R. The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution (New York: Cornell University Press, 1989) Mearsheimer, J.J. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (London: W.W. Norton Company, 2001) Morgenthau, H.J. (1964) ‘Four Paradoxes of Nuclear Strategy’, The American Political Science Review , 58:1. Sheehan, M. The International Politics of Space (Abingdon: Routledge, 2007) Zubok, V.M. A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in an experience the Cold War from essay in tamil, Stalin to Gorbachev (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009)  Jervis, R. The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution (New York: Cornell University Press, 1989)  One example is the plotline in Westwood Studios’ (now Electronic Arts) Command and writing a reflective about life, Conquer: Red Alert videogame. It portrays an East-West conflict over Europe with the Soviet and Allied armies waging a conventional war in a very different 1950s (in the essay on importance in human absence of nuclear weapons).  Hammes, T.X. The Sling and the Stone: On War in the 21 st Century (St. When Writing A Reflective About Life? Paul: Zenith Press, 2006) pp.
23-31. Critical Essay? Hammes refers to 3 rd generation warfare as the mechanised manoeuvre warfare epitomised in the Second World War.  Alperovitz, G., Messer, R.L. and Bernstein, B.J. (1992) ‘Correspondence’, International Security , 16:3.  Zubok, V.M. A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in when writing essay life the Cold War from Stalin to research, Gorbachev (Chapel Hill: University of when writing essay about in your life, North Carolina Press, 2009) pp. 30-31.  Mearsheimer, J.J. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (London: W.W. Norton Company, 2001) pp. A Better Reviews? 42-44.  Zubok, V. Essay In Your? A Failed Empire… pp.99-100.  Fursenko, A. and Naftali, T. Critical Research? Khrushchev’s Cold War (London: W.W. Norton Company, 2006) pp. 25.  Gaddis, J.L. Strategies of Containment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) pp.28-29.
 Jervis, R. The Meaning of the Nuclear… pp. 13-14.  Jervis, R. The Meaning of the Nuclear… pp. 25.  For example: The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in when essay about 1931 and the Italian invasion of Abyssinia in 1935.  Gaddis, J.L. Strategies of Containment pp. Dissertationen Uni Tuebingen? 28. Writing Essay About?  Mearsheimer, J.J. The Tragedy of Great… pp.
32-33.  Booth, K. and Wheeler, N.J. Essay On Trees? The Security Dilemma (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008) pp.5-7. Life?  Zubok, V. A Failed Empire… pp. 29. Quoting Soviet generals in 1946.  Sheehan, M. The International Politics of Space (Abingdon: Routledge, 2007) pp. 26-30.  Craig, C. and Logevall, F. America’s Cold War: The Politics of Insecurity (London: Harvard University Press, 2009) pp.
56-58.  Morgenthau, H.J. (1964) ‘Four Paradoxes of Nuclear Strategy’, The American Political Science Review , 58:1, pp. 25. Dissertations? Written by: Bleddyn E. Bowen. When Writing A Reflective Essay An Experience In Your Life? Written at: Aberystwyth University. Written for: Campbell Craig. Uni Tuebingen? Date: November 2009. All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License. Writing In Your Life? Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to essay analyzing a persuasion, support open access publishing. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Essay An Experience In Your Life? Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and pay our bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view.
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essay magazine name Nicholas Handler, is writing, a junior at Yale University majoring in view dissertations, history. When Essay About In Your Life! Handler is active in social justice organizations and hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to gain any new insight into essay on importance of nature in human, the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. When Writing Essay Life! Lit Theory is critical research essay, supposed to be the a reflective an experience, class where you sit at the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an a better writing ironic tee-shirt and when a reflective essay about an experience, over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. Media Research! That’s pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and a reflective essay an experience life, made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of dissertationen uni tuebingen, which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed.
This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Writing Essay About! Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of media critical essay, students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note.
The idea began in November of 2007 and not in the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn’t just pass a note to her. When Essay! The committee also spent months working with her and other legislators.
to see the dissertations, resolution passed. Writing About In Your Life! We don’t appreciate the trivialising narrative of our work. 3. Uni Tuebingen! The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. When About! The conference I went to was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. Neither is view dissertations, true. I hold the New York times in writing a reflective essay in your life, the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research.
Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. “College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege. So he moved back to live in media research essay, its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls.
But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and writing a reflective essay an experience life, working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and on trees in tamil, a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of when essay about in your, Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by media critical essay, professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and when writing essay about an experience, Kafka, Citizen Kane and writing service reviews, Dr.
Strangelove, and our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for when a reflective essay, every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition. On Importance In Human! But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out.
As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for about in your life, film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to essay of nature life know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed.
I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is when writing a reflective essay in your, nostalgic for. I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the college experience is like today and essay on importance in human life, I’m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten.
And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of when writing an experience in your, passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of media critical, elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is essay an experience life, a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change. His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in dissertationen, the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr.
Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of writing a reflective in your life, Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Dissertationen Uni Tuebingen! Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries).
We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). A Reflective About Life! Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the essay on importance of nature in human life, next generation’s is an writing a reflective an experience in your old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Dissertationen Uni Tuebingen! Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the modern age, the writing a reflective about an experience in your, role college played in the national debate was minimal. To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and on trees, both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I.
Bill). And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the when essay, solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out analyzing a persuasion of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for when essay about an experience, IQ is on importance, not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and when a reflective essay about an experience in your, unintended consequences of dissertationen, college learning.
For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of writing essay an experience in your life, study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the view, culture. It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think.
This is where Mr. Murray and I agree. He hits the when an experience, nail on a better resume reviews the head when he describes the purpose of college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of when a reflective essay about an experience in your, watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth.
Education is the single most important factor in the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at a better resume service reviews, college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the future of this country depends on the students in when a reflective about in your life, college today.
College is misunderstood by on trees in tamil, many incoming freshman. All of the when a reflective about, television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at success. Essay Of Nature In Human! However, college is not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to essay about life improve their education and essay on trees in tamil, learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation.
Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. Writing About An Experience! College can be misleading for dissertationen uni tuebingen, teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into writing a reflective life, deep depression. Analyzing! Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in 1966 to essay about an experience in your life encourage people of every social class to essay of nature in human attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and essay about an experience in your life, Brown decided in dissertationen, order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Writing Essay About! Once students enroll in dissertations, college, dropping out is the writing essay an experience in your, worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a better service reviews a student’s financial standing. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out.
Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. The likelihood of students being able to when a reflective essay about an experience in your pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per writing paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Essay About An Experience In Your Life! Once choosing the decision to view attend college, remaining in college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. About An Experience Life! Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. A Better Writing! Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and writing an experience in your life, “don’t leave”.
Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Service! Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the when writing an experience in your life, package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm’s length.
I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the dissertationen, internet, but the truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and when about life, I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the essay on importance in human, opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to when life take their passion into the world beyond the dissertations, campus. A Reflective About An Experience! I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for.
College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of a persuasion, our being. About Life! It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don’t care. Dissertationen Uni Tuebingen! If they do care and when essay about, want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is research, what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. When Writing A Reflective Essay About In Your Life! Nihilism will do that to everyone.
I also find it interesting that the people who do want to analyzing be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to when writing a reflective essay an experience life be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the a better resume writing reviews, war in Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and an experience life, us now is that people do not what the problems really are. The mentality when speaking to dissertations college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the when a reflective in your life, socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the essay on trees in tamil, human struggle. So apathy also plays a role. It is a reflective essay an experience in your, important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers.
Sending your child to college is not an option in American society, and it’s hardly a privilege at that. In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child’s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out view dissertations 10 in which there is an orientation at when a reflective, each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be.
What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for view dissertations, one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on when writing a reflective in your life his campus. When the dissertations, students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the writing a reflective about an experience, names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place.
They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by on trees in tamil, knowing their current events and being passionate about them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. When A Reflective About An Experience Life! The internet has taken so much of this away from current students. View! In my experience, you only have to writing essay an experience make a choice on which websites to read. Looking at on importance of nature in human life, our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world.
There are many more cliques, many more places to writing a reflective in your falter, and many more reasons not to in human life care. Hold a pen in when writing a reflective an experience in your, front of you and look at it; notice its size and dissertationen, color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is when writing a reflective about in your, how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is view, partially dependent upon when writing a reflective about in your life, the angle that light hits an object. Dissertations! But we just moved an object, causing the angle to about change from a better writing our perspective, and did not notice any change in a reflective essay in your, color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the uni tuebingen, brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago.
Then again, so were the when writing essay about in your life, two worlds in which we were raised. Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath.
Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in research, a minivan. By high school, the importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and writing a reflective in your, serious attention had to essay analyzing a persuasion be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr.
Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and when writing essay about an experience life, then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of media research, graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the when writing a reflective essay in your life, Matter With College”
I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to a real college. Essay! I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the writing a reflective about, Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Dissertationen! Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school).
In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. Writing A Reflective Essay In Your Life! He’s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists. We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and on importance of nature in human life, communicate in a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers.
We’re a new breed. It is interesting to read that the when essay an experience, defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. Writing Service Reviews! For my sake, and I’m sure for the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example. Making a living once college ends. Writing A Reflective Essay An Experience Life! When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to uni tuebingen fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air.
I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in essay about an experience life, the scheme of things, and media essay, not ready to plan out our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of when about an experience, high school. Media Critical Research Essay! Who has time to worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to writing essay an experience in your pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to essay analyzing a persuasion college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an when a reflective about an experience life appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to resume writing reviews my life and to my thoughts here and writing a reflective essay an experience in your, now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth.
But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to essay on trees tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and writing essay in your, I’m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read.
Children live at a better resume writing reviews, school. Especially if they don’t have much of when writing a reflective essay about an experience in your life, a home life to live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and in human, learn at school. College isn’t so different, only when an experience, first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to essay be wasting time. Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to writing essay about life Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to view dissertations wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and sisters. Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in when writing about life, the arms of a crumbling system.
In college, we choose to sleep in, not to view dissertations participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and when writing a reflective essay in your life, citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is view, highly interesting to when writing a reflective about in your life our country, and it is the dissertationen uni tuebingen, duty of its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the writing a reflective an experience in your life, quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to media research essay the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and writing a reflective about an experience in your, arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and mathematics.
The “need to know” world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and dissertations, columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is when writing a reflective an experience in your, not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to critical research essay be the essay an experience, nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the uni tuebingen, society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in when writing essay about life, college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. From the time of Plato, the purpose of the research, university has not been to represent the society or culture in which it exists but to writing a reflective about in your life pursue truth. A Better Service Reviews! Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in writing an experience in your, essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective.
And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in essay on trees, the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from writing a reflective America’s political center. This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the on importance of nature in human, same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Writing A Reflective! Even so, there is another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to essay in tamil their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . Writing Essay An Experience In Your Life! . . says he believes . . Essay On Trees In Tamil! . that truth is relative” (1).
While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an in your life ineffective communal bond. This is because the research, values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. They haven’t the power to unite the students and faculty in writing essay an experience life, a community, which requires common interests and in human, mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the a reflective essay about life, Matter With College, an essay by media critical research, the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an when writing essay about an experience life insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by essay a persuasion, their authors or did not follow the when writing about in your life, contest's rules.)
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Compare and Contrast Essay: Try These Simple Tips to Write Your Essay. The main tips on how to write a winning compare and contrast essay. A Reflective About In Your. If you feel you need assistance, contact us and we will write a great compare and contrast essay for you! What Is a Compare and Contrast Essay? Unlike other types of essays (see top 10 essay types), a compare and contrast essay is essay used to explore both the when a reflective an experience in your life, similarities and the differences between two subjects by comparing and/or contrasting them against each other. Compare and analyzing a persuasion, Contrast Essay Outline.
To serve their particular purposes in an effective manner, a compare and contrast essay must communicate in an efficient manner. When About An Experience Life. This means that compare and essay on importance in human, contrast essays should start with an opening paragraph, which will directly state what the writer is trying to say. About Life. Afterward, they can move onto the body, which will support the opening paragraph by providing supporting evidence. Once the supporting evidence has been listed, compare and contrast essays can conclude by reemphasizing their opening paragraphs in order to produce a lasting impression on the mind of the on importance life, reader. With that said, a compare and contrast essay cannot be completed without conducting a comparative analysis, which the writer can use to lay out their thoughts about the subjects before sorting them into a reflective life a neat and essay, organized form. Fortunately, this process is when writing a reflective an experience in your as simple as creating a Venn diagram (see below) before filling it with the characteristics of the subjects, while making sure to media critical research put shared characteristics in the overlapping area. Once the writer is satisfied with their brainstorming, they can sort through the characteristics for the ones with the most relevance to the point that they are trying to make, which is important because weaker arguments can actually drag down their stronger counterparts when placed in the same essay. How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay. How to start a compare and contrast essay? Students are normally assigned a topic to write on, yet sometimes professors give their students the freedom of selecting the about in your life, topic on their own.
In the latter case choosing one out of essay analyzing top compare and contrast essay topics can become a challenge. While working on the topic selection it is important not to a reflective essay life choose two totally unrelated subjects, otherwise finding similarities can get problematic. Start out with a subject that has some basic similarities, e.g. two novels, two paintings, speeches etc. Looking for the things to compare and contrast? Here is on importance in human life a list of top 30 compare contrast essay topics:
TOP 30 COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY TOPICS. Once you have chosen what to write on in your comparison essay, brainstorm ideas and try to write down every single one of them, choosing those that are relevant to the topic. When A Reflective In Your Life. You might want to divide your sheet of paper into essay in tamil two main sections and start jotting down everything that comes to your mind, including similarities and differences. An effective technique for finding similarities and differences is using a Venn diagram. A Venn diagram is a scheme that represents logical relations between two objects. Graphically it can be depicted as two overlapping circles, each of the circles denoting some entity. The overlapping part is the area denoting similarities, while the parts that do not overlap, are the writing a reflective essay an experience in your life, differences (see Fig.
1). Fig. 1. Venn Diagram: Comparing Apples and Oranges (Compare and Contrast Essay) A very important point in essay on trees in tamil, writing an effective compare and contrast essay is a correct selection of the lines of comparison: if you are comparing two objects, you should be comparing them against writing a reflective essay about an experience one and the same parameter. For example, looking at the picture above you will see that oranges and apples are compared in regards to things like origin, place of growth, a thickness of peel etc.
All of these features are inherent in both objects. If you say that an apple is different from an orange because an apple is green and the orange is juicy, you will be “comparing apples and essay analyzing, oranges” this time in the figurative meaning of when essay in your likening two incomparable things. Organization: Typical Structure of essay analyzing a Compare and writing a reflective in your life, Contrast Essay. The opening paragraph should state the essay’s subjects as well as its thesis statement about life those same subjects. From that point on, the body of a compare and contrast essay tends to be structured in writing a reflective about, one of two ways: The first way: a writer can list the characteristics of essay in tamil one subject and then the characteristics of the other before bringing them together by analyzing their similarities and differences.
This means that the body of the essay will begin with a number of paragraphs about one subject, continue with a similar number of paragraphs about the other subject, and then finish with a crucial paragraph that will use the listed characteristics to compare and contrast the two subjects. The second way: a writer can list the similarities between the subjects and then the differences between the same. This means that the body of the when writing a reflective an experience in your life, essay will begin with a number of paragraphs about dissertations their similarities and finish with a number of when in your paragraphs about their differences. Dissertationen Uni Tuebingen. With this structure, there is a reflective essay about in your no need for an analysis at the end because its content is spread throughout the preceding paragraphs. Another mode of organization, although less common, is called block comparison. According to media this pattern, you will be required to separate the body of writing a reflective essay an experience in your your compare and contrast essay in two parts. The first part of the resume service, body will be dedicated to Object A, while the other half will be centered around Object B. Together with the introduction and the conclusion, the overall essay length will be 4 paragraphs.
In case of a reflective an experience in your life block comparison the a better writing, overall essay structure will take the following form: Once the body of the essay is complete, its conclusion should restate the thesis statement but in a more confident manner because it has proven its point. Sometimes, a conclusion will summarize the preceding paragraphs for a bolder and blunter emphasis, while other times, a conclusion will let them provide their support in a more implicit manner. HOW TO WRITE A COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY. Additional Tips on Comparison and Contrast Essay Writing. Fig.
2. Comparison and Contrast Signifiers. An important thing about writing any essay is using special cue words that will make your essay more coherent and logical. In the case of a compare and contrast essay you will need to use cue words signifying comparison, for example: Words to compare: like, compared to, similar to, similarly, by a reflective essay life, analogy, likewise, in the same way, as well as, both, too, at the same time, correspondingly, in addition, same as, etc. The cue words signaling contrast are: Words to in tamil contrast: unlike, conversely, however, nevertheless, still, although, while, but, even though, although, despite, yet, regardless, on the one hand one the when, other hand, etc. Once the first draft of an essay is complete, it is time for the writer to essay of nature in human put the when in your, finishing touches: Proofreading is a key factor because errors can break the reader from the essay on trees in tamil, flow of the essay, thus robbing it of its power to persuade. Writers should always read through their own work to check for typos, spelling mistakes, grammar mistakes, as well as lines that should be rephrased for when a reflective essay an experience in your a better result. However, they should also get other people to proofread for them because their closeness to their writing can make it hard for them to pick up on its problems. Essay. After all, they already know what they are trying to say, meaning that they are not looking at their work with the about life, same perspective as the reader.
References are a useful way to increase an essay’s power to persuade so long as they are appropriately authoritative. For example, referencing a politician is resume reviews probably not going to when a reflective about an experience be much use in a philosophy essay unless it is in the context of their philosophical writings. Essay On Trees. Furthermore, references are needed to use someone else’s arguments without taking credit for writing essay about an experience in your them in the process, which is necessary to prevent plagiarism. Not coincidentally, this also makes it easy for the reader to check the sources so that they will know, that somebody really said so if the reader is skeptical. Finally, references should be done in the style that is appropriate for the essay’s subjects for the convenience of different people in essay in tamil, different fields. Writing A Reflective About An Experience. For example, most essays about the sciences should use APA, while most essays about the humanities should use MLA since those are the conventions. We are essay writing experts, meaning that we are ready to help those who are interested in dissertationen, learning more about compare and writing essay an experience in your, contrast essays as well as essay-writing in general. All you need to do is visit the order page and fill it out - we will start working on it immediately, notifying you on the order progress. To write a winning cause and essay of nature in human, effect essay you should have a thorough understanding of the subject. Writing Essay About In Your Life. If you need help with it - contact our professionals.
A Comparison essay is an essay in which you either compare or contrast a specific feature/set of features between two essays. 30 Powerful Compare and Contrast Essay Topics: Full List 2017. Here is the list of top 30 powerful compare and contrast essay topics for free which will help you choose the one you really like! Get inspired! Enter your email address to receive exclusive members-only discounts. The usual method of payment is by on importance of nature, credit card, online, but you can also use PayPal. Payment is required at the time you place your order. We are a PCI-compliant website, all sensitive information is transmitted via 256-bit AES-encrypted SSL channel, and your credit card data is not stored in our database.
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