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Constructivist grounded theory dissertation

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Department Of Sociology - April 26, 2016 - Kathy Charmaz

Department of Sociology Professor Kathy Charmaz April 26, 2016.

ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation - Keith Edwards

Constructivist grounded theory dissertation

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A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study of the - MacSphere

APPIC Internship Applications: Let Your Autobiographical Essay Shine. Constructivist Dissertation! Fall is in the air#8230;the leaves are changing. It#8217;s a time of generosity essays transformation and reflection. This is grounded theory dissertation also the perfect time to reflect on who you are and how to essay, express that to internship directors. One of the most important and most scrutinized materials in your APPIC internship application is the grounded theory dissertation autobiographical essay (Essay #1) , yet most students agree it is the essays a sonata the majority hardest to grounded dissertation, write. While there is no exact method that is “right,” there is some strategy to it, and below I’m sharing some tips for how to make the essay on teaching as a career best impression and maximize the impact of your essay. There is very little in your application, apart from this essay, that really gives directors a feel for who you are as a person; this is constructivist entirely different than the essay on teaching credentials you submit that are focused exclusively on your training. In addition to a good training fit (that I discussed in my last blog entry), directors want to work with someone they feel they can connect with , and this is your opportunity to reveal your personality to them. This essay should focus on constructivist grounded, you as a person, so while you need to keep it relevant (see #6), this means more than just a list of essay english your training experiences or graduate school accomplishments.

They can already see that in theory dissertation the other materials you submit; remember, don’t squander this opportunity to introduce directors to the “personal you” that they can’t see elsewhere. Be genuine. Be yourself. Don#8217;t try to write an essay about something that you think sounds good but isn’t truly authentic; trying to figure out what kind of intern sites are looking for, and essay as a career, trying to create a narrative to fit that, is not a good strategy . If you identified your true training goals and selected sites that are a good fit, then your authentic (well-conveyed) narrative should naturally appeal to directors of grounded those sites. In Winter Essay! When deciding on constructivist, a focus for the autobiographical essay, consider what you really want to convey to directors, what quality or personal characteristic you possess that makes you uniquely you, and how that contributes to essay about myself, making you a more evolved or self-aware, or uniquely empathic, etc. emerging clinician. If appropriate, consider discussing life-changing events that define who you are. Even negative life events such as loss, illness, adversity, etc. can be discussed, but focus on how these events were transformative in a positive way and what lessons or insights you learned, not on how tragic they were.

The emphasis should be on how you coped with it, learned from constructivist grounded theory, it, overcame it, and essays, eventually, used it, to become more self-aware and grow from dissertation, it . Essay Career! You can convey a compelling story about something that may have been difficult, but maintain the constructivist grounded theory dissertation focus on the positive. This essay should move the reader and let him or her really get a glimpse of who you are. By the end of it, you want the reader thinking, “I’d really like to meet/work with this person.” Try to stay away from cliches and the trap of essays writing about how you were “always interested in psychology” or “everyone always thought I was a good listener.” While that may be true, something personal had to constructivist, have drawn you to the field. If you can identify that, and essay writing english my hobby, really create a sincere and engaging narrative about it, while tying it in to your evolution as a psychologist, you will have a more compelling (and successful) essay. Not everything that’s happened to us that we think is important will be relevant for grounded this essay. Ask yourself, “Does talking about this issue, or event, or aspect of myself, really convey the message I want?” and is it genuinely related in some way to your evolution as a clinician, or healer? Again, don’t “force” that connection; it should be a natural one. Before The Majority Writings! If it’s not, then reconsider the essay topic. If your interest in psychology was naturally more academic than related to constructivist grounded theory, a personal event or circumstance, or you would simply prefer not to talk about your private personal life, that’s ok. However, it still needs to be a personal essay, so consider some aspect of essays your work with patients that is genuinely compelling for you, and try to craft an essay around that.

You can start by thinking about a particular patient, or a specific moment with a patient(s) that truly moved you, or validated your desire and the meaning of theory being a healer . You should still begin the essay with some kind of anecdote that captures this, and then work from there. This can also make for a very compelling essay. Remember, directors are reading LOTS of essay being myself these essays, so keeping them engaged is half the constructivist theory dissertation strategy . Having a compelling story with a well written narrative is necessary. Consider starting with a very engaging, or #8220;seductive#8221; first sentence that can really grab the reader, right from the beginning, and make them want to essays a sonata and other, read on. It doesn’t have to be a long sentence, and it can even be a quote, a song lyric—anything that captures the constructivist essence of your message. Start with that and build the essay around it.

Make sure to essay about being, somehow make reference to it at the end too; wrapping up your essay by grounded theory connecting it back to essay on teaching as a career, the beginning is also a good strategy. It should tell a story about you, with a beginning, middle and end . Make sure it sends a cohesive message about you. Try to utilize transitional sentences when bridging topics, and don#8217;t forget a summary statement at the end that ties it all together and really brings your message home. It should wrap back, at the end, to how this “story” about you ultimately translates into constructivist grounded dissertation, who you are (as a clinician) in the room with the patient . How is the aspect of yourself you decided to write about an asset as a therapist? If it’s something transformative that really had an impact on you, chances are you have learned something profound from it about human nature, and a drugstore in winter, about yourself, which helps your understanding of patients—so make sure to state that in some way. Tip #10: Remember the Word Limit#8230;Unless You#8217;re Writing. We all know the word limit is 500, and constructivist theory, I know doing everything I described above in 500 words or less is definitely a challenge.

However, try not to censor yourself and worry about the writing english my hobby length AS you’re writing—just write . You can edit later. Constructivist Dissertation! If you find your essay is way too long, consider whether you need a “hatchet” or “scalpel” approach —that is, can you cut entire sections or sentences without compromising the message or the quality of the writing, or do you perhaps need to go in and condense sentences and be more parsimonious in essay about being expressing yourself? That being said, if you go up to 550 or even 560-ish, that’s ok; no director is going to dissertation, think you are a “bad” match or that you can’t follow instructions because you went a little over essay english my hobby, 500 words; it’s a guideline, so use it as such. Do not make arbitrary cuts simply to constructivist, reach that number. As long as it fits onto a single page with 1-inch margins, it should be ok. Most directors just gauge the writing english my hobby length by theory dissertation “eyeballing” it; no one is really counting words . If it looks the average length, it’s fine, if you go over helping essay, the word limit significantly, and it’s obvious, it probably won’t matter by how much at that point—the (negative) impression has been made. Tip #11: Don#8217;t Forget it#8217;s a Writing Sample! Make sure to show off your writing skills and always check for grounded dissertation typos, grammar and language. Have someone with good editing skills read it and comment on it, but be careful about taking advice about the content of the essay if your audience doesn’t really have a context for knowing what directors are looking for.

Many people mean well, especially family and friends, but they may not be the best judges. If you do want “lay” people—read: non-psychologists or those unconnected to the internship process—review it, then the before a sonata and other best way to make the most out of it, rather than simply asking for grounded open-ended feedback, is to give them a lot of context for it, and explain a little bit about as a career, what you aim to convey BEFORE they read the essay. Grounded Theory! After they’ve read it, see if they agree you’ve conveyed your message in a strong, positive, compelling fashion. Latest posts by Josephine Minardo, PsyD (see all) Ace Your Case Presentations #038; Vignettes in APPIC Internship Interviews - December 9, 2015 APPIC Internship Applications: Is it Really All About the #8220;Match#8221;? - September 22, 2015 APPIC Internship Application Cover Letters - October 24, 2012.

Very well written, with extremely pertinent and generosity essays, valid points. Constructivist Grounded Theory Dissertation! This was very well written indeed. Super helpful. Thank you!

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Major Gifts and Major Gift Officers: The Basics. Major gifts are the largest gifts an organization receives. Some larger organizations consider gifts over $100,000 to be major, while others consider $2,000 to theory, be a major contribution. Studies have shown that, on average, over writing my hobby, 88% of all funds come from just 12% of donors. That 12% constitutes the donations from your major gift contributors. Given their respective impact on your fundraising total, it€™s clear to see why having a robust major giving program should be a priority.

Major gift officers (MGOs) lead all things major giving for grounded dissertation, nonprofits and fundraising organizations. From identification to cultivation to solicitation to generosity essays, stewardship, they build relationships with prospects who have the capacity and affinity to donate a major gift. The role is grounded dissertation partly tied to organization size. An MGO at a large nonprofit is helping likely to be part of a team of officers, whereas a smaller organization might have an existing staff member take on the responsibilities. Basics of Major Gifts and Major Giving.

Finding major donors is exactly as it sounds: it€™s the process of identifying possible major gift prospects. Since major gifts make up a large part of overall funds raised, it’s vital that organizations invest time in pinpointing potential prospects. A large part of prospect identification involves conducting prospect research into constructivist grounded theory, an organization’s donor or supporter base. Major gift officers (or whoever does prospect research for high-level donors within your organization) focus primarily on wealth markers and philanthropic indicators. A combined examination of wealth markers and philanthropic indicators will reveal both a prospect€™s financial capacity to make a major contribution and about being myself, their openness to doing so. What to Look For in a Major Donor Prospect:

Philanthropic indicators speak to constructivist grounded theory, a prospect€™s affinity for charitable work and before a sonata and other writings, your organization. Logically, a donor who has given in the past, who has been involved recently and frequently, and who has donated large sums over time is highly likely to donate a major gift in grounded dissertation the future. These indicators are what people typically think of my hobby when they consider prime candidates for major giving. Wealth markers are simply signals of someone€™s financial capacity to give €“ just as philanthropic markers are a good indication of a prospect€™s willingness to donate to charity. Donors who have given between $5k and $10k to a nonprofit are 5 times more likely to grounded, donate charitably than the average person. An individual that owns $2+ million worth of real estate is 17 times more likely to give philanthropically than the average person. Whether as a foundation trustee, a director, a board member, or as a volunteer, someone who has been directly involved with your organization is essay miles ahead of anyone else on your list. Not only does stock ownership give you an idea of a donor€™s potential ability to give, but it also means that that donor could also make a donation by transferring the stock to your organization. RFM scores speak to the recency, frequency, and monetary value of the gifts that have been made by a prospect. The more recent, the constructivist theory, higher the frequency, and essays before a sonata and other writings, the greater the value of past gifts, the more likely that donor is to be an ideal prospect. Studies have shown that donors who give over $2,500 in FEC and charitable campaigns are 14 times more likely to give a charitable contribution than those who do not.

Their track records demonstrate a clear openness to constructivist dissertation, giving. Cultivation is your major gift officer€™s time to flood, connect with and constructivist grounded dissertation, learn more about a prospect so their eventual solicitation is more informed. The get-to-know-you visit is one of the most crucial steps in the prospect cultivation phase. Major giving is a very personal process, and in-person meetings build the essays, foundation for a meaningful relationship with your potential major gift donors. Small, exclusive, and constructivist grounded, personal — that’s the level of event you want to bring your major gift donors to. Show them that they are not just donors — they are also a very important part of your organization and play a key role in serving your mission. Show potential donors what you€™re all about, what you€™re doing on before the majority and other the ground, and what you€™re operating with on a day-to-day basis. This is grounded theory a proven way to solidify a donor€™s interest in giving a substantial gift to your nonprofit. Hosting a dinner or other sort of essays exclusive meet-and-greet with your executive director is constructivist a great way to court and ultimately cultivate potential major gift donors. Let them see that leadership is invested in them. Just because a major donor prospect is presumably going to be donating a large sum of career money, it doesn€™t mean they wouldn€™t appreciate volunteering.

A personalized volunteering opportunity lets your major donors in on the action, allowing them to constructivist theory, experience your organization’s work firsthand. Informational luncheons offer a casual way to further educate prospects about major giving without being too formal. Keep your information action-driven, explaining exactly how major donations can be used to further your cause. It€™s a low-stakes environment to learn about your cause and get inspired! Use what you know about your major gift donor to make your ask as personal as possible. Go beyond the facts and generosity essays, figures you€™ve gleaned from prospect research and tailor your ask to the person: who he or she is and what makes them tick.

Provide your donors with evidence that shows them why donating to your nonprofit will positively impact the cause that they care about. Grounded. Have physical documents at your disposal that summarize your case for major donations. Using the essays, information that you€™ve gathered from prospect screening, determine a reasonable amount to request. The amount you ask for should reflect your donor€™s abilities and past donations. Theory Dissertation. Aim high, but be courteous. Plan out your half of the essay, conversation, anticipating what your donor may say in response. Highlight the theory dissertation, major points that you need to hit to a sonata the majority and other writings, create an constructivist effective pitch so that nothing important is about forgotten in grounded theory the course of the conversation. Expect that your donor will want to negotiate. Begin your ask by making your highest request first. Essay About. If a donor says yes right away, you€™ve probably left money on constructivist the table.

Whittle down your original request until both you and your donor feel comfortable. Have a plan in place for following up with your asks. Depending on your donor€™s response, you may need to confirm a donation, send more information, or try a new approach. Helping Essay. Be sure you have reliable contact information and notes from the meeting. Major Donor Stewardship and Retention. Major donor stewardship follows all of the same principles as stewardship within any other form of fundraising. It centers around acknowledging, recognizing, and thanking your donors. Constructivist Grounded. Where it differs from the rest is in the execution. Major gift donor acknowledgments should be commensurate with the level of the contribution. Their gifts are game-changers, and your stewardship should match that. It may seem counter-intuitive, but major gift donors often become recurring donors.

One might think that if a donor has already contributed a significant sum, they would no longer be interested in giving any further. But this actually hasn€™t shown to be the case. And that€™s part of why stewardship is so vital. It€™s proper stewardship that ensures the retention of helping flood victims essay a major gift donor in grounded the long run. As A. Build on all the effort you€™ve already put in!

What are the Stewardship Best Practices? More than just streamlining the process of donating and theory, sending out personalized acknowledgements, the best practices for crafting a successful stewardship strategy are about matching the level of essay on teaching career commitment and enthusiasm that a major gift signifies. Practically, this means curating experiences and grounded dissertation, opportunities to thank and essay myself, celebrate your major gift donors. Again, a lot of the grounded theory dissertation, same principles apply, just on a grander scale. Steps to Getting Started with a Major Gifts Program. Major gift efforts require everyone on essay your team to be involved in some way, shape, or form. So you’ll need all the support from leadership that you can get. As we mentioned earlier, a great technique for courting major donors is to introduce them to dissertation, your organization€™s executive director. Plus, your leadership team likely has valuable major donor connections, since people of philanthropic interest tend to flock together!

In addition to flood victims, having your leadership on board, you€™ll also want to have board members, fundraisers, prospect researchers, and even some marketers on your team. The success of your major gifts effort relies on having all hands on deck at any given time. 3. Determine what qualifies as a major gift at your organization. What qualifies as a major gift will fluctuate not only from organization to organization, but also within your organization. As you grow, your standards will naturally change.

It€™s important to update your standards every so often, as this standard will dictate the level of strategy given to constructivist, cultivating and soliciting certain prospects over others. You might be surprised by the number of major gift prospects that you already have within your existing donor base. Prospect research is the best way to flood victims essay, find out who among them is likely to give a major gift. Keep in mind that you should be scouting out prospects who have: A proven willingness to give (a history of theory dissertation giving to nonprofits). A demonstrated capacity to give (tangible wealth markers). If those two key factors are in alignment, there€™s a high likelihood that that person could be a major gift donor. When a major gift donor gives to generosity essays, your organization, they expect to see tangible results from that contribution.

This means that they want to see how their gifts are effecting real change. They also might expect some kind of program perks. Incentives for donating never hurt! For instance, if a major gift donor gives a significant contribution to your capital campaign, they may want to have the opportunity to name the building they€™re helping to constructivist grounded theory dissertation, fund. In either case, your donors want to know that their major gifts are being used effectively. Have your prospect researchers put together profiles on your candidates with recommended asks. Then divide the being myself, profiles among your fundraising team. Each team member should work in conjunction with your board and grounded dissertation, marketers to create the ultimate presentation for helping victims, each of the prospects.

The next step is to begin the constructivist grounded, solicitation process. It€™s time to make the ask! 7. Generosity Essays. Implement a stewardship program. Major gift donors are investing a lot in your organization. It only makes sense to reciprocate. Because there likely aren€™t an overwhelming number of constructivist grounded major gift donors within your donor pool, you can absolutely take the time to cultivate meaningful relationships with each and every one of them. You should, of course, send out essays before the majority acknowledgements as you would with any other donor, but you can also take it a step further with your major gift donors by: Scheduling check-in calls. Taking the time to really get to grounded dissertation, know them. Finding creative ways to recognize them.

Sending them thank yous occasionally throughout the before writings, year, even when they haven€™t donated recently. Corresponding about topics outside of asks and acknowledgements. Stewardship is one of the most important steps in the entire process. Make sure you have a firm plan in place for how you maintain relationships after the gift has been made. It€™s always a good idea to evaluate key performance metrics when implementing any sort of fundraising strategy. It€™s especially important to do so when you€™re going through the major gift acquisition process.

You may want to pay particular attention to: ROI. Gifts secured. Average major gift size. Average giving capacity (of top donors).

With these metrics in mind, you can assess your existing campaign and theory dissertation, plan to improve your strategy in the future. The Strategy: Creating a customized proposal is essay writing english my hobby a vital step. Call upon the relationship you€™ve built with your major donor to craft the constructivist dissertation, most effective proposal possible. How to implement: Call them by their preferred name in letters, emails, and in-person conversations. Use their desired titles and pay attention to essay my hobby, the level of formality that they prefer.

The Strategy: Present your donors options so they can make an active choice in how their money is constructivist theory dissertation being used. They will feel as if they€™re participating while you maintain control of their gift. How to a drugstore, implement: Summarize the programs in need of assistance. Try to guide your donor toward high levels of need, but do not tell them how to grounded theory, give their money. The Strategy: Your donor is already acquainted with your organization and its cause. Now, explain how the donor fits into the bigger picture by showing how their specific interests align with your nonprofit. How to implement: Once you€™ve determined your donor€™s philanthropic interests, show them how they can serve those interests through your nonprofit.

Prepare your asking strategy based upon the donor€™s profile. The Strategy: Use the information you€™ve cultivated to persuade your major donor prospect. Writing English My Hobby. You should know from your research what their giving capacity is constructivist grounded theory so that you can make an informed and accurate request. How to implement: Using the information you’ve gathered about your donor, make a direct ask that includes the amount you want, the essay, program that needs the donation, and grounded, why this particular program requires this gift. Essay. Be clear about theory dissertation, what you need. Acknowledge, acknowledge, acknowledge. The Strategy: Thanking your donors and acknowledging their past contributions shows your gratitude and encourages them to donate more.

How to implement: If you€™re speaking with someone who has previously given to your organization, mention how helpful their gift was. If they are a new donor, you can recognize them for their philanthropic interests and generous spirit. The Strategy: Illustrate the impact of the helping essay, gift to your donor. By explaining how their gift will be used to further your nonprofit€™s cause, you can give them a clear idea of their value and necessity to your organization. How to implement: Discuss how the grounded dissertation, donation could be used hypothetically, and support your statement with concrete data and examples or success stories to show how gifts are used for good. Major Gift Fundraising Best Practices.

For Cultivating A Major Gift Donor: Host events catered to major donors. It’s always a good idea to host an writing event to get to know potential major donors better. Typically, these events are galas or live auctions. The benefits of hosting an event include: Pulling in prospects. Events like this, by nature, get a lot of people capable of making a large donation in constructivist one room together. Informing future donors. They can then learn more about your organization, the cause you serve, and the kind of impact their gifts could have Making the essay, connection. Grounded Theory. Getting to a drugstore in winter essay, know these donors a little better gives your fundraisers a clearer picture of who would be the constructivist theory dissertation, top prospects to pursue. Your board members often have the kind of connections you need to reach out to certain prospects.

When leveraging your board, be sure to: Assess prospects. Don€™t overlook the people who are already within your organization! Evaluate the connections already available to your board. Initiate the process. Ask your board members to reach out to essay writing english, key people in their networks. Their personal connections will go a long way when you€™re courting major gift donors.

Retain the constructivist grounded theory dissertation, connection. Generosity. Consider including the grounded theory dissertation, board member who introduced you to helping flood victims essay, the major donor in all communications. Before a donor commits to a major gift, they€™ll likely want to know what their return on investment would be. Specifically, you€™ll want to: Emphasize their specific areas of interest. Pitch the programs with great results that also speak to your donor€™s philanthropic interests. Be clear. Constructivist. Communicate how much you would need for your project and what that money would accomplish realistically. Be transparent with your numbers.

Fit into generosity, the bigger picture. Showing your donor how their donation helps your overall goal can make them feel like they€™re part of dissertation a bigger cause. For Stewarding A Major Gift Donor: Major donor societies are essentially members-only clubs for your most generous contributors. Think of a drugstore in winter your major gift society as a chance to build a close-knit community of major donors. They€™re beneficial for many reasons, including: Exclusivity. Theory Dissertation. The exclusivity makes donors feel as though they€™re a part of essay something special €” because they are! Incentive.

Setting a minimum donation amount for acceptance to the society encourages donors to give more than they otherwise might have. Stewardship. Having a major gift society allows your organization to put an constructivist grounded theory excellent stewardship process in place across the board. Nothing gets donors (of all sizes) as excited or invested in giving to your organization as getting hands-on with your work. To create the best volunteering experience, be sure to: Initiate volunteering. Host a volunteer day or create special opportunities for your major gift prospects.

Encourage active participation. If your major donor is interested in your volunteer work, they€™ll be more engaged. Generosity. Let them participate directly with the cause. Give tangible results. By experiencing your work firsthand, they€™ll have a greater sense of just how much their contributions could mean. Because they€™re giving a substantial sum to your organization, major donors understandably want to know how their money will be used. When choosing how to frame your results, consider: Day-to-day details.

Show them the dissertation, nitty-gritty, day-to-day details of the work their contribution is generosity essays doing so that they can visualize their financial support in practice. Grounded Dissertation. Overall progress. Make it a priority to as a, zoom out and show them how their contribution extends beyond a singular project. Their impact. Show them that their gift has made a large and lasting impact on your mission and the cause you serve. Give specific results or examples. Integrating Major Gifts Into Your Fundraising Strategy. Your list of annual gift donors should be one of the first places you look for new major gift prospects. Anyone who regularly donates to grounded theory, your annual fund has already demonstrated a willingness to contribute to essays, your cause.

Find someone on that list who also has the financial capacity to upgrade to grounded theory dissertation, major giving, and you€™ll be in good shape. During a capital campaign€™s quiet phase (before the fundraising effort is essay publicly promoted), the whole team works diligently to secure major gifts. Approximately 60% of the constructivist theory dissertation, average campaign€™s total is raised during that major-gift-centric phase. As such, major gift know-how is absolutely crucial for essay, rolling out a successful capital campaign. Planned gift and major gift prospects share some DNA. Both often have a history with the organization and a proven connection to grounded, philanthropic work. They also often have similar giving capacities from a financial perspective. Because of helping flood victims essay those shared predictors, it€™s important to constructivist grounded, compare respective donor pools for the giving types.

Improving Your Major Gift Program. What are the key responsibilities? In essence, a major gift officer leads all things major gifts-related. The duties involved typically include: Coordinating the major gift program. Determining the direction of flood your major giving program. Selecting major gift prospects for cultivation. Building relationships with major donor prospects. Soliciting donations from dissertation, major gift donors. Myself. Designing a major gift donor stewardship program. Education level is grounded important in determining the caliber of the candidate, but at essay myself the end of the day, finding someone with the right experience should be your number one priority.

For the most part, the only educational experience that is truly necessary is a bachelor€™s degree. There are, of course, graduate degrees and constructivist grounded theory dissertation, certificates in fundraising that a person can obtain; but in on teaching as a career practice, the constructivist theory dissertation, most useful knowledge comes not from academic curricula but from being hands-on with the major gifts process for essay on teaching career, a number of years. Having the right skills is essential to being a good major gifts officer. An extensive familiarity with fundraising. The right person will have dealt with all of the various depths that fundraising reaches. Grounded Theory. Excellent communication skills.

Long story short, they need to essays writings, be able to constructivist grounded, communicate not only with your donors, but also with the other team members in your organization. A willingness to power through challenges. Major gift fundraising is tough; make sure you pick someone who€™s up to the challenge. The higher you aim with major giving, the essay, more extensive your prospect research efforts will need to constructivist grounded dissertation, be, and the more you€™ll need support to maximize your efforts. Luckily, with the essay about being, help of a screening tool, you can drastically cut down on constructivist grounded dissertation the time your team spends researching, freeing them up to focus on cultivation, solicitation, and helping flood victims, stewardship. Between all the meetings and constructivist grounded dissertation, interactions leading up to the ask and the final solicitation presentation itself, you€™re going to require the support of highly informative documentation. Once you€™ve created templates for the various required materials, you€™ll be able to personalize each template for the needs of every specific major gift prospect. Helpful in mapping out the writing english, gift amount you€™re aiming for, major gift calculators offer a great way to visually represent how your team should approach your fundraising goal. Presented as a chart, the constructivist grounded, gift calculator will tell you how many gifts you need to acquire at various giving levels to reach your goal. They give fundraisers exact targets to aim for. It is imperative that your team has an effective and on teaching as a career, efficient way of tracking and grounded dissertation, managing the various types of helping flood victims donor data that you encounter throughout the grounded, different stages of major giving.

From identification through solicitation, your organization will be presented with tons of data. Those who know how to english my hobby, manage that data are the ones whose major gift programs truly take off. What is this? Return on investment is constructivist grounded a metric that tracks the fundraising profit relative to its costs. Specifically, it calculates how much money you raised per every dollar spent. Apply ROI to major gifts to see if your efforts are paying off. How do we track it? Divide the net revenue of your major gifts efforts by the total cost.

If the number is greater than 1, you€™ve made a profit. What is this? The average major gift size is the average amount of donated money that qualifies as a major gift. To calculate, divide your revenue from a certain time period and/or event by myself the total number of constructivist theory dissertation major gifts in that same frame. How do we track it? You can track average gift size for specific events or over a designated time period, allowing you to measure whether or not your major gifts are growing overall. What is this? Your major donor retention rate is the percentage of recurring major donors over a certain period of being myself time.

Keeping tabs on your major donors requires a clean database of information. Be sure to update your donor information frequently so that you can identify donors who are no longer active. How do we track it? Divide the number of theory recurring major donors by the total number of major donors; then, multiply by 100. What is this? Giving capacity is an informed estimate of how much your donor can give. It can help you to make more targeted, accurate requests for flood, donations. Constructivist Theory. Compare your average giving capacity to your average major gift size to ensure there isn€™t a sizable discrepancy.

How do we track it? Analyze the donor€™s connection to your cause, their philanthropic propensity, and their wealth markers. What is this? This metric shows the number of english my hobby major gifts that you€™ve received over a certain period of time. How do we track it?

By accounting for this metric, you can track the growth of your major donor program. What is this? Asks made are the amount of times your major gift officers have asked for a donation. How do we track it? Keep a running tally of grounded your asks. Tracking asks made will ensure that you reach your target number of asks. Determining Major Donor Giving Capacity. Data is key in the major gifts world. The more you know about writing english my hobby, your prospects, the better equipped you€™ll be to make an ask.

And the more you know about your existing donors, the constructivist grounded, more you can keep them engaged. If you know where to writing my hobby, look, the data tells you who is most likely to grounded theory, make a donation and essay, how they€™d like you to grounded dissertation, handle cultivation and stewardship. Sophisticated handling of donor data will give your program a big leg up. How do you determine giving capacity? As a part of your data analysis for major giving, you€™ll need to flood victims essay, zero in on the information that determines donor giving capacity. At the grounded theory, end of the day, a donor€™s wealth plays a major role in major giving. You can estimate giving capacity scores by looking at a donor€™s wealth markers like real estate. Just remember that capacity doesn€™t equal willingness, so philanthropic drive should always be a main factor. Prospect Research: The Ultimate Guide.

One of the most important tools nonprofits have at their disposal when soliciting major donors is prospect research. Need a refresher? Brush up on everything there is to know with our newly-updated prospect research guide! Capital Campaigns: Understanding the Basics. Capital campaigns rely heavily on major donors in order to help them meet their fundraising goals. As such, it’s important to have a thorough understanding of how capital campaigns work. Check out our handy guide to learn more! The Insider’s Guide to Major Gifts. Still feeling a little lost when it comes to all things major gifts? Double the helping flood, Donation has got you covered!

Take a look at their comprehensive insider’s guide to major gifts to get even more useful information and support!

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5 Tips to Score a 12 On Your ACT Essay. There is no question that the ACT is constructivist theory important for helping flood, high school students who are thinking about applying to college. Constructivist Theory Dissertation? While the multiple choice sections are designed to assess students’ knowledge in math, English, science and reading, there is also a writing section that assesses students’ abilities to write an essay. Doing well on on teaching, this section of the ACT can help distinguish you as an accomplished writer to colleges. Though you can easily understand your score a multiple choice test, you might be left wondering what will earn you a good score on the ACT essay. If you’re aiming for a 12 on the ACT essay, read on for some tips and tricks! While the multiple choice sections of the ACT might be more unforgiving, the grounded, ACT essay is a great opportunity to show off your writing skills. According the about being myself, ACT website, you should aim to write a “unified, coherent essay” in which you: clearly state your own perspective on grounded, the issue and analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in about myself, Standard written English. To see these ideas in motion, you can take a look at a sample ACT prompt and essay here . The ACT essay is scored on a scale of 1 to 12. Your essay will be read and scored by two different grades on a scale of 1 to 6 in four different domains, for a total score out of 12 in each of these four domains.

These four scores will then be averaged for grounded dissertation, a total score out of 12. Essays Writings? For more information about how this section of the test is scored, you can look at the official ACT Writing Test Scoring Rubric . In general, if you are aiming to do well in something, you should know what exemplary work looks like and try to emulate it. This is certainly the constructivist theory dissertation, case for the ACT Essay, so before you walk into essay the testing center to write your essay, make sure you know know what essays that scored a 12 in constructivist, this section look like! Be sure to read as many sample essays as you can find—these should be available online through a quick Google search. Keep in mind, though, that the structure of the writing section changed in Fall 2015, so make sure that the examples you are looking at essay as a, are current and align with the structure of the current essay prompt. As you’re looking at essays that scored a 12, be sure to also look at essays that scored in the middle and essays that received a poor score.

Try to understand what went wrong in the poorly scored essays as well as what could be improved in the middle-scoring ones. Take note of what was successful in the high-scoring sample essays that you read—what makes these essays stand out from the middle-scoring ones? If there are notes from graders that justify the scores of the essays, be sure to constructivist dissertation, pay attention to these as well. Aiming for a high score on the ACT essay section means that you need to try to understand exactly what the graders are looking for. Study the being, rubric once more and remember what you’ll need to accomplish in each category. Tip 2: Pick a perspective and stick to it. When it comes to the writing prompt, the ACT website says “ The test describes an constructivist theory, issue and provides three different perspectives on on teaching as a career, the issue. You are asked to read and consider the issue and grounded dissertation perspectives, state your own perspective on essays a sonata the majority writings, the issue, and grounded dissertation analyze the essay, relationship between your perspective and at constructivist grounded dissertation, least one other perspective on the issue. Your score will not be affected by the perspective you take on the issue.” In order to write a strong essay, you can choose whatever perspective you like—just make sure it’s one that you can support and defend effectively throughout your essay.

Scorers are looking for a strong, well-organized point of view, and like it says above, it doesn’t matter whether you agree, disagree, or are somewhere in the middle; what matters is the a drugstore, writing. It is important to remember that even if you don’t agree with the perspective that you’re writing from on a personal level, your essay needs to show that you can effectively argue a point. In addition, make sure to remember to constructivist grounded theory dissertation, relate your perspective to essay on teaching as a career, one of the perspectives provided in grounded theory, the prompt. A Drugstore Essay? Be sure to address the counter arguments as well in one of theory dissertation, your body paragraphs, using the perspective opposite to your personal perspective to being myself, demonstrate your understanding of opposing views. Grounding your writing in concrete examples is one extremely important element of writing effective ACT essay. You could use this as an opportunity to show off your historical knowledge by theory dissertation, relating your argument to a relevant fact or event in on teaching as a, history or current events, or you could come up with a rhetorical scenario or example. Including examples might even mean including a personal anecdote (although if you do end up doing this, you should make sure that your story is short and relates directly to your argument). Take a look at the ways in which the writers of sample essays that scored a 12 managed to seamlessly incorporate examples into their writing.

While you don’t have to be an expert on the essay topic, nor are you expected to be able to list off obscure facts and trivia about it, you need to make sure that your essay draws from real concrete examples rather that just vague abstract arguments. Tip 4: Don’t be afraid to show off your language skills. Constructivist Grounded Theory Dissertation? One of the markers of a successful ACT essay is its use of language. This is a great opportunity to show off some of your ACT/SAT vocabulary words that you might have been studying for the English section of the test. Opt for higher-level vocabulary words when given the chance—as a general rule of thumb, you should aim to use about the majority writings, 1-2 higher level vocab words per grounded dissertation, paragraph. Scorers want to see that you can navigate the English language skillfully, and so you should also take the being, chance to vary your sentence structure when you get the chance. Theory? Consider, also, utilizing devices such as rhetorical questions and complex sentences. If you are going to use more complicated vocabulary and helping grammar structures, however, make sure you fully understand how to use them.

It will reflect poorly upon your writing skills if you include a complicated word that doesn’t make sense in the context of constructivist theory dissertation, a sentence, or if a grammatical structure that you try to use isn’t quite right. If you’re going to use a semicolon to combine two sentences, for example, make sure you understand that a semicolon is not the same thing as a comma. When in doubt, stick to what you know! It is better to essays the majority and other writings, have a less complicated structure that is theory dissertation used correctly versus an attempt at a more advanced grammatical concept that is actually wrong. Lastly, be sure to keep it real in your writing. While scorers want to see students who are skilled in their use of the english language, it is victims essay easy to tell when someone is simply trying to electrify their vocabulary in order to titillate the reader for the written examination. Your writing and tone should reflect who you are as a writer, so remember to grounded, keep it down to earth. Tip 5: Pay attention to timing your energy level. For the essay section, you will get 40 minutes.

This includes time for planning, writing, and editing, so make sure you dole out the appropriate amount of time for each part of the process. You can practice this by timing yourself to essays a sonata the majority and other writings, write an essay from dissertation a sample prompt at home. Start by giving yourself an essay, hour, and gradually work it down to 40 minutes so that you are prepared by the time the testing date rolls around. Dissertation? If you find that you need more time for planning than you do writing, or if you come to learn that you need a particularly large chunk of time to essay myself, edit, keep these things in theory, mind when it comes time to write your essay for the exam. Essay? The essay will be the last section on the test, so keep this in mind while you complete the multiple choice sections of the ACT. While you should be devoting your full attention and energy to each multiple choice section of the dissertation, test, keep in a sonata the majority writings, mind that once you are finished with all of the multiple choice sections, you will still have to write the essay. When you get breaks between sections, be sure to eat a snack, drink some water, and constructivist grounded theory dissertation use the restroom so that you are not uncomfortable or distracted by the end of the test. Victims Essay? While you might be tempted to constructivist grounded theory, just breeze through the essay section so that you can finish the ACT, know that you will not be allowed to leave the essay being myself, testing center until everyone has finished the test—so be sure to use up all of the constructivist dissertation, allotted time!

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Fibromyalgia Syndrome: An Introduction (paper) Note: This paper was written as an assignment for theory dissertation, a medical communications course. I’ve published it here after receiving several requests that I do so. Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and fatigue. It affects approximately 2% of the population, and is more common in women than in men. Central nervous system sensitization affects the entire body, leading to many secondary symptoms. This paper will cover the a sonata and other, history, symptoms, and causes of FMS as well as recent research and constructivist grounded theory dissertation, known treatments for the syndrome. Fibromyalgia has been described as a full-body migraine. Another common explanation is to essays and other compare everyday life with FMS as being similar to the aches and pains associated with a severe case of influenza. FMS patients experience intermittent flares, which are episodes of constructivist dissertation increased symptomology. Flares usually occur in response to physical or emotional stress—a schedule change, an essay about being illness or injury, a new job, the birth of a child, etc.

While fibromyalgia is not considered a degenerative disorder, its symptoms usually become more severe if the patient also has a degenerative disorder such as arthritis. First, a patient must have experienced continuous pain in all four quadrants of the body for at least three months (Wolfe et al., 1990). Doctors will usually order many different tests in order to rule out arthritis, Lyme disease, and other conditions which might be confused with fibromyalgia. The key diagnostic tool for grounded, FMS is the tender point exam. No more than 4kg/1.54km2 of pressure is applied to 18 specific points (see Table 1).

If there is significant pain in at least 11 of the about being, 18 points, the patient may be diagnosed with fibromyalgia. There are so many common secondary symptoms that it is dissertation, not unusual for a patient to be treated by multiple specialists for those symptoms over a period of years before she is diagnosed with FMS. Secondary symptoms need not be present for helping victims, diagnosis, and constructivist grounded theory dissertation, will vary from one patient to about myself the next. The night racks my bones, and the pain that gnaws me knows no rest, laments Job (The Holy Bible: New Revised Standard Version, Job 30:17). Constructivist Grounded Theory? It’s easy to imagine that Job suffered from FMS. University of Edinburgh surgeon William Balfour described fibromyalgia, which he called rheumatism, in 1815 (Balfour, 1815, as cited in Starlanyl, 1999). Since then, the disease has been called fibrositis, nonarticular rheumatism, and even tender lady syndrome (Marek, 2003). About Being? The disorder was finally labeled fibromyalgia syndrome by Philip Hench (1976). The American College of Rheumatology published its criteria for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia in 1990 (Wolfe et al.). The American Medical Association accepted the criteria in 1987, followed by grounded theory dissertation the World Health Organization in essays 1992 (WHO, 2004). After almost two centuries of constructivist dissertation study, the etiology of fibromyalgia is still a matter of much debate.

There are no lab tests for FMS. There are no discernible abnormalities of the muscles, bones, joints or connective tissues. It is essay, known to involve central nervous system changes (Starlanyl and constructivist grounded theory dissertation, Copeland, 2001), but those changes may be caused by english or be the cause of the disorder. Others have proposed that sleep disturbances, metabolic imbalances, malnutrition, or toxic exposure cause FMS. For the last 25 years, most practitioners have treated FMS as an autoimmune disorder, similar to arthritis.

Levels of antinuclear antibodies are used to theory dissertation diagnose autoimmune disorders, but the presence of those antibodies is similar in most FMS patients and healthy controls (Starlanyl Copeland, 2001). Travell and Simons believed that untreated myofascial trigger points caused fibromyalgia (1999, as cited in Davies, 2001). Trigger points, though, refer pain to different parts of the body. Tender points, as used in the diagnosis of FMS, do not involve referred pain. While some FMS patients do have myofascial trigger points, those points are not present in all FMS patients (Starlanyl, 1999). Some doctors persist in believing that FMS is a psychiatric disorder, but researchers have been unable to on teaching career distinguish between FMS, rheumatoid arthritis and other patients who experience chronic pain using psychiatric techniques (Starlanyl Copeland, 2001). Some physicians have reclassified fibromyalgia as a functional somatic syndrome, claiming that it is characterized more by disability than medical explanation, suggesting behavioral and dissertation, psychiatric treatment rather than any other therapies (Barsky Borus, 1999).

While the incidence of psychiatric disorders such as depression is no higher in patients with FMS than in those with other chronic pain disorders, the before a sonata and other writings, number of fibromyalgia patients who have experienced acute or long term trauma or abuse is far higher than that of the general population (Romans et al., 2002 and Van Houdenhove et al, 2004). In the last ten years, several new technologies have been used to prove that FMS is a physical disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of FMS patients’ brains show significant abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow (Graceley et al., 2002 and Mountz et al., 1998). FMRIs also demonstrate significantly increased activity in pain-relevant areas of the brain in response to constructivist grounded theory dissertation stimuli when compared to a control group (Cook et al., 2004). Italian researchers have found elevated levels of the neuropeptide substance P, which is involved in the perception of pain, in the spinal fluid of FMS patients (De Stefano et al, 2000). Unfortunately, these tests are too invasive or too expensive for diagnostic use.

Studies at the University of Florida College of Medicine show that FMS patients feel pain longer than normal controls (Staud et al., 2003). One of the essay myself, researchers, Roland Staud, also found that once a subject with fibromyalgia is exposed to painful stimuli, that patient stays more sensitive to further stimuli. Unlike the control subjects, the patients also experienced widespread pain as a result of the stimuli, which points to central nervous system sensitization as a factor in FMS (Staud et al., 2004). Van Houdenhove et al. Grounded Theory? cite multiple studies regarding the effect of writing my hobby long-term stressors on the central nervous system on various mammals, including humans. Human studies also suggest that the cumulative effects of dissertation physical or psychosocial burden may increase susceptibility to stress in later life, either through sensitization or failed inhibition of the HPA-axis, possibly due to generosity essays glucocorticoid-related hippocampal damage. For example, retrospective studies have shown that emotional, physical or sexual abuse during childhood may not only theory, increase future risks for anxiety, depression and somatisation, but even organic diseases such as coronary disorders, CVS, diabetes, CPOD and viral infections—which may be related to lifelong hyperreactivity of the LC-NE and HPA axes. (2004, p. 268). Those effects could explain the central nervous system sensitization noted by Staud et al.

Raison and Miller found that excessive glucocorticoid secretion due to genetic predisposition or exposure to long-term stress can cause hippocampal brain damage (2003), further supporting Van Houdenhove’s results. Raison and Miller are not the only researchers who see a genetic factor in fibromyalgia. Staud posits a genetic predisposition towards FMS (2004), as do Yunus et al. (1999) and Pellegrino et al., 1989. Van Houdenhove, however, points out english my hobby, that generational behavioral cycles, such as those often seen in abusive families, could explain some of the constructivist grounded dissertation, apparent heredity (2004). Most treatment of FMS is limited to management of as a career symptoms. Various pain remedies, from over-the-counter medications to opiates, are usually the first line of treatment.

Muscle relaxants, physical therapy, and theory dissertation, massage help some patients. Trigger point therapy and injections are another possibility. Many FMS patients experience difficulties in achieving restful sleep, so physicians commonly prescribe sedatives and tranquilizers. Low doses of anti-seizure medications and atypical antipsychotics, such as Requip and Seroquel, have been found to be effective in about myself helping some fibromyalgia patients to achieve restorative sleep. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants and other medications that affect neurotransmitters help some fibromyalgia patients (Marek, 2003). Cymbalta, a new medication which inhibits both serotonin and grounded theory dissertation, norepinephrine reuptake, seems to improve pain and reduce the number of tender points in FMS patients (Arnold et al., 2004). Acupuncture and biofeedback have been found effective in treatment of fibromyalgia (Ebell and Beck, 2001). Gentle, non-aerobic exercise such as Tai Chi and some forms of yoga may help patients, as well. Stress reduction is one of the in winter essay, most important factors in improving the quality of life for fibromyalgia patients (Williamson, 1998).

Regardless of whether the disorder is caused by stress or not, it is aggravated by stress. While it is impossible for any person to theory dissertation completely avoid stress, it is possible to reduce exposure to generosity essays known stressors and learn to better cope with those that must be endured. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programs are relatively new in the treatment of fibromyalgia in the US. In Full Catastrophe Living, Jon Kabat-Zinn defines mindfulness as, the complete ‘owning’ of each moment of grounded your experience, good, bad, or ugly (1990, p. 11). Essays Before A Sonata? The theory is that mindfulness can allow patients to reduce their reactions to stress, improving their ability to cope with stressors. Grounded Dissertation? In developing the capacity to step back and generosity essays, observe the flow of constructivist grounded consciousness, mindfulness can shortcircuit the fight or flight reaction characteristic of the sympathetic nervous system, allowing individuals to essay being respond to the situation at hand, instead of automatically reacting to it on the basis of past experiences. Constructivist Dissertation? (Proulx, 3002, p. 201) MBSR programs typically last from 8 to flood 12 weeks and include instruction in meditation, breathing techniques, physical awareness, and yoga. They often utilize journaling and group discussions regarding attitudes and positive thinking. While MBSR participation does not necessarily lead to improvement of the constructivist grounded dissertation, physical symptoms of essays the majority writings fibromyalgia, it can lead to improved quality of constructivist grounded life for the fibromyalgia patient. It is unlikely that a cure will be found for fibromyalgia as long as its etiology is not fully understood. Even as the contributing factors are identified, though, the essay, complexity of the syndrome leads one to believe that it is unlikely that any one treatment will provide a panacea.

The progress made in the last fifteen years, though, has led to the reclassification of the disease and improved treatments, hence an improved prognosis for all fibromyalgia patients. Arnold, L. M., Crofford, L. J., Wohlreich, M., Detke, M. j., Iyengar, S., Goldstein, D. J. (2004, Sep). A Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial Comparing Duloxetine With Placebo in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia Patients With or Without Major Depressive Disorder. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 50(9), 2974-2984. Balfour, W. (1815). Observations on the Pathology and Cure of constructivist grounded theory Rheumatism.

Edinburgh Medical Surgical Journal (Edinburgh), 15, 168-187. Barsky, A., Borus, J. (1999, 1 Jun). Functional Somatic Syndromes. Annals of Internal Medicine, 130. Campbell, B. (2004).

The CFIDS Fibromyalgia Self-Help Book(2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: The CFIDS/Fibromyalgia Self-Help Program. Clauw, D. J. (1995, 01/09). Fibromyalgia: More than just a musculoskeletal disease. Victims Essay? American Family Physician, 52(3), 843-852. Cohen-Katz, J. Theory Dissertation? (2004, Summer). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Family Systems Medicine: A Natural Fit. Families, Systems Health, 22(2), 204-207. Cook, D., Lange, G., Ciccone, D., Liu, W., Steffener, J., Natelson, B. (2004, Feb).

Functional imaging of pain in patients with primary fibromyalgia. The Journal of Rheumatology, 31(2), 364-378. Davies, C. (2001). The Trigger Point Therapy Workbook: Your Self-Treatment Guide for Pain Relief.Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. De Stefano, R., Selvi, E., Villanova, M., Frati, E., Manganelli, S., Franceschini, E. A Drugstore Essay? et al. (2000, Dec).

Image analysis quantification of grounded theory dissertation substance P immunoreactivity in the trapezius muscle of patients with fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome. Journal of Rheumatology, 27(12), 2906-2910. Ebell, M., Beck, E. Essay English My Hobby? (2001, May). How effective are complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) therapies for fibromyalgia? Journal of Family Practice, 50(5), 400-402. World Health Organization. (2004). FAQ on ICD. Retrieved 10 August 2004, from Forbes, D., Chalmers, A. (2004, Jun). Fibromyalgia: Revisiting the Literature.

Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association, 48(2), 119-132. Constructivist Theory Dissertation? Gowers, W. In Winter? (1904). Lumbago: Its lessons and analogues. British Medical Journal, 1, 117-121. Gracely, R., Petzke, F., Wolf, J., Clauw, D. (2002, May).

Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of grounded dissertation augmented pain processing in essays fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 46(5), 1333-1343. Hench, P. Constructivist Grounded Theory Dissertation? (1976). Nonarticular Rheumatism, Twenty-Second Rheumatism Review: Review of the American and English Literature for the Years 1973 and 1974. Victims Essay? Arthritis and Rheumatism, 19 (suppl),1081-1089. Henriksson, C., Burckhardt, C. (1996). Constructivist Grounded Dissertation? Impact of fibromyalgia on on teaching career everyday life: A study of women in constructivist dissertation the USA and Sweden. Disability and on teaching career, Rebailitation Journal, 18, 241-248. The Holy Bible: New Revised Standard Version.(1991). Oxford University Press. Jonsdottir, I. H. (2000, Oct).

Neuropeptides and their interaction with exercise and immune function. Immunology Cell Biology, 78(5), 562-571. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full Catastrophe Living.New York: Dell Publishing. Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., Burney, R. (1985, Jun). The clinical use of mindfulness. meditation for the self-regulation of constructivist grounded theory dissertation chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8(2), 163-190. Kelly, J., Devonshire, R. Flood Essay? (2001/1991).

Taking Charge of Fibromyalgia(4th ed.). Wayzata, MN: Fibromyalgia Educational Systems, Inc. Marek, C. C. (2003). The First Year–Fibromyalgia: An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed.New York, NY: Marlowe Company. McComb, R., Tacon, A., Randolph, P., Caldera, Y. Dissertation? (2004, Oct). A pilot study to examine the effects of a mindfulness-based stress-reduction and relaxation program on levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, and essays before a sonata, submaximal exercise responses. The Journal of theory dissertation Alternative and writings, Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and constructivist dissertation, Policy, 10(5), 819-827. Mountz, J., Bradley, L., Alarcon, G. (1998, Jun). Abnormal functional activity of the central nervous system in essays before a sonata and other writings fibromyalgia syndrome. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 315(6), 385-396.

Pellegrino, M., Waylonis, G., Sommer, A. Grounded Theory? (1989). Familiar occurrence of primary fibromyalgia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 70(1), 61-63. Proulx, K. (2003, Jul/Aug). Integrating mindfulness-based stress reduction. Holistic Nursing Practice, 17(4), 201-209. Raison, C. L., Miller, A. H. (2003, Sep). Essay About Myself? When not enough is grounded dissertation, too much: The role of essay as a career insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. The American Journal of theory Psychiatry, 160(9), 1554-1565.

Romans, S., Belaise, C., Martin, J., Morris, E., Raffi, A. A Drugstore Essay? (2002). Childhood abuse and later medical disorders in women: An epidemiological study. Psychotherapy and grounded dissertation, Psychosomatics, 71,141-150. Sack, K. (2004). The Pain That Never Heals: Diagnosing and Managing Patients With Fibromyalgia. Advanced Studies in Medicine, 4(8), 401-408. Schaefer, K. M. (2003, May/Jun). Sleep Disturbances Linked to Fibromyalgia. Holistic Nursing Practice, 17(3), 120-128. Schlenk, E. A., Erlen, J. A., Dunbar-Jacob, J., McDowell, J., Engberg, S., Sereika, S. M. et al. (1998, Feb).

Health-realted quality of life in chronic disorders: A comparison across studies using the victims, MOS SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 7(1), 57-65. Smythe, H. Grounded Theory? (1972). The fibrositis syndrome (nonarticular rheumatism). In J. Hollander (Ed.), Arthritis and Allied Conditions (pp. 767-777). Philadelphia: Lea Febiger.

Smythe, H. (1978). Two contributions to understanding the “fibrositis syndrome.” Bulletin of Rheumatic Disease, 28, 928-931. Starlanyl, D. (1999). The Fibromyalgia Advocate: Getting the Support You Need to Cope with Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain Syndrome.Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. Starlanyl, D., Copeland, M. E. (2001/1996). Fibromyalgia Chronic Myofascial Pain: A Survival Manual (2nd ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. Staud R, Price, D., Robinson, M. Helping Flood Victims Essay? (2004). Maintenance of windup of second pain requires less frequent stimulation in fibromyalgia patients compared to normal controls. Pain, 110(3), 689-696. Staud, R. (2004, Mar).

Fibromyalgia pain: Do we know the source? Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 16(2), 157-163. Staud, R., Cannon, R., Mauderli, A., Robinson, M., Price, D., Vierck, C. J. (2003, Mar). Temporal summation of constructivist theory pain from essay mechanical stimulation of muscle tissue in normal controls and subjects with fibromyalgia syndrome. Pain, 102(1-2), 87-95. Staud, R., Smitherman, M. (2002, Aug). Constructivist Theory Dissertation? Peripheral and central sensitization in fibromyalgia: Pathogenetic role.

Current Pain and Headache Reports, 6(4), 259266. Staud, R., Domingo, M. (2001). Evidence for essay as a, Abnormal Pain Processing in Fibromyalgia Syndrome. Pain Medicine, 2(3), 208-215. Travell, J., Simons, D., Simons, L. (1999). Theory Dissertation? Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Van Houdenhove, B., Egle, U. T. Generosity? (2004). Fibromyalgia: A Stress Disorder? Psychotherapy and grounded theory, Psychosomatics, 73, 267-275.

Williamson, M. E. (1996). Fibromyalgia: A Comprehensive Approach.US: Walter Publishing Company, Inc. Williamson, M. E. As A? (1998). The Fibromyalgia Relief Book.US: Walter Publishing Company, Inc. Wolfe, F., Ross, K., Anderson, J., Russell, I., Hebert L. (1995, Jan). Grounded Theory? The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 38(1), 18-28. Wolfe, F., Smythe, H. On Teaching As A Career? A., Yunus, M. o. B., Bennett, R. M., Bombardier, C., Goldenberg, D. Theory Dissertation? L. et al. Generosity Essays? (1990). Criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: Report of the multicenter criteria committee.

Arthritis and Rheumatism, 33(2), 160-72. Wood, P. B. (2004). Fibromyalgia syndrome: A central role for the hippocampus–A theoretical construct. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 12(1), 19. Yunus, M., Kahn, M., Rawlings, K., Green, J., Olson, J., Shah, S. (1999).

Genetic linkage analysis of constructivist theory dissertation multicase families with fibromyalgia syndrome. Essay About Being? Journal of Rheumatology, 26(2), 408-412.