A drugstore in winter essay
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Neha s AP English Blog: A Drugstore in Winter: Cynthia Ozick
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Essay Reviews: Essay: "A Drugstore in Winter " Cynthia Ozick 1982
Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments  Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria , An Essay on a drugstore in winter, Crimes and Punishments. By the Marquis Beccaria of Milan. With a Commentary by M. de Voltaire. A New Edition Corrected. (Albany: W.C. Little Co., 1872). http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2193. An extremely influential Enlightenment treatise on legal reform in which Beccaria advocates the ending of torture and the death penalty. The book also contains a lengthy commentary by Voltaire which is an indication of high highly French enlightened thinkers regarded the work. The text is in the public domain. This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc.
Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. When Writing A Reflective In Your! It may not be used in any way for in winter, profit. In rebus quibuscunque difficilioribus non expectandum, ut quis simul, serat, metat, sed pr#xE6;paratione opus est, ut per gradus maturescant. Bacon. Penal Laws, so considerable a part of every system of legislation, and of so great importance to the happiness, peace and security of every member of society, are still so imperfect, and are attended with so many unnecessary circumstances of cruelty in all nations, that an attempt to reduce them to the standard of reason must be interesting to all mankind. It is not surprising then, that this little book hath engaged the attention of range plan, all ranks of people in every part of Europe. It is now about eighteen months since the first publication; in which time it hath passed no less than six editions in the original language; the a drugstore in winter third of which was printed within six months after its first appearance. It hath been translated Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] into French; that translation hath also been several times reprinted, and perhaps no book, on any subject, was ever received with more avidity, more generally read, or more universally applauded. The author is the Marquis Beccaria, of when a reflective essay, Milan.
Upon considering the nature of the religion and government under which he lives, the reasons for concealing his name are obvious. The whole was read, at different times, in a drugstore essay, a society of learned men in that city, and was published at their desire. As to the translation, I have preserved the order of the original, except in a paragraph or two, which I have taken the business plan liberty to restore to the chapters to which they evidently belong, and from which they must have been accidentally detached. The French translator hath gone much farther; he hath not only transposed every chapter, but every paragraph in the whole book. But in this, I conceive he hath assumed a right which belongs not to any translator, and which cannot be justified. His disposition may appear more systematical, but certainly the author has as undoubted a right to the arrangement of his own ideas as to a drugstore, the ideas themselves; and therefore to destroy that arrangement, is to online, pervert his meaning, if he had any meaning in his plan, the contrary to which can hardly be supposed. Edition: current; Page: [ 5 ] With regard to the Commentary, attributed to Mons. de Voltaire, my only authority for supposing it his, is the voice of the public, which indeed is the only authority we have for most of his works.
Let those who are acquainted with the peculiarity of his manner judge for themselves. The facts above mentioned would preclude all apology for this translation, if any apology were necessary, for translating into our language a work, which, from the nature of the subject, must be interesting to every nation; but must be particularly acceptable to the English, from the eloquent and forcible manner in which the author pleads the cause of liberty, benevolence and humanity. It may however be objected, that a treatise of this kind is a drugstore in winter, useless in England, where, from the excellence of our laws and government, no examples of cruelty or oppression are to be found. But it must also be allowed, that much is still wanting to perfect our system of legislation; the confinement of debtors, the filth and horror of our prisons, the cruelty of thermodynamics papers, jailors, and the extortion of the petty officers of justice, to all which may be added the melancholy reflection, that the number of criminals put to a drugstore in winter essay, death in England is much greater than in any other part of range business, Europe, are considerations which will sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] answer every objection. These are my only a drugstore reasons for endeavouring to driving range business, diffuse the knowledge of the useful truths contained in this little essay; and I say, with my author, that if I can be instrumental in rescuing a single victim from the hand of tyranny or ignorance, his transports will sufficiently console me for the contempt of all mankind. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In Winter! . . . . . Thesis! . . . . . . . . . . . page. 11 Chap.
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Of the Division of Crimes . . . . . . . . . . A Drugstore In Winter! . . . . . . . . . When Essay Life! . 35 IX. Essay! Of Honor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Really Good Essay! . . A Drugstore In Winter! . . . 39 X. Of Duelling . . . . . . . Driving Range Business Plan! . . . . . . . . . A Drugstore! . . . . . . . . Essay! . . . . Essay! . . . Writing A Reflective In Your Life! . . . A Drugstore In Winter Essay! . 42 XI. Of Crimes which disturb the public Tranquillity . . Thesis Binding Online! . 44 XII. Of the in winter essay Intent of Punishments . . . . . . Range Business Plan! . A Drugstore In Winter! . . . . . . . . . . . 46 XIII. Of the Credibility of Witnesses . . . . . . Research! . . . . . A Drugstore In Winter! . Sat Essay! . . . 47 XIV. Of Evidence and the Proofs of a Crime, and a drugstore in winter of the really essay Form of Judgment . . . In Winter Essay! . . . . . . . . Business! . . . . . . . . . . . A Drugstore! . . . . . 51 XV. Of secret Accusations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Range Business Plan! . . . . . . . A Drugstore In Winter! . . . 55 XVI. Of Torture . . . . Thesis! . In Winter Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . Princeton Sat Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . A Drugstore Essay! . Binding! . . In Winter Essay! . 58 XVII.
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The Idea of Reformation . . . . . . Really Good Essay! . . Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . Research! . 228. In every human society, there is an effort continually tending to confer on one part the height of power and happiness, and to in winter essay, reduce the other to the extreme of weakness and misery. The intent of good laws is to oppose this effort, and to diffuse their influence universally and equally. But men generally abandon the care of their most important concerns to the uncertain prudence and discretion of those, whose interest it is to reject the best and wisest institutions; and it is not till they have been led into essay online, a thousand mistakes, in matters the most essential to their lives and a drugstore liberties, and are weary of suffering, that they can be induced to apply a remedy to the evils with which Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] they are oppressed. It is then they begin to research, conceive, and acknowledge the essay most palpable truths, which, from their very simplicity, commonly escape vulgar minds, incapable of analysing objects, accustomed to when about an experience, receive impressions without distinction, and to a drugstore essay, be determined rather by the opinions of others, than by the result of their own examination. If we look into history we shall find that laws which are, or ought to be, conventions between men in a state of freedom, have been, for the most part, the work of the passions of when a reflective essay life, a few, or the consequences of in winter essay, a fortuitous or temporary necessity; not dictated by a cool examiner of human nature, who knew how to collect in one point the research actions of a multitude, and had this only end in view, the greatest happiness of the greatest number.
Happy are those few nations who have not waited till the slow succession of human vicissitudes should, from the extremity of evil, produce a transition to good; but, by prudent laws, have facilitated the progress from one to the other! And how great are the obligations due from mankind to that philosopher, who, from the obscurity of his closet, had the courage to scatter among the multitude the a drugstore seeds of princeton review, useful truths, so long unfruitful! Edition: current; Page: [ 13 ] The art of printing has diffused the knowledge of those philosophical truths, by in winter, which the relations between sovereigns and their subjects, and between nations, are discovered. Business Plan! By this knowledge commerce is animated, and in winter essay there has sprung up a spirit of emulation and industry worthy of rational beings. These are the produce of princeton review sat essay, this enlightened age; but the cruelty of punishments, and the irregularity of proceeding in criminal cases, so principal a part of the legislation, and so much neglected throughout Europe, has hardly ever been called in question. Errors, accumulated through many centuries, have never been exposed by ascending to general principles; nor has the force of acknowledged truths been ever opposed to the unbounded licentiousness of ill-directed power, which has continually produced so many authorized examples of the most unfeeling barbarity. A Drugstore Essay! Surely, the groans of the weak, sacrificed to the cruel ignorance and indolence of the powerful; the barbarous torments lavished and multiplied with useless severity, for crimes either not proved, or in their nature impossible; the filth and horrors of a prison, increased by the most cruel tormentor of the miserable, uncertainty, ought to have roused the attention of those, whose business is to direct the when writing a reflective about an experience opinions of mankind. Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] The immortal Montesquieu has but slightly touched on this subject. Truth, which is eternally the same, has obliged me to follow the steps of that great man; but the studious part of mankind, for whom I write, will easily distinguish the superstructure from the foundation. A Drugstore Essay! I shall be happy, if, with him, I can obtain the secret thanks of the obscure and peaceful disciples of reason and philosophy, and excite that tender emotion, in which sensible minds sympathise with him who pleads the cause of humanity. AN ESSAY ON CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS.
CHAPTER I.: OF THE ORIGIN OF PUNISHMENTS. Laws are the conditions under which men, naturally independent, united themselves in thesis binding online, society. Weary of living in in winter essay, a continual state of thermodynamics research papers, war, and of enjoying a liberty which became of little value, from the uncertainty of its duration, they sacrificed one part of it to enjoy the rest in in winter essay, peace and security. The sum of all these portions of the liberty of each individual constituted the sovereignty Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] of when a reflective essay about in your life, a nation; and was deposited in the hands of the sovereign, as the lawful administrator. But it was not sufficient only to establish this deposit; it was also necessary to defend it from the usurpation of each individual, who will always endeavour to take away from the mass, not only his own portion, but to encroach on essay, that of others. Some motives, therefore, that strike the princeton sat essay senses, were necessary to prevent the a drugstore in winter despotism of each individual from plunging society into its former chaos. Such motives are the punishment established against the infractors of the laws. I say that motives of this kind are necessary; because experience shews that, the multitude adopt no established rules of conduct; and because, society is prevented from approaching to that dissolution (to which, as well as all other parts of the physical and moral world, it naturally tends) only by motives that are the immediate objects of sense, and which, being continually presented to the mind, are sufficient to counterbalance the effects of the when a reflective essay about an experience life passions of the individual which oppose the in winter general good.
Neither the power of eloquence, nor the sublimest truths, are sufficient to really good introduction, restrain, for any length of in winter essay, time, those passions which are excited by the lively impression of when writing a reflective about an experience, present objects. CHAPTER II.: OF THE RIGHT TO PUNISH. Every punishment which does not arise from absolute necessity, says the great Montesquieu, is tyrannical. A proposition which may be made more general, thus. Every act of authority of one man over another, for which there is not an absolute necessity, is tyrannical. It is upon this, then, that the sovereign#x2019;s right to punish crimes is founded; that is, upon the necessity of defending the public liberty, intrusted to his care, from the usurpation of essay, individuals; and punishments are just in essay, proportion as the liberty, preserved by the sovereign, is sacred and valuable. Let us consult the human heart, and there we shall find the foundation of the sovereign#x2019;s right to punish; for no advantage in moral policy can be lasting, which is a drugstore essay, not founded on the indeliable sentiments of the heart of man. Whatever law deviates from this principle will always meet with a resistance, which will destroy it in the end; for the smallest force, continually applied, Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] will overcome the most violent motion communicated to bodies.
No man ever gave up his liberty merely for princeton, the good of the a drugstore in winter essay public. Such a chimera exists only in romances. Writing A Reflective About! Every individual wishes, if possible, to be exempt from the compacts that bind the rest of mankind. The multiplication of mankind, though slow, being too great for in winter essay, the means which the earth, in its natural state, offered to satisfy necessities, which every day became more numerous, obliged men to separate again, and form new societies. These naturally opposed the thermodynamics research papers first, and a state of war was transferred from individuals to nations.
Thus it was necessity that forced men to a drugstore in winter essay, give up a part of review, their liberty; it is certain, then, that every individual would chuse to put into the public stock the smallest portion possible; as much only as was sufficient to engage others to defend it. The aggregate of these, the smallest portions possible, forms the right of in winter essay, punishing: all that extends beyond this is abuse, not justice. Observe, that by justice I understand nothing more than that bond, which is necessary to keep the interest of individuals united; without which, men would return to the original state of barbarity. Really Good Essay Introduction! All punishments, which exceed the necessity of Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] preserving this bond, are in their nature unjust. We should be cautious how we associate with the word justice, an idea of anything real, such as a physical power, or a being that actually exists. I do not, by any means, speak of the justice of God, which is of another kind, and refers immediately to rewards and punishments in a life to come. CHAPTER III.: CONSEQUENCES OF THE FOREGOING PRINCIPLES. The laws only can determine the in winter essay punishment of range plan, crimes; and a drugstore in winter essay the authority of making penal laws can only reside with the legislator, who represents the whole society united by the social compact. No magistrate then, (as he is one of the society,) can, with justice, inflict on when writing about in your life, any other member of the same society, punishment that is not ordained by the laws.
But as a punishment, increased beyond the degree fixed by the law, is the just punishment, with the addition of another; it follows, that no magistrate, even under a pretence Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] of in winter essay, zeal, or the public good, should increase the when a reflective about punishment already determined by the laws. If every individual be bound to society, society is equally bound to him by a contract, which, from its nature, equally binds both parties. This obligation, which descends from the throne to the cottage, and equally binds the highest and lowest of mankind, signifies nothing more, than that it is the interest of all, that conventions, which are useful to the greatest number, should be punctually observed. A Drugstore! The violation of this compact by any individual, is an introduction to anarchy. The sovereign, who represents the society itself, can only make general laws to bind the essay members; but it belongs not to him to judge whether any individual has violated the social compact, or incurred the punishment in consequence. For in this case there are two parties, one represented by the sovereign, who insists upon the violation of the contract, and the other is the person accused, who denies it. It is necessary then that there should be a third person to decide this contest; that is to say, a judge, or magistrate, from a drugstore, whose determination there should be no appeal; and this determination should consist of a simple affirmation, or negation of fact. Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] If it can only be proved, that the severity of punishments, though not immediately contrary to the public good, or to the end for which they were intended, viz., to prevent crimes, be useless; then such severity would be contrary to those beneficent virtues, which are the consequence of enlightened reason, which instructs the sovereign to wish rather to govern men in a state of freedom and happiness, than of slavery. It would also be contrary to justice, and thermodynamics research papers the social compact. CHAPTER IV.: OF THE INTERPRETATION OF LAWS.
Judges, in criminal cases, have no right to interpret the penal laws, because they are not legislators. They have not received the a drugstore in winter essay laws from our ancestors as a domestic tradition, or as the will of a testator, which his heirs and essay about an experience executors are to obey; but they receive them from a society actually existing, or from the sovereign, its representative. Even the authority of the laws is a drugstore, not Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] founded on any pretended obligation, or ancient convention; which must be null, as it cannot bind those who did not exist at the time of its institution; and unjust, as it would reduce men, in the ages following, to a herd of brutes, without any power of judging or acting. The laws receive their force and authority from an oath of good essay introduction, fidelity, either tacit or expressed, which living subjects have sworn to their sovereign, in order to restrain the in winter intestine fermentation of the private interests of individuals. From hence springs their true and natural authority.
Who then is their lawful interpreter? The sovereign, that is, the representative of society, and and papers not the a drugstore judge, whose office is only to examine, if a man have or have not, committed an action contrary to the laws. In every criminal cause the judge should reason syllogistically. Driving Range Plan! The major should be the general law; the minor the conformity of the action, or its opposition to the laws; the conclusion, liberty or punishment. If the judge be obliged by the imperfection of the laws, or chuses to make any other, or more syllogisms than this, it will be an introduction to uncertainty.
There is nothing more dangerous than the common axiom: the spirit of the laws is to be considered. To adopt it is to give way to the torrent of a drugstore in winter, opinions. Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] This may seem a paradox to vulgar minds, which are more strongly affected by the smallest disorder before their eyes, than by the most pernicious, though remote, consequences produced by one false principle adopted by essay and papers, a nation. Our knowledge is in proportion to the number of our ideas. The more complex these are, the greater is the variety of essay, positions in which they may be considered. Papers! Every man hath his own particular point of view, and at different times sees the same objects in very different lights. The spirit of the a drugstore essay laws will then be the result of the range business plan good or bad logic of the judge; and this will depend on his good or bad digestion; on the violence of his passions; on the rank and condition of the abused, or on his connections with the judge; and on a drugstore in winter, all those circumstances which change the appearance of objects in the fluctuating mind of man. Hence we see the fate of a delinquent changed many times in passing through the different courts of essay about an experience in your life, judicature, and in winter essay his life and liberty victims to essay online, the false ideas or ill humour of the judge; who mistakes the vague result of his own confused reasoning, for the just interpretation of the laws.
We see the same crimes punished in a different manner at different times in the same tribunals; the consequence of not Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] having consulted the constant and invariable voice of the laws, but the erring instability of arbitrary interpretation. The disorders that may arise from a rigorous observance of the letter of penal laws, are not to be compared with those produced by in winter, the interpretation of them. Writing A Reflective Essay In Your! The first are temporary inconveniencies, which will oblige the legislator to correct the letter of the law, the want of preciseness and uncertainty of which has occasioned these disorders; and this will put a stop to the fatal liberty of explaining; the source of in winter essay, arbitrary and really venal declamations. When the code of laws is once fixed, it should be observed in the literal sense, and nothing more is left to the judge than to determine, whether an action be, or be not, conformable to the written law. When the rule of right, which ought to direct the actions of the philosopher as well as the ignorant, is a drugstore, a matter of controversy, not of essay and papers online, fact, the a drugstore in winter people are slaves to the magistrates. The despotism of this multitude of tyrants is more insupportable, the really good introduction less the distance is between the oppressor and the oppressed; more fatal than that of one, for the tyranny of many is not to be shaken off, but by having recourse to essay, that of one alone.
It is more cruel, as it meets with more opposition, and the Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] cruelty of a tyrant is not in proportion to his strength, but to the obstacles that oppose him. These are the means by which security of person and property is best obtained; which is just, as it is the purpose of uniting in society; and it is useful, as each person may calculate exactly the inconveniencies attending every crime. By these means subjects will acquire a spirit of independence and liberty; however it may appear to a reflective essay an experience life, those who dare to call the weakness of submitting blindly to their capricious and interested opinions by the sacred name of virtue. These principles will displease those who have made it a rule with themselves, to transmit to their inferiors the tyranny they suffer from their superiors. A Drugstore! I should have every thing to thesis, fear, if tyrants were to read my book; but tyrants never read. CHAPTER V.: OF THE OBSCURITY OF LAWS.
If the power of interpreting laws be an evil, obscurity in them must be another, as the former is the consequence of the latter. This evil will be still greater, if the laws be written in a language unknown to the people; who, being ignorant of the consequences of their own actions, become necessarily dependent on a few, who are interpreters of the laws, which, instead of being public and a drugstore in winter general, are thus rendered private and particular. What must we think of mankind when we reflect, that such is the established custom of the greatest part of our polished and enlightened Europe? Crimes will be less frequent, in proportion as the code of binding online, laws is more universally read, and understood; for there is no doubt, but that the eloquence of the passions is greatly assisted by the ignorance and uncertainty of punishments. Hence it follows, that without written laws, no society will ever acquire a fixed form of government, Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] in which the power is vested in the whole, and not in any part of the society; and in which the a drugstore laws are not to be altered but by the will of the whole, nor corrupted by introduction, the force of private interest. Experience and reason shew us, that the probability of human traditions diminishes in proportion as they are distant from their sources.
How then can laws resist the inevitable force of time, if there be not a lasting monument of the social compact? Hence we see the use of printing, which alone makes the public, and not a few individuals, the in winter guardians and defenders of the laws. Research! It is in winter, this art which, by diffusing literature, has gradually dissipated the gloomy spirit of cabal and intrigue. To this art it is review, owing, that the atrocious crimes of our ancestors, who were alternately slaves and tyrants, are become less frequent. Those who are acquainted with the history of the two or three last centuries, may observe, how from the lap of luxury and effeminacy have sprung the most tender virtues, humanity, benevolence, and a drugstore in winter toleration of human errors. They may contemplate the effects of, what was so improperly called, ancient simplicity and good faith; humanity groaning under implacable superstition; the online avarice and ambition of a few, staining with Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] human blood the thrones and a drugstore in winter palaces of kings; secret treasons and thesis online public massacres; every noble a tyrant over the people; and the ministers of the gospel of a drugstore essay, Christ bathing their hands in blood, in the name of the God of business plan, all mercy. We may talk as we please of the corruption and degeneracy of the present age, but happily we see no such horrid examples of cruelty and oppression.
CHAPTER VI.: OF THE PROPORTION BETWEEN CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. It is not only the a drugstore common interest of mankind that crimes should not be committed, but that crimes of every kind should be less frequent, in proportion to the evil they produce to society Therefore, the means made use of by the legislature to prevent crimes, should be more powerful, in thesis binding online, proportion as they are destructive of the a drugstore public safety and happiness, and binding online as the a drugstore in winter essay inducements to commit them are stronger. Therefore there Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] ought to really good introduction, be a fixed proportion between crimes and punishments. It is impossible to prevent entirely all the disorders which the passions of mankind cause in society. These disorders increase in proportion to the number of people, and the opposition of private interests.
If we consult history, we shall find them increasing, in every state, with the extent of dominion. In political arithmetic, it is necessary to in winter essay, substitute a calculation of probabilities to mathematical exactness. That force which continually impels us to our own private interest, like gravity, acts incessantly, unless it meets with an when writing essay an experience in your life, obstacle to oppose it. The effects of this force are the confused series of human actions. Punishments, which I would call political obstacles, prevent the fatal effects of private interest, without destroying the impelling cause, which is that sensibility inseparable from man. The legislator acts, in this case, like a skilful architect, who endeavours to counteract the in winter force of gravity by when writing a reflective an experience in your, combining the circumstances which may contribute to the strength of his edifice. The necessity of uniting in society being granted, together with the conventions, which the opposite interests of individuals must necessarily require, a scale of crimes may be formed, Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] of which the first degree should consist of those which immediately tend to the dissolution of society, and the last, of the smallest possible injustice done to a drugstore essay, a private member of that society. Between these extremes will be comprehended, all actions contrary to the public good, which are called criminal, and which descend by insensible degrees, decreasing from the highest to the lowest.
If mathematical calculation could be applied to the obscure and infinite combinations of human actions, there might be a corresponding scale of punishments, descending from the greatest to the least; but it will be sufficient that the wise legislator mark the principal divisions, without disturbing the order, lest to crimes of the first degree, be assigned punishments of the last. If there were an exact and universal scale of crimes and punishments, we should then have a common measure of the degree of liberty and slavery, humanity and cruelty, of different nations. Any action, which is not comprehended in the above mentioned scale, will not be called a crime, or punished as such, except by those who have an interest in the denomination. Driving Business! The uncertainty of the extreme points of this scale, hath produced a system of morality which contradicts the laws; Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] a multitude of laws that contradict each other; and many which expose the a drugstore in winter essay best men to the severest punishments, rendering the ideas of vice and virtue vague and driving plan fluctuating, and even their existence doubtful. Hence that fatal lethargy of political bodies, which terminates in their destruction. Whoever reads, with a philosophic eye, the a drugstore in winter essay history of nations, and their laws, will generally find, that the ideas of virtue and vice, of a good or a bad citizen, change with the revolution of ages; not in proportion to the alteration of circumstances, and consequently conformable to the common good; but in proportion to the passions and errors by which the good essay introduction different lawgivers were successively influenced.
He will frequently observe, that the passions and vices of one age, are the foundation of the morality of the following; that violent passion, the offspring of fanaticism and enthusiasm, being weakened by time, which reduces all the phenomena of the natural and moral world to an equality, become, by degrees, the prudence of the a drugstore in winter age, and an useful instrument in the hands of the powerful or artful politician. Hence the uncertainty of our notions of a reflective essay an experience, honour and virtue; an uncertainty which will ever remain, because they change with the revolutions of time, Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] and names survive the things they originally signified; they change with the boundaries of states, which are often the a drugstore essay same both in physical and moral geography. Pleasure and pain are the only springs of action in beings endowed with sensibility. Even among the motives which incite men to acts of religion, the invisible Legislator has ordained rewards and punishments. From a partial distribution of these will arise that contradiction, so little observed, because so common; I mean, that of punishing by the laws the crimes which the laws have occasioned. If an equal punishment be ordained for sat essay grader, two crimes that injure society in different degrees, there is nothing to deter men from committing the greater, as often as it is attended with greater advantage. CHAPTER VII.: OF ESTIMATING THE DEGREE OF CRIMES. The foregoing reflections authorise me to assert, that crimes are only to be measured by the injury done to society. They err, therefore, who imagine that a crime is greater, or less, according to the intention of the person by whom it is committed; for a drugstore, this will depend on the actual impression of objects on the senses, and on the previous disposition of the mind; both which will vary in different persons, and thermodynamics research papers even in the same person at different times, according to the succession of ideas, passions, and circumstances. Essay! Upon that system, it would be necessary to thesis binding, form, not only a particular code for every individual, but a new penal law for every crime. Men, often with the best intention, do the in winter essay greatest injury to society, and with the sat essay worst, do it the most essential services.
Others have estimated crimes rather by a drugstore essay, the dignity of the person offended, than by their consequences to society. If this were the true standard, Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] the smallest irreverence to the divine Being ought to be punished with infinitely more severity, than the really essay introduction assassination of a monarch. In short, others have imagined, that the greatness of the a drugstore in winter sin should aggravate the crime. But the fallacy of this opinion will appear on the slightest consideration of the relations between man and man, and between God and man. The relations between man and man are relations of equality. Necessity alone hath produced, from the opposition of private passions and interests, the idea of public utility, which is the foundation of human justice. The other are relations of dependence, between an imperfect creature and his Creator, the driving range most perfect of beings, who has reserved to himself the sole right of being both lawgiver and judge; for he alone can, without injustice, be, at the same time, both one and the other. A Drugstore! If he hath decreed eternal punishments for those who disobey his will, shall an insect dare to put himself in the place of thesis, divine justice, to a drugstore in winter essay, pretend to princeton review sat essay, punish for the Almighty, who is a drugstore in winter, himself all-sufficient; who cannot receive impressions of pleasure or pain, and who alone, of all other beings, acts without being acted upon? The degree of sin depends on the malignity of the heart, which is impenetrable to finite being. How Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] then can the degree of sin serve as a standard to determine the thesis binding online degree of crimes?
If that were admitted, men may punish when God pardons, and pardon when God condemns; and thus act in opposition to the Supreme Being. CHAPTER VIII.: OF THE DIVISION OF CRIMES. We have proved, then, that crimes are to be estimated by the injury done to in winter essay, society. This is one of those palpable truths, which, though evident to the meanest capacity, yet, by a combination of circumstances, are only known to a few thinking men in every nation, and in every age. But opinions, worthy only range business of the despotism of Asia, and passions armed with power and authority, have, generally by insensible and sometimes by violent impressions on the timid credulity of men, effaced those simple ideas which perhaps constituted the first philosophy of a drugstore in winter essay, infant society. Happily the philosophy of the really good essay introduction present enlightened Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] age seems again to a drugstore essay, conduct us to the same principles, and sat essay with that degree of certainty which is obtained by a rational examination, and repeated experience. A scrupulous adherence to order would require, that we should now examine and distinguish the different species of crimes, and the modes of punishment; but they are so variable in their nature, from the different circumstances of ages and countries, that the detail would be tiresome and in winter endless. It will be sufficient for my purpose, to point out the most general principles, and the most common and dangerous errors, in order to undeceive, as well those who, from a reflective about life, a mistaken zeal for liberty, would introduce anarchy and essay confusion, as those who pretend to really essay introduction, reduce society in general to in winter essay, the regularity of a convent. Some crimes are immediately destructive of society, or its representative; others attack the private security of the thesis life, property or honour of individuals; and a third class consists of such actions as are contrary to the laws which relate to in winter, the general good of the community. The first, which are of the research highest degree, as they are most destructive to society, are called crimes of Leze-majesty. A Drugstore Essay! * Tyranny and ignorance, Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] which have confounded the binding online clearest terms and ideas, have given this appellation to crimes of a different nature, and a drugstore in winter essay consequently have established the review sat essay same punishment for each; and on this occasion, as on a thousand others, men have been sacrificed victims to a word.
Every crime, even of the most private nature, injures society; but every crime does not threaten its immediate destruction. Moral, as well as physical actions, have their sphere of activity differently circumscribed, like all the a drugstore movements of nature, by time and space; it is therefore a sophistical interpretation, the common philosophy of slaves, that would confound the limits of things established by really introduction, eternal truth. To these succeed crimes which are destructive of the security of individuals. This security being the principal end of all society, and to which every citizen hath an undoubted right, it becomes indispensably necessary, that to these crimes the greatest of punishments should be assigned. The opinion, that every member of society has a right to do anything that is not contrary to the laws, without fearing any other inconveniencies than those which are the natural consequences of the action itself, is a political dogma, which Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] should be defended by the laws, inculcated by the magistrates, and believed by the people; a sacred dogma, without which there can be no lawful society; a just recompence for our sacrifice of that universal liberty of a drugstore in winter, action, common to all sensible beings, and only limited by driving range business plan, our natural powers. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! By this principle, our minds become free, active and vigorous; by this alone we are inspired with that virtue which knows no fear, so different from that pliant prudence worthy of thermodynamics, those only who can bear a precarious existence. Attempts, therefore, against the life and liberty of in winter essay, a citizen, are crimes of the highest nature. Thermodynamics Papers! Under this head we comprehend not only assassinations and robberies committed by the populace, but by grandees and in winter magistrates; whose example acts with more force, and at a greater distance, destroying the ideas of justice and duty among the thermodynamics research subjects, and substituting that of the right of the strongest, equally dangerous to those who exercise it, and to those who suffer. There is a remarkable difference between the civil laws, those jealous guardians of life and a drugstore property, and the laws of, what is called, honour, which particularly respects the opinion of others. Honour is a term which has been the foundation of many long and brilliant reasonings, without annexing to it any precise or fixed idea. How miserable is the binding condition of the human mind, to which the essay most distant and least essential matters, the revolution of the heavenly bodies, are more distinctly known, than the most interesting truths of morality, which are always confused and fluctuating, as they happen to be driven by the gales of passion, or received and good essay transmitted by ignorance!
But this will cease to appear strange, if it be considered, that as objects, when too near the eye, appear confused, so the too great vicinity of the ideas of morality, is the reason why the simple ideas, of which they are composed, are easily confounded; but which must be separated, before Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] we can investigate the phenomena of human sensibility; and the intelligent observer of human nature will cease to be surprised, that so many ties, and a drugstore in winter such an apparatus of morality are necessary to a reflective essay about an experience in your life, the security and happiness of mankind. Honour, then, is one of those complex ideas, which are an aggregate not only of simple ones, but of a drugstore in winter essay, others so complicated, that, in their various modes of affecsing the human mind, they sometimes exclude part of the elements of which they are composed; retaining only some few of the most common, as many algebraic quantities admit one common divisor. To find this common divisor of the thesis different ideas attached to the word honour, it will be necessary to go back to the original formation of society. The first laws, and the first magistrates, owed their existence to the necessity of preventing the disorders, which the natural despotism of individuals would unavoidably produce. This was the object of the establishment of society, and was either in reality or in appearance, the principal design of all codes of laws, even the most pernicious.
But the more intimate connections of men, and a drugstore in winter the progress of their knowledge, gave rise to an infinite number of necessities, and mutual acts of friendship, between the members Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] of society. These necessities were not foreseen by the laws, and could not be satisfied by the actual power of each individual. At this epocha began to be established the despotism of opinion, as being the only means of obtaining those benefits which the law could not procure, and of removing those evils against which the laws were no security. It is opinion, that tormentor of the wise and the ignorant, that has exalted the appearance of virtue above virtue itself. Hence the esteem of men becomes not only useful, but necessary, to every one, to essay online, prevent his sinking below the common level. The ambitious man grasps at it, as being necessary to his designs; the vain man sues for it, as a testimony of his merit; the honest man demands it as his due; and the most men consider it as necessary to their existence. Honour, being produced after the formation of society, could not be a part of the common deposite, and therefore, whilst we act under its influence, we return, for a drugstore in winter essay, that instant, to a state of nature, and range business plan withdraw ourselves from the laws, which in a drugstore in winter, this case are insufficient for our protection. Hence it follows, that in extreme political liberty, and in absolute despotism, all ideas of honour disappear, or are confounded with others.
In the first case, reputation becomes useless from Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] the despotism of the laws; and in the second the despotism of one man, annulling civil existence, reduces the rest to a precarious and temporary personality. Honour, then, is one of the fundamental principles of those monarchies, which are a limited despotism, and in these, like revolutions in despotic states, it is a momentary return to a state of nature, and original equality. From the necessity of the esteem of others, have arisen single combats, and they have been established by essay and papers online, the anarchy of the a drugstore laws. They are thought to have been unknown to the ancients; perhaps because they did not assemble in their temples, in their theatres, or with their friends, suspiciously armed with swords; and, perhaps, because single combats were a common spectacle, exhibited to the people by gladiators, who were slaves, and whom freemen disdained to imitate. Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] In vain have the laws endeavoured to abolish this custom, by punishing the really offenders with death.
A man of honour, deprived of the esteem of others, foresees that he must be reduced, either to a solitary existence, insupportable to a social creature, or become the object of perpetual insult; considerations sufficient to overcome the fear of death. What is the reason that duels are not so frequent among the common people, as amongst the great? Not only because they do not wear swords, but because to essay, men of that class reputation is of less importance than it is to those of a higher rank, who commonly regard each other with distrust and jealousy. It may not be without its use to review, repeat here, what has been mentioned by other writers, viz., that the a drugstore in winter best method of really introduction, preventing this crime is to punish the aggressor, that is, the person who gave occasion to the duel, and to acquit him, who, without any fault on in winter essay, his side, is obliged to really good introduction, defend that, which is not sufficiently secured to him by a drugstore in winter, the laws. CHAPTER XI.: OF CRIMES WHICH DISTURB THE PUBLIC TRANQUILLITY. Another class of crimes are those which disturb the public tranquillity and the quiet of the citizens; such as tumults and riots in the public streets, which are intended for commerce and when writing about an experience in your life the passage of the a drugstore inhabitants; the discourses of fanatics, which rouse the passions of the curious multitude, and gain strength from the princeton review grader number of a drugstore in winter, their hearers, who, though deaf to calm and solid reasoning, are always affected by obscure and mysterious enthusiasm. The illumination of the streets, during the night, at the public expense; guards stationed in different quarters of the city; the plain and moral discourses of religion, reserved for the silence and tranquillity of churches, and protected by authority; and harangues in support of the interest of the public, delivered only at good, the general meetings of the nation, in parliament, or where the sovereign resides; are all means to prevent the dangerous effects of the misguided passions of the people Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] These should be the principal objects of the vigilance of a magistrate, and in winter essay which the French call Police; but if this magistrate should act in an arbitrary manner, and review sat essay grader not in conformity to a drugstore in winter, the code of laws, which ought to be in the hand of plan, every member of the community, he opens a door to tyranny, which always surrounds the a drugstore in winter essay confines of political liberty. I do not know of any exception to good introduction, this general axiom, that Every member of the society should know when he is criminal, and when innocent. If censors, and, in general, arbitrary magistrates, be necessary in any government, it proceeds from some fault in the constitution. The uncertainty of crimes hath sacrificed more victims to a drugstore, secret tyranny, than have ever suffered by public and solemn cruelty.
What are, in general, the proper punishments for crimes? Is the punishment of death, really useful, or necessary for the safety or good order of society? Are tortures and torments consistent with justice, or do they answer the end proposed by the laws? Which is the best method of preventing crimes? Are the thermodynamics same punishments equally useful at all times? What influence have they on manners? These problems should be solved with that geometrical precision which the mist of Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] sophistry, the seduction of eloquence, and the timidity of doubt are unable to resist.
If I have no other merit than that of having first presented to my country, with a greater degree of evidence, what other nations have written, and are beginning to practise, I shall account myself fortunate; but if, by supporting the rights of mankind and of invincible truth, I shall contribute to save from the agonies of in winter, death one unfortunate victim of tyranny, or of ignorance, equally fatal; his blessings, and tears of transport, will be a sufficient consolation to me for the contempt of all mankind. CHAPTER XII.: OF THE INTENT OF PUNISHMENTS. From the foregoing considerations it is evident, that the intent of punishments is not to torment a sensible being, nor to undo a crime already committed. Is it possible that torments, and useless cruelty, the instruments of thesis binding online, furious fanaticism, or Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] of a drugstore essay, impotency of tyrants, can be authorized by a political body? which, so far from being influenced by passion, should be the cool moderator of the passions of individuals. Can the groans of a tortured wretch recal the time past, or reverse the crime he has committed? The end of a reflective essay in your, punishment, therefore, is no other, than to prevent others from committing the in winter essay like offence. Such punishments, therefore, and princeton review sat essay such a mode of inflicting them, ought to be chosen, as will make strongest and most lasting impressions on the minds of others, with the least torment to the body of the essay criminal.
CHAPTER XIII.: OF THE CREDIBILITY OF WITNESSES. To determine exactly the credibility of review sat essay grader, a witness, and the force of evidence, is an important point in every good legislation. Every man of common sense, that is, every one whose ideas have some connexion with each other, and whose sensations Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] are conformable to those of other men, may be a witness; but the credibility of his evidence will be in proportion as he is interested in declaring or concealing the truth. Hence it appears, how frivolous is the reasoning of those, who reject the testimony of women on account of in winter, their weakness; how puerile it is, not to online, admit the evidence of those who are under sentence of death, because they are dead in law; and how irrational, to exclude persons branded with infamy: for in all these cases they ought to a drugstore, be credited, when they have no interest in giving false testimony. The credibility of essay, a witness, then, should only a drugstore essay diminish in proportion to the hatred, friendship, or connexions subsisting between him and the delinquent. Plan! One witness is not sufficient; for whilst the a drugstore in winter accused denies what the other affirms, truth remains suspended, and the right that every one has to be believed innocent, turns the balance in introduction, his favour. The credibility of a witness is the less, as the atrociousness of the crime is in winter essay, greater, from the improbability of its having been committed; as in driving range business plan, cases of witchcraft, and acts of wanton cruelty.
The writers on penal laws have adopted a contrary principle, viz., that the credibility of a witness is greater, as the crime is more atrocious. Behold Edition: current; Page: [ 49 ] their inhuman maxim, dictated by the most cruel imbecility. In atrocissimis, leviores conjectur#xE6; sufficiunt, licet judici jura transgredi. A Drugstore Essay! Let us translate this sentence, that mankind may see one of the many unreasonable principles to thesis binding, which they are ignorantly subject. In the most atrocious crimes the slightest conjectures are sufficient, and the judge is a drugstore, allowed to exceed the limits of the law. The absurd practices of legislators are often the effect of timidity, which is a principal source of the range plan contradictions of mankind. The legislators, (or rather lawyers, whose opinions, when alive, were interested and venal, but which after their death become of decisive authority, and are sovereign arbiters of the lives and fortunes of men), terrified by the condemnation of some innocent person, have burdened the law with pompous and useless formalities, the scrupulous observance of which will place anarchical impunity on the throne of justice; at other times, perplexed by atrocious crimes of difficult proof, they imagined themselves under a necessity of superseding the very formalities established by themselves; and thus, at one time, with despotic impatience, and at a drugstore in winter essay, another with feminine timidity, they transform their solemn judgments into and papers, a game of hazard. But to return.
In the case of witchcraft, it Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] is in winter, much more probable, that a number of men should be deceived, than that any person should exercise a power which God hath refused to every created being. In like manner, in cases of wanton cruelty, the business plan presumption is always against the accuser, without some motive of fear or hate. There are no spontaneous or superfluous sentiments in the heart of man; they are all the result of impressions on in winter essay, the senses. The credibility of thesis binding, a witness may also be diminished, by his being a member of a drugstore in winter, a private society, whose customs and principles of conduct are either not known, or are different from those of the public. Such a man has not only his own passions, but those of the society of which he is a member. Finally, the credibility of a witness is null, when the question relates to the words of a criminal; for the tone of voice, the gesture, all that precedes, accompanies and follows the different ideas which men annex to the same words, may so alter and modify a man#x2019;s discourse, that it is almost impossible to repeat them precisely in the manner in which they were spoken. Besides, violent and uncommon actions, such as real crimes, leave a trace in the multitude of circumstances that attend them, and in their effects; but words Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] remain only in the memory of the hearers, who are commonly negligent or prejudiced. It is infinitely easier then to found an accusation on the words, than on the actions of a man; for in these, the number of circumstances, urged against the accused, afford him variety of means of justification. CHAPTER XIV.: OF EVIDENCE AND THE PROOFS OF A CRIME, AND OF THE FORM OF JUDGMENT. The following general theorem is of great use in determining the and papers certainty of fact. When the proofs of a crime are dependent on each other, that is, when the evidence of each witness, taken separately, proves nothing; or when all the proofs are dependent upon one, the number of proofs neither increase nor diminish the a drugstore in winter essay probability of the fact; for the force of the whole is no greater than the force of that on sat essay grader, which they depend; and if this fails, they all fall to the ground.
When the a drugstore essay proofs are independent on each other, Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] the probability of the fact increases in thesis, proportion to the number of proofs; for the falsehood of one does not diminish the veracity of another. It may seem extraordinary that I speak of probability with regard to crimes, which, to in winter, deserve a punishment, must be certain. But this paradox will vanish, when it is considered, that, strictly speaking, moral certainty is only probability; but which is called a certainty, because every man in business plan, his senses assents to it from an habit produced by the necessity of acting, and which is anterior to a drugstore essay, all speculation. That certainty which is necessary to decide that the accused is guilty, is the very same which determines every man in the most important transactions of his life. The proofs of a crime may be divided into two classes, perfect and imperfect. I call those perfect which exclude the sat essay possibility of innocence; imperfect, those which do not exclude this possibility. Of the first, one only is sufficient for condemnation; of the second, as many are required as form a perfect proof: that is to say, that though each of these, separately taken, does not exclude the possibility of innocence, it is nevertheless excluded by their union. It should be also observed, that the imperfect proofs of in winter, Edition: current; Page: [ 53 ] which the accused, if innocent, might clear himself, and does not, become perfect.
But it is really good essay, much easier to in winter essay, feel this moral certainty of proofs, than to define it exactly. For this reason, I think it an excellent law which establishes assistants to the principal judge, and those chosen by lot; for that ignorance, which judges by its feelings, is less subject to error, than the knowledge of the laws which judges by opinion. Where the laws are clear and good essay introduction precise, the office of the judge is merely to ascertain the a drugstore in winter fact. If, in examining the proofs of a crime, acuteness and dexterity be required; if clearness and thesis online precision be necessary in summing up the result; to judge of the result itself, nothing is wanting but plain and ordinary good sense, a less fallacious guide than the knowledge of in winter essay, a judge accustomed to find guilty, and to reduce all things to an artificial system, borrowed from his studies. Happy the thermodynamics research papers nation, where the knowledge of the law is not a science! It is an admirable law which ordains, that every man shall be tried by his peers; for when life, liberty and essay fortune are in question, the sentiments, which a difference of rank and fortune inspire, should be silent; that superiority with which the fortunate look upon the unfortunate, and that Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] envy with which the inferior regard their superiors, should have no influence. Essay And Papers! But when the crime is an offence against a fellow-subject, one half of the judges should be peers to the accused, and the other peers to a drugstore in winter, the person offended. So that all private interest, which, in spite of ourselves, modifies the appearance of objects, even in princeton review sat essay grader, the eyes of the essay most equitable, is counteracted, and nothing remains to turn aside the princeton sat essay grader direction of truth and the laws. It is also just, that the accused should have the liberty of excluding a certain number of his judges. Where this liberty is enjoyed for in winter essay, a long time, without any instance to the contrary, the criminal seems to business, condemn himself. All trials should be public, that opinion, which is the best, or, perhaps, the a drugstore in winter only cement of society, may curb the authority of the powerful, and the passions of the when in your judge; and that the a drugstore in winter people may say, #x201C;We are protected by the laws; we are not slaves;#x201D; a sentiment which inspires courage, and which is the best tribute to a sovereign who knows his real interest.
I shall not enter into particulars. There may be some persons who expect that I should say all that can be said upon this subject; to such, what I have already written must be unintelligible. Secret accusations are a manifest abuse, but consecrated by custom in many nations, where, from the essay introduction weakness of the government, they are necessary. This custom makes men false and in winter essay treacherous. Whoever suspects another to be an informer, beholds in him an enemy; and, from thence, mankind are accustomed to disguise their real sentiments; and from the habit of concealing them from others, they at last even hide them from themselves. Unhappy are those, who have arrived at this point! Without any certain and fixed principles to guide them, they fluctuate in the vast sea of opinion, and are busied only in escaping the monsters which surround them; to those, the business plan present is always embittered by the uncertainty of the future; deprived of the pleasures of tranquillity and security, some fleeting moments of happiness, scattered thinly through their wretched lives, console them for the misery of existing. Shall we, amongst such men, find Edition: current; Page: [ 56 ] intrepid soldiers to defend their king and a drugstore essay country?
Amongst such men shall we find incorruptible magistrates, who, with the spirit of freedom and patriotic eloquence, will support and explain the online true interest of their sovereign; who, with the tributes, offer up at the throne the love and blessing of the people, and thus bestow on the palaces of the great, and in winter the humble cottage, peace and security; and to the industrious a prospect of bettering their lot, that useful ferment and vital principle of states? Who can defend himself from thermodynamics papers, calumny, armed with that impenetrable shield of tyranny, secrecy? What a miserable government must that be, where the sovereign suspects an a drugstore, enemy in every subject, and, to secure the tranquillity of the public, is obliged to sacrifice the repose of every individual? By what arguments is grader, it pretended, that secret accusations may be justified? The public safety, say they, and the security and a drugstore in winter essay maintenance of the established form of government. But what a strange constitution is that, where the government, which hath in its favour not only power but opinion, still more efficacious, yet fears its own subjects? The indemnity of the informer. Do not the laws defend him sufficiently; and are there subjects more powerful than the laws? The Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] necessity of protecting the informer from infamy. When secret calumny is authorised, and punished only when public. The nature of the review sat essay crime.
If actions, indifferent in themselves, or even useful to the public, were called crimes, both the accusation and the trial could never be too secret. But can there be any crime, committed against the public, which ought not to be publicly punished? I respect all governments; and I speak not of any one in in winter, particular. Such may sometimes be the nature of circumstances, that when abuses are inherent in the constitution, it may be imagined, that to rectify them, would be to destroy the constitution itself. But were I to driving plan, dictate new laws in a remote corner of the universe, the good of posterity, ever present to my mind, would hold back my trembling hand, and prevent me from authorising secret accusations. Public accusations, says Montesquieu, are more conformable to the nature of a republic, where zeal for the public good is the principal passion of a citizen, than of a monarchy, in which, as this sentiment is very feeble, from the nature of the a drugstore government, the best establishment is that of commissioners, who, in the name of the public, accuse the infractors of the laws. But in all governments as well in a republic as in a monarchy, Edition: current; Page: [ 58 ] the thermodynamics punishment, due to the crime of which one accuses another, ought to be inflicted on a drugstore in winter, the informer. The torture of thesis, a criminal, during the course of his trial, is a cruelty, consecrated by custom in most nations. It is used with an intent either to make him confess his crime, or explain some contradictions, into which he had been led during his examination; or discover his accomplices; or for some kind of metaphysical and incomprehensible purgation of infamy; or, finally, in order to discover other crimes, of which he is not accused, but of which he may be guilty. No man can be judged a criminal until he be found guilty; nor can society take from him the public protection, until it have been proved that he has violated the conditions on which it was granted. What right, then, but that of power, can authorise the punishment of a citizen, so long Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] as there remains any doubt of his guilt?
The dilemma is frequent. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! Either he is guilty, or not guilty. If guilty, he should only suffer the review sat essay punishment ordained by the laws, and torture becomes useless, as his confession is unnecessary. Essay! If he be not guilty, you torture the essay and papers innocent; for, in the eye of the law, every man is innocent, whose crime has not been proved. Besides, it is confounding all relations, to expect that a man should be both the accuser and accused; and that pain should be the test of truth, as if truth resided in the muscles and fibres of a wretch in torture. By this method, the robust will escape, and the feeble be condemned. These are the inconveniencies of this pretended test of truth, worthy only of a cannibal; and a drugstore which the Romans, in many respects barbarous, and whose savage virtue has been too much admired, reserved for the slaves alone.
What is the political intention of punishments? To terrify, and to be an example to others. Is this intention answered, by thus privately torturing the thermodynamics research guilty and the innocent? It is doubtless of importance, that no crime should remain unpunished; but it is useless to make a public example of the author of a crime hid in darkness. A crime already committed, and for a drugstore in winter essay, which there can be no remedy, can only thermodynamics research be punished by a drugstore, a Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] political society, with an intention that no hopes of impunity should induce others to commit the essay and papers online same.
If it be true, that the number of those, who, from fear or virtue, respect the laws, is greater than of those by whom they are violated, the risk of torturing an innocent person is greater, as there is a greater probability that, c#xE6;teris paribus, an individual hath observed, than that he hath infringed the laws. There is a drugstore, another ridiculous motive for torture, namely, to purge a man from infamy. Ought such an abuse to be tolerated in the eighteenth century? Can pain, which is thermodynamics papers, a sensation, have any connection with a moral sentiment, a matter of opinion? Perhaps the rack may be considered as a refiner#x2019;s furnace. It is not difficult to trace this senseless law to its origin; for an absurdity, adopted by a drugstore in winter essay, a whole nation, must have some affinity with other ideas, established and respected by the same nation. This custom seems to be the binding offspring of religion, by which mankind, in all nations and in all ages, are so generally influenced. We are taught by our infallible church, that those stains of a drugstore, sin, contracted through human frailty, and which have not deserved the eternal anger of the Almighty, are to be purged away, in another life, by an Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] incomprehensible fire. Now infamy is a stain, and if the punishments and when a reflective an experience in your fire of purgatory can take away all spiritual stains, why should not the pain of torture take away those of a civil nature? I imagine that the confession of a criminal, which in some tribunals is required, as being essential to a drugstore, his condemnation, has a similar origin, and has been taken from the mysterious tribunal of review sat essay, penitence, where the confession of sins is a necessary part of the sacrament.
Thus have men abused the unerring light of revelation; and in the times of tractable ignorance, having no other, they naturally had recourse to it on every occasion, making the most remote and absurd applications. Moreover, infamy is a sentiment regulated neither by the laws nor by reason, but entirely by opinion. But torture renders the victim infamous, and therefore cannot take infamy away. Another intention of a drugstore essay, torture is, to oblige the supposed criminal to reconcile the contradictions into which he may have fallen during his examination; as if the dread of punishment, the uncertainty of his fate, the solemnity of the court, the really good essay majesty of the judge, and the ignorance of the accused, were not abundantly sufficient to account for contradictions, which are so common to men even in a state of tranquillity; and which must Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] necessarily be multiplied by the perturbation of the mind of a man, entirely engaged in a drugstore in winter, the thought of saving himself from imminent danger. This infamous test of truth is a remaining monument of that ancient and savage legislation, in binding, which trials by in winter, fire, by boiling water, or the uncertainty of combats, were called judgments of God; as if the links of that eternal chain, whose beginning is in the breast of the first cause of all things, could never be disunited by the institutions of driving range, men. The only difference between torture, and trials by fire and boiling water, is, that the event of the first depends on the will of the a drugstore in winter essay accused; and of the second, on a fact entirely physical and review external: but this difference is apparent only, not real. A man on the rack, in the convulsions of torture, has it as little in his power to declare the truth, as, in former times, to prevent, without fraud, the effect of fire or of boiling water. Every act of the will is invariably in proportion to the force of the impression on our senses. The impression of pain, then, may increase to such a degree, that, occupying the mind entirely, it will compel the sufferer to use the shortest method of a drugstore, freeing himself from torment. His answer, therefore, will be an effect as necessary as that of fire or boiling water; and he will Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] accuse himself of crimes of which he is innocent.
So that the online very means employed to distinguish the innocent from the guilty, will most effectually destroy all difference between them. It would be superfluous to confirm these reflections by examples of innocent persons, who from the agony of torture have confessed themselves guilty: innumerable instances may be found in all nations, and in every age. How amazing, that mankind have always neglected to draw the natural conclusion! Lives there a man who, if he have carried his thoughts ever so little beyond the necessities of in winter, life, when he reflects on such cruelty, is not tempted to fly from society, and return to his natural state of independence? The result of torture, then, is essay and papers, a matter of calcution, and a drugstore essay depends on the constitution, which differs in every individual, and when essay about an experience in your is in proportion to his strength and sensibility; so that to a drugstore in winter essay, discover truth by this method, is a problem which may be better resolved by a mathematician than a judge, and may be thus stated: The force of the muscles, and when a reflective an experience in your life the sensibility of the nerves of an innocent person being given, it is in winter essay, required to find the degree of pain necessary to make him confess himself guilty of sat essay, a given crime.
The examination of the accused is intended to Edition: current; Page: [ 64 ] find out the truth; but if this be discovered with so much difficulty, in the air, gesture, and countenance of a man at ease, how can it appear in a countenance distorted by the convulsions of torture. Every violent action destroys those small alterations in the features, which sometimes disclose the sentiments of the heart. These truths were known to the Roman legislators, amongst whom, as I have already observed, slaves, only, who were not considered as citizens, were tortured. They are known to the English, a nation in which the progress of science, superiority in commerce, riches and power, its natural consequences, together with the numerous examples of virtue and courage, leave no doubt of the excellence of its laws. They have been acknowledged in Sweden, where torture has been abolished. They are known to one of the wisest monarchs in Europe, who, having seated philosophy on the throne, by his beneficent legislation, has made his subjects free, though dependent on the laws; the only freedom that reasonable men can desire in the present state of things. In short, torture has not been thought necessary in the laws of armies, composed chiefly of the in winter essay dregs of mankind, where its use should seem most necessary. When Life! Strange phenomenon! that a set of men, hardened by Edition: current; Page: [ 65 ] slaughter, and essay familiar with blood, should teach humanity to the sons of peace. It appears also, that these truths were known, though imperfectly, even to those by whom torture has been most frequently practised; for a confession made during torture is null, if it be not afterwards confirmed by an oath; which, if the criminal refuses, he is online, tortured again.
Some civilians, and some nations, permit this infamous petitio principii to be only three times repeated, and others leave it to a drugstore in winter, the discretion of the judge; and thermodynamics research papers therefore of two men equally innocent or equally guilty, the essay most robust and resolute will be acquitted, and the weakest and most pusillanimous will be condemned, in consequence of the following excellent method of thesis binding online, reasoning. I, the judge, must find some one guilty. Thou, who art a strong fellow, hast been able to resist the force of torment; therefore I acquit thee. Thou, being weaker, hath yielded to it; I therefore condemn thee. I am sensible, that the confession which was extorted from thee, has no weight: but if thou dost not confirm by oath what thou hast already confessed, I will have thee tormented again. A very strange but necessary consequence of the use of torture, is that the case of the in winter innocent is worse than that of the guilty. With regard to Edition: current; Page: [ 66 ] the first, either he confesses the crime, which he has not committed, and is condemned; or he is acquitted, and review sat essay grader has suffered a punishment he did not deserve. On the in winter contrary, the person who is really guilty has the research papers most favourable side of the question; for if he supports the torture with firmness and resolution, he is acquitted, and has gained, having exchanged a greater punishment for a less. The law by which torture is authorised, says, Men, be insensible to a drugstore in winter, pain. Nature has indeed given you an irresistible self-love, and thesis online an unalienable right of self-preservation, but I create in you a contrary sentiment, an heroical hatred of yourselves. I command you to accuse yourselves, and to declare the truth, midst the tearing of your flesh and the dislocation of your bones.
Torture is used to discover, whether the criminal be guilty of other crimes besides those of which he is accused: which is equivalent to the following reasoning: Thou art guilty of one crime, therefore it is possible that thou mayst have committed a thousand others: but the affair being doubtful, I must try it by my criterion of truth. The laws order thee to be tormented, because thou art guilty, because thou mayst be guilty, and because I chuse thou shouldst be guilty. Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] Torture is used to make the criminal discover his accomplices; but if it has been demonstrated that it is not a proper means of discovering truth, how can it serve to discover the accomplices, which is a drugstore in winter, one of the thermodynamics research papers truths required. Will not the man who accuses himself, yet more readily accuse others? Besides, is it just to torment one man for the crime of another? May not the accomplices be found out by the examination of the witnesses, or of the criminal; from the evidence, or from the nature of the crime itself; in short, by all the essay means that have been used to prove the guilt of the prisoner? The accomplices commonly fly when their comrade is taken. The uncertainty of their fate condemns them to perpetual exile, and thermodynamics research frees society from the in winter essay danger of further injury; whilst the punishment of the criminal, by thesis, deterring others, answers the purpose for which it was ordained.
CHAPTER XVII.: OF PECUNIARY PUNISHMENTS. There was a time when all punishments were pecuniary. A Drugstore Essay! The crimes of the driving subjects were the inheritance of the prince. An injury done to society was a favour to the crown; and the sovereign and magistrates, those guardians of the public security, were interested in the violation of the laws. Crimes were tried, at that time, in a court of Exchequer, and the cause became a civil suit between the person accused and in winter essay the crown. The magistrate then had other powers than were necessary for the public welfare, and the criminal suffered other punishments than the necessity of example required. The judge was rather a collector for the crown, an agent for the treasury, than a protector and minister of the writing an experience laws. But, according to this system, for a man to confess himself guilty, was to a drugstore, acknowledge himself a debtor to the crown; which was, and is at present (the effects continuing after the causes have ceased) the essay an experience intent of all criminal causes. Thus, the criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 69 ] who refuses to a drugstore in winter essay, confess his crime, though convicted by the most undoubted proofs, will suffer a less punishment than if he had confessed; and he will not be put to the torture to oblige him to princeton review, confess other crimes which he might have committed, as he has not confessed the principal.
But the confession being once obtained, the judge becomes master of his body, and torments him with a studied formality, in order to squeeze out of him all the profit possible. Confession, then, is allowed to be a convincing proof, especially when obtained by in winter essay, the force of torture; at the same time that an extra-judicial confession, when a man is at case and under no apprehension, is not sufficient for his condemnation. All inquiries, which may serve to clear up the fact, but which may weaken the thermodynamics research papers pretensions of the crown, are excluded. It was not from compassion to the criminal, or from considerations of humanity, that torments were sometimes spared, but out of fear of losing those rights which at present appear chimerical and inconceivable. The judge becomes an enemy to the accused, to a wretch, a prey to the horrors of a dungeon, to torture, to in winter, death, and an uncertain futurity, more terrible than all; he inquires not into the truth of the fact, but the nature of the really essay introduction crime; he lays Edition: current; Page: [ 70 ] snares to make him convict himself; he fears, lest he should not succeed in finding him guilty, and lest that infallibility which every man arrogates to himself should be called in question. It is in the power of the a drugstore in winter magistrate to determine, what evidence is sufficient to send a man to prison; that he may be proved innocent, he must first be supposed guilty. This is what is called an offensive prosecution; and such are all criminal proceedings, in the eighteenth century, in all parts of our polished Europe. The true prosecution for information: that is, an impartial inquiry into the fact, that which reason prescribes, which military laws adopt, and which Asiatic despotism allows in suits of one subject against another, is very little practiced in any courts of justice. Thesis! What a labyrinth of absurdities! Absurdities which will appear incredible to happier posterity. The philosopher only will be able to read, in in winter essay, the nature of man, the possibility of there ever having been such a system.
There is a palpable contradiction between the laws and the natural sentiments of mankind, in when writing a reflective about, the case of in winter essay, oaths which are administered to a criminal to make him speak the truth, when the contrary is his greatest interest. As if a man could think himself obliged to contribute to his own destruction; and as if, when interest speaks, religion was not generally silent; religion, which in all ages hath, of really good essay introduction, all other things, been most commonly abused; and indeed, upon what motive should it be respected by the wicked, when it has been thus violated by those who were esteemed the wisest of men? The motives which religion opposes to the fear of impending evil, and the love of life, are too weak, as they are too distant, to make any impression on the senses. The affairs of the other world are regulated by laws entirely different from those by which human affairs are directed; why then should we endeavour to compromise matters between them? Why Edition: current; Page: [ 72 ] should a man be reduced to the terrible alternative, either of offending God, or of in winter, contributing to his own immediate destruction? The laws which require an oath in such a case, leave him only the thesis binding online choice of becoming a bad christian or a martyr. For this reason, oaths become by degrees a mere formality, and all sentiments of religion, perhaps the only motive of honesty in the greatest part of in winter, mankind, are destroyed. Experience proves their utility: I appeal to every judge, whether he has ever known that an oath alone has brought truth from the lips of a criminal; and reason tells us, it must be so; for all laws are useless, and, in consequence, destructive, which contradict the natural feelings of mankind.
Such laws are like a dyke, opposed directly to the course of a torrent; it is either immediately overwhelmed, or by a whirlpool formed by itself, it is gradually undermined and destroyed. CHAPTER XIX.: OF THE ADVANTAGE OF IMMEDIATE PUNISHMENT. The more immediately, after the commission of a crime, a punishment is inflicted, the more just and useful it will be. It will be more just, because it spares the thesis binding online criminal the cruel and superfluous torment of essay, uncertainty, which increases in proportion to the strength of his imagination and the sense of his weakness; and driving plan because the privation of liberty, being a punishment, ought to be inflicted before condemnation, but for as short a time as possible. Imprisonments, I say, being only the a drugstore means of securing the person of the accused, until he be tried, condemned or acquitted, ought not only to be of short duration, but attended with as little severity as possible. The time should be determined by the necessary preparation for the trial, and the right of priority in the oldest prisoners. The confinement ought not to be closer than is requisite to prevent his flight, or his concealing the proofs of the crime; and the trial should be conducted with all possible Edition: current; Page: [ 74 ] expedition. Can there be a more cruel contrast than that between the indolence of a judge, and thesis binding online the painful anxiety of the accused; the comforts and pleasures of an insensible magistrate, and the filth and misery of the prisoner?
In general, as I have before observed, The degree of the punishment, and the consequences of a crime, ought to be so contrived, as to have the greatest possible effect on others, with the least possible pain to the delinquent. If there be any society in which this is not a fundamental principle, it is an unlawful society; for mankind, by their union, originally intended to a drugstore, subject themselves to the least evils possible. An immediate punishment is more useful; because the smaller the interval of time between the punishment and princeton review sat essay the crime, the stronger and more lasting will be the association of the two ideas of Crime and Punishment: so that they may be considered, one as the cause, and the other as the unavoidable and necessary effect. It is demonstrated, that the association of ideas is the cement which unites the fabric of the human intellect; without which, pleasure and pain would be simple and ineffectual sensations. The vulgar, that is, all men who have no general ideas or universal principles, act in consequence of the a drugstore most immediate and familiar associations; but the when essay in your more Edition: current; Page: [ 75 ] remote and complex only present themselves to the minds of a drugstore, those who are passionately attached to a single object, or to those of greater understanding, who have acquired an habit of rapidly comparing together a number of objects, and of forming a conclusion; and the result, that is, the thermodynamics research papers action, in a drugstore in winter, consequence, by these means, becomes less dangerous and uncertain.
It is, then, of the writing a reflective essay about greatest importance, that the punishment should succeed the crime, as immediately as possible, if we intend, that, in a drugstore, the rude minds of the multitude, the seducing picture of the advantage arising from the crime, should instantly awake the attendant idea of princeton review, punishment. Delaying the a drugstore in winter punishment serves only to separate these two ideas; and thus affects the minds of the spectators rather as being a terrible sight than the necessary consequence of a crime; the horror of which should contribute to heighten the idea of the punishment. There is another excellent method of strengthening this important connection between the ideas of crime and punishment; that is, to make the punishment as analagous as possible to the nature of the crime; in order that the good introduction punishment may lead the mind to consider the in winter essay crime in princeton, a different point of view, from that in which it was Edition: current; Page: [ 76 ] placed by the flattering idea of promised advantages. Crimes of less importance are commonly punished, either in the obscurity of a prison, or the in winter essay criminal is transported, to give, by his slavery, an example to societies which he never offended; an example absolutely useless, because distant from the place where the crime was committed. Men do not, in general, commit great crimes deliberately, but rather in a sudden gust of passion; and they commonly look on princeton sat essay grader, the punishment due to a great crime as remote and improbable. The public punishment, therefore, of a drugstore in winter, small crimes will make a greater impression, and, by deterring men from the smaller, will effectually prevent the greater. Some crimes relate to person, others to property.
The first ought to be punished corporally. The great and rich should by no means have it in their power to set a price on the security of the weak and indigent; for then, riches, which, under the protection of the laws, are the reward of industry, would become the aliment of tyranny. Liberty is at an end, whenever the laws permit, that, in certain cases, a man may cease to be a person, and become a thing. Then will the writing a reflective essay about an experience in your life powerful employ their address to select from the a drugstore in winter essay various combinations of civil society, all that is in their own favour. This is and papers, that magic art which transforms subjects into beasts of burden, and which, in the hands of the strong, is the chain that binds the the weak and incautious. Thus it is, that in a drugstore, some governments, where there is all the appearance of princeton grader, liberty, tyranny lies concealed, and in winter insinuates itself into some neglected corner of the princeton review constitution, where it gathers strength insensibly. A Drugstore Essay! Mankind Edition: current; Page: [ 78 ] generally oppose, with resolution, the assaults of driving range, barefaced and open tyranny; but disregard the little insect that gnaws through the dyke, and opens a sure, though secret, passage to inundation. CHAPTER XXI.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF THE NOBLES. What punishments shall be ordained for the nobles, whose privileges make so great a part of the laws of nations? I do not mean to inquire whether the hereditary distinction between nobles and commoners be useful in a drugstore essay, any government, or necessary in a monarchy; or whether it be true, that they form an intermediate power, of good essay, use in moderating the excesses of both extremes; or whether they be not rather slaves to essay, their own body, and to others, confining within a very small circle the natural effects and hopes of industry, like those little fruitful spots scattered here and there in essay about, the sandy deserts of in winter, Arabia; or Edition: current; Page: [ 79 ] whether it be true that a subordination of rank and condition is inevitable, or useful in society; and if so, whether this subordination should not rather subsist between individuals than particular bodies; whether it should not rather circulate through the a reflective about in your whole body politic, than be confined to in winter, one part; and rather than be perpetual, should it not be incessantly produced and destroyed. Princeton Review Grader! Be these as they may, I assert that the punishment of a nobleman should in no wise differ from that of the lowest member of society.
Every lawful distinction, either in honours or riches, supposes previous equality, founded on the laws, on which all the members of a drugstore, society are considered as being equally dependent. We should suppose that men, in renouncing their natural despotism, said, the thermodynamics research papers wisest and most industrious among us shall obtain the greatest honours, and his dignity shall descend to his posterity. The fortunate and happy may hope for greater honours, but let him not therefore be less afraid than others of violating those conditions on which he is exalted. It is true, indeed, that no such decrees were ever made in a general diet of mankind, but they exist in the invariable relations of things: nor do they destroy the advantages which are supposed to be produced by the class of nobles, but prevent the inconveniencies; Edition: current; Page: [ 80 ] and they make the laws respectable by destroying all hopes of impunity. It may be objected, that the same punishment inflicted on a nobleman and a plebeian, becomes really different from the in winter essay difference of and papers, their education and from the infamy it reflects on an illustrious family; but I answer, that punishments are to be estimated, not by the sensibility of the criminal, but by the injury done to society; which injury is augmented by the high rank of the offender. The precise equality of a punishment can never be more than external, as it is in proportion to essay, the degree of sensibility, which differs in every individual. Really Good Introduction! The infamy of an innocent family may be easily obliterated by a drugstore in winter essay, some public demonstration of favour from the sovereign; and forms have always more influence than reason on the gazing multitude. The punishment of robbery, not accompanied with violence, should be pecuniary. He who endeavours to enrich himself with the property of another, should be deprived of part of his own. But this crime, alas! is commonly the effect of misery and despair; the crime of that unhappy part of mankind, to whom the right of exclusive property, a terrible, and perhaps unnecessary right, has left but a bare existence.
Besides, as pecuniary punishment may increase the number of poor, and may deprive an innocent family of subsistence, the most proper punishment will be that kind of slavery, which alone can be called just; that is, which makes the society, for range business, a time, absolute master of the person and labour of the criminal, in order to oblige him to a drugstore in winter, repair, by this dependence, the unjust despotism he usurped over the property of another, and his violation of the social compact. When robbery is really good introduction, attended with violence, corporal Edition: current; Page: [ 82 ] punishment should be added to essay, slavery. Many writers have shown the evident disorder which must arise from not distinguishing the punishment due to robbery with violence, and writing life that due to theft, or robbery committed with dexterity, absurdly making a sum of money equivalent to a man#x2019;s life. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! But it can never be superfluous to repeat, again and again, those truths of which mankind have not profited; for political machines preserve their motion much longer than others, and receive a new impulse with more difficulty. These crimes are in their nature absolutely different, and this axiom is as certain in politics as in mathematics, that between qualities of different natures there can be no similitude. CHAPTER XXIII.: OF INFAMY, CONSIDERED AS A PUNISHMENT. Those injuries, which affect the honour, that is, that just portion of esteem which every citizen has a right to expect from others, should be punished with infamy.
Infamy is a mark of the Edition: current; Page: [ 83 ] public disapprobation, which deprives the object of all consideration in the eyes of his fellow citizens, of the confidence of his country, and of that fraternity which exists between members of the same society. This is not always in good essay, the power of the laws. In Winter Essay! It is necessary that the infamy inflicted by the laws should be the same with that which results from the relations of things, from universal morality, or from that particular system, adopted by the nation and the laws, which governs the opinion of the vulgar. If, on the contrary, one be different from the review grader other, either the laws will no longer be respected, or the received notions of morality and probity will vanish in spite of the declamations of moralists, which are weak to resist the force of example. If we declare those actions infamous, which are in themselves indifferent, we lessen the infamy of a drugstore, those which are really infamous. The punishment of infamy should not be too frequent, for the power of opinion grows weaker by repetition; nor should it be inflicted on a number of persons at the same time, for the infamy of many resolves itself into the infamy of none. Painful and corporal punishments should never be applied to fanaticism; for being founded on pride, it glories in persecution.
Infamy and ridicule Edition: current; Page: [ 84 ] only should be employed against fanatics; if the thesis binding online first, their pride will be overbalanced by the pride of the people; and in winter we may judge of the power of the second, if we consider that even truth is obliged to summon all her force, when attacked by error armed with ridicule. Thermodynamics! Thus, by opposing one passion to another, and opinion to opinion, a wise legislator puts an end to the admiration of the in winter populace, occasioned by a false principle, the original absurdity of which is veiled by some well-deduced consequences. This is the essay introduction method to avoid confounding the immutable relations of things, or opposing nature, whose actions not being limited by time, but operating incessantly, overturn and destroy all those vain regulations which contradict her laws. It is not only in the fine arts that the imitation of nature is the fundamental principle; it is the in winter same in sound policy, which is no other than the art of uniting, and directing to the same end, the natural and immutable sentiments of mankind. A wise government will not suffer, in the midst of labour and industry, that kind of political idleness which is essay, confounded, by rigid declaimers, with the leisure attending riches acquired by industry, which is of use to an increasing society, when confined within proper limits.
I call those politically idle, who neither contribute to the good of society by their labour nor their riches; who continually accumulate, but never spend; and are reverenced by a drugstore in winter essay, the vulgar with stupid admiration, and thesis binding online regarded by the wise with disdain; who, being victims to a monastic life, and deprived of all incitement to in winter, the activity which is necessary to preserve or increase its comforts, devote all their vigour to passions of the strongest kind, the passions of opinion. I call him not idle, who enjoys the fruits of the virtues or vices of his ancestors, and in exchange for his pleasures supports the industrious poor. Princeton Review! It is not then the Edition: current; Page: [ 86 ] narrow virtue of austere moralists, but the laws, that should determine what species of idleness deserves punishment. CHAPTER XXV.: OF BANISHMENT, AND CONFISCATION. He who disturbs the public tranquillity, who does not obey the laws, who violates the conditions on which men mutually support and a drugstore in winter defend each other, ought to be excluded from society, that is, banished. It seems as if banishment should be the punishment of those, who, being accused of an atrocious crime, are probably, but not certainly, guilty. For this purpose would be required a law, the least arbitrary, and the most precise possible; which should condemn to banishment those who have reduced the community to the fatal alternative, either of fearing or punishing them unjustly; still, however, leaving them the sacred right of online, proving their innocence. The Edition: current; Page: [ 87 ] reasons ought to be stronger for banishing a citizen than a stranger, and for the first accusation than for one who hath been often excused. Should the person who is excluded for ever from society be deprived of his property?
This question may be considered in different lights. The confiscation of effects, added to in winter essay, banishment, is a greater punishment than banishment alone; there ought then to be some cases, in which, according to the crime, either the whole fortune should be confiscated, or part only, or none at all. The whole should be forfeited, when the law, which ordains banishment, declares, at and papers, the same time, that all connections between the society and the criminal are annihilated. In this case, the citizen dies, the man only remains; and a drugstore in winter with respect to a political body, the death of the citizen should have the online same consequences with the death of the man. A Drugstore! It seems to follow, then, that in this case, the effects of the criminal should devolve to his lawful heirs. But it is not on account of this refinement that I disapprove of confiscations. If some have insisted that they were a restraint to vengeance, and the violence of particulars, they have not reflected, that though punishments be productive of good, they are not, on about in your life, that account, more just; to be just, they must be necessary. In Winter Essay! Edition: current; Page: [ 88 ] Even an useful injustice can never be allowed by essay and papers online, a legislator, who means to guard against a drugstore in winter essay watchful tyranny; which, under the flattering pretext of momentary advantages, would establish permanent principles of destruction, and, to procure the ease of a few in a high station, would draw tears from thousands of the poor. The law which ordains confiscations, sets a price on princeton review, the head of the subject, with the guilty punishes the innocent, and by reducing them to indigence and despair, tempts them to become criminal. A Drugstore! Can there be a more melancholy spectacle, than a whole family, overwhelmed with infamy and misery, from the crime of their chief? a crime, which if it had been possible, they were restrained from preventing, by that submission which the laws themselves have ordained. CHAPTER XXVI.: OF THE SPIRIT OF FAMILY IN STATES.
It is remarkable, that many fatal acts of injustice have been authorised and approved, even by and papers, the wisest and most experienced men, in the freest republics. This has been owing to their having considered the state, rather as a society of families, than of men. Essay! Let us suppose a nation, composed of an hundred thousand men, divided into writing a reflective essay about, twenty thousand families of five persons each, including the head or master of the family, its representative. If it be an association of families, there will be twenty thousand men, and eighty thousand slaves; if of men, there will be an a drugstore, hundred thousand citizens, and not one slave. In the first case we behold a republic, and twenty thousand little monarchies, of which the heads are the sovereigns; in the second, the spirit of liberty will not only online breathe in every public place of the city, and in the assemblies of the nation, but in private houses, where men find the greatest part of their happiness or misery. As laws Edition: current; Page: [ 90 ] and customs are always the effect of a republic, if the society be an association of the heads of families, the in winter spirit of monarchy will gradually make its way into the republic itself, as its effects will only plan be restrained by the opposite interests of each; and not by an universal spirit of liberty and equality. The private spirit of family is a spirit of minuteness, and confined to in winter essay, little concerns. Public spirit, on the contrary, is influenced by general principles, and from facts deduces general rules of utility to the greatest number.
In a republic of families, the children remain under the authority of the father, as long as he lives, and are obliged to online, wait until death for an existence dependent on the laws alone. A Drugstore! Accustomed to kneel and tremble in their tender years, when their natural sentiments were less restrained by that caution, obtained by experienee, which is research, called moderation, how should they resist those obstacles, which vice always opposes to virtue, in the languor and decline of age, when the despair of reaping the fruits is alone sufficient to damp the vigour of their resolutions. In a republic, where every man is a citizen, family subordination is not the a drugstore in winter effect of compulsion, but of contract; and the sons, disengaged from the natural dependence, which the weakness Edition: current; Page: [ 91 ] of infancy and the necessity of education required, become free members of society, but remain subject to the head of the family for their own advantage, as in the great society. In a republic of families, the young people, that is, the writing essay most numerous and most useful part of the nation, are at the discretion of their fathers: in a republic of men, they are attached to their parents by no other obligation, than that sacred and inviolable one of mutual assistance, and of gratitude for the benefits they have received; a sentiment, destroyed not so much by the wickedness of the human heart, as by a mistaken subjection, prescribed by the laws. These contradictions between the laws of families, and the fundamental laws of a state, are the source of many others between public and private morality, which produce a perpetual conflict in the mind. Domestic morality inspires submission and fear: the other, courage and a drugstore in winter essay liberty. Really Good Essay! That instructs a man to confine his beneficence to a small number of persons, not of his own choice; this, to extend it to all mankind: that commands a continual sacrifice of himself to a vain idol, called the good of the family, which is often no real good to any one of those who compose it; this teaches him to consider his own advanatge Edition: current; Page: [ 92 ] without offending the laws, or excites him to sacrifice himself for the good of his country by rewarding him beforehand with the fanaticism it inspires. In Winter Essay! Such contradictions are the reason, that men neglect the pursuit of virtue, which they can hardly distinguish midst the obscurity and confusion of natural and moral objects. How frequently are men, upon a retrospection of their actions, astonished to find themselves dishonest.
In proportion to the increase of society, each member becomes a smaller part of the whole; and the republican spirit diminishes in the same proportion, if neglected by the laws. Political societies, like the human body, have their limits circumscribed, which they cannot exceed without disturbing their economy. It seems as if the greatness of a state ought to be inversely as the sensibility and activity of the individuals; if, on the contrary, population and inactivity increase in the same proportion, the laws will with difficulty prevent the crimes arising from the good they have produced. An overgrown republic can only be saved from despotism, by subdividing it into a number of confederate republics. Range Business! But how is this practicable? By a despotic dictator, who, with the courage of Sylla, has as much genius for a drugstore, building up, as that Roman had for pulling down. Edition: current; Page: [ 93 ] If he be an thermodynamics research papers, ambitious man, his reward will be immortal glory; if a philosopher, the blessings of his fellow citizens will sufficiently console him for in winter essay, the loss of authority, though he should not be insensible to their ingratitude. In proportion as the range sentiments, which unite us to the state, grow weaker, those which attach us to the objects which more immediately surround us grow stronger; therefore, in the most despotic government, friendships are more durable, and domestic virtues (which are always of the lowest class) are the most common, or the only virtues existing. Hence it appears how confined have been the views of the greatest number of legislators. CHAPTER XXVII.: OF THE MILDNESS OF PUNISHMENTS. The course of my ideas has carried me away from my subject, to in winter essay, the elucidation of which I now return.
Crimes are more effectually prevented by really good essay introduction, the certainty, than the severity of punishment. Edition: current; Page: [ 94 ] Hence, in a magistrate, the necessity of in winter essay, vigilance, and, in online, a judge, of essay, implacability, which, that it may become an useful virtue, should be joined to a mild legislation. The certainty of a small punishment will make a stronger impression, than the fear of one more severe, if attended with the hopes of escaping; for it is the nature of mankind to about, be terrified at the approach of the smallest inevitable evil, whilst hope, the best gift of Heaven, hath the power of a drugstore essay, dispelling the apprehension of a greater; especially if supported by examples of impunity, which weakness or avarice too frequently afford. If punishments be very severe, men are naturally led to the perpetration of other crimes, to avoid the binding punishment due to the first. The countries and times most notorious for essay, severity of punishments, were always those in which the introduction most bloody and inhuman actions and the most atrocious crimes were committed; for the hand of the legislator and the assassin were directed by the same spirit of ferocity: which on the throne, dictated laws of a drugstore essay, iron to slaves and savages, and in private instigated the subject to sacrifice one tyrant, to make room for another. In proportion as punishments become more cruel, the minds of men, as a fluid rises to the Edition: current; Page: [ 95 ] same height with that which surrounds it, grow hardened and insensible; and the force of passions still continuing, in princeton review sat essay, the space of an hundred years, the wheel terrifies no more than formerly the prison.
That a punishment may produce the effect required, it is sufficient that the evil it occasions should exceed the good expected from the crime; including in the calculation the in winter essay certainty of the punishment, and the privation of the review sat essay grader expected advantage. All severity beyond this is superfluous, and therefore tyrannical. Men regulate their conduct by in winter essay, the repeated impression of evils they know, and not by those with which they are unacquainted. Let us, for example, suppose two nations, in one of which the greatest punishment is research, perpetual slavery, and in the other the wheel. I say, that both will inspire the same degree of terror; and that there can be no reasons for increasing the punishments of the first, which are not equally valid for augmenting those of the second to more lasting and more ingenious modes of tormenting; and so on to the most exquisite refinements of a science too well known to tyrants. There are yet two other consequences of in winter, cruel punishments, which counteract the purpose of their institution, which was, to prevent crimes. Edition: current; Page: [ 96 ] The first arises from the impossibility of business plan, establishing an exact proportion between the crime and punishment; for though ingenious cruelty hath greatly multiplied the variety of torments, yet the in winter essay human frame can suffer only to a certain degree, beyond which it is impossible to proceed, be the enormity of the crime ever so great.
The second consequence is impunity. Human nature is limited no less in evil than in good. Excessive barbarity can never be more than temporary; it being impossible that it should be supported by a permanent system of legislation; for if the laws be too cruel, they must be altered, or anarchy and impunity will succeed. Is it possible, without shuddering with horror, to read in history of the barbarous and useless torments that were coolly invented and executed by driving business, men who were called sages? Who does not tremble at the thoughts of thousands of wretches, whom their misery, either caused or tolerated by the laws which favoured the few and outraged the many, had forced in despair to return to a state of nature; or accused of impossible crimes, the fabric of ignorance and superstition; or guilty only a drugstore of having been faithful to their own principles; who, I say, can, without horror, think of their being torn to pieces with slow and studied Edition: current; Page: [ 97 ] barbarity, by writing a reflective an experience in your, men endowed with the same passions and the same feelings? A delightful spectacle to a fanatic multitude! CHAPTER XXVIII.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. The useless profusion of a drugstore in winter essay, punishments, which has never made men better, induces me to inquire, whether the punishment of death be really just or useful in a well-governed state? What right, I ask, have men to cut the writing essay about throats of their fellow-creatures? Certainly not that on which the sovereignty and laws are founded. The laws, as I have said before, are only the sum of the smallest portions of the private liberty of each individual, and represent the in winter essay general will, which is the aggregate of that of each individual.
Did any one ever give to others the right of taking away his life? Is it possible, that in the smallest portions of the liberty of each, sacrificed to the good of the public, can be obtained the greatest Edition: current; Page: [ 98 ] of when a reflective essay about an experience in your life, all good, life? If it were so, how shall it be reconciled to the maxim which tells us, that a man has no right to in winter, kill himself? Which he certainly must have, if he could give it away to online, another. But the punishment of in winter essay, death is not authorised by any right; for I have demonstrated that no such right exists. It is therefore a war of a whole nation against a citizen, whose destruction they consider as necessary or useful to the general good. But if I can further demonstrate, that it is neither necessary nor useful, I shall have gained the cause of humanity.
The death of a citizen cannot be necessary but in one case. When, though deprived of his liberty, he has such power and connections as may endanger the security of the nation; when his existence may produce a dangerous revolution in the established form of government. Binding! But even in this case, it can only be necessary when a nation is on the verge of recovering or losing its liberty; or in times of a drugstore essay, absolute anarchy, when the online disorders themselves hold the place of laws. But in a reign of tranquillity; in a form of government approved by the united wishes of the nation; in a drugstore, a state fortified from good essay, enemies without, and a drugstore supported by strength within, and opinion, Edition: current; Page: [ 99 ] perhaps more efficacious; where all power is lodged in the hands of the true sovereign; where riches can purchase pleasures and not authority, there can be no necessity for taking away the life of a subject. If the experience of review, all ages be not sufficient to prove, that the punishment of a drugstore in winter essay, death has never prevented determined men from injuring society; if the example of the Romans; if twenty years reign of grader, Elizabeth, empress of Russia, in which she gave the fathers of their country an a drugstore in winter, example more illustrious than many conquests bought with blood; if, I say, all this be not sufficient to persuade mankind, who always suspect the voice of reason, and who chuse rather to be led by authority, let us consult human nature in proof of my assertion. It is good introduction, not the intenseness of the pain that has the greatest effect on the mind, but its continuance; for our sensibility is more easily and more powerfully affected by weak, but by repeated impressions, than by a violent but momentary impulse. The power of habit is universal over every sensible being. As it is by a drugstore essay, that we learn to speak, to walk, and to satisfy our necessities, so the ideas of morality are stamped on our minds by repeated impressions. The death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 100 ] is a terrible but momentary spectacle, and therefore a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the continued example of a man deprived of his liberty, condemned as a beast of burden, to repair, by his labour, the injury he has done to society. Thesis! If I commit such a crime, says the spectator to a drugstore in winter essay, himself, I shall be reduced to that miserable condition for the rest of my life.
A much more powerful preventive than the fear of death, which men always behold in distant obscurity. The terrors of death make so slight an impression, that it has not force enough to when essay an experience life, withstand the forgetfulness natural to mankind, even in the most essential things; especially when assisted by the passions. Violent impressions surprise us, but their effect is momentary; they are fit to produce those revolutions which instantly transform a common man into a Laced#xE6;monian or a Persian; but in a free and a drugstore in winter essay quiet government they ought to be rather frequent than strong. The execution of a criminal is, to the multitude, a spectacle which in some excites compassion mixed with indignation. These sentiments occupy the mind much more than that salutary terror which the laws endeavour to inspire; but in the contemplation of continued suffering, terror is the introduction only, or at least, the predominant sensation. Edition: current; Page: [ 101 ] The severity of a punishment should be just sufficient to excite compassion in the spectators, as it is in winter, intended more for them than for the criminal. A punishment, to be just, should have only that degree of severity which is sufficient to deter others. Now there is no man, who, upon the least reflection, would put in competition the total and research perpetual loss of his liberty, with the greatest advantages he could possibly obtain in consequence of a crime. Perpetual slavery, then, has in it all that is necessary to deter the most hardened and determined, as much as the punishment of death.
I say, it has more. There are many who can look upon death with intrepidity and firmness; some through fanaticism, and others through vanity, which attends us even to the grave; others from a desperate resolution, either to get rid of their misery, or cease to live: but fanaticism and vanity forsake the criminal in slavery, in chains and fetters, in an iron cage; and despair seems rather the beginning than the end of their misery. The mind, by collecting itself and uniting all its force, can, for a moment, repel assailing grief; but its most vigorous efforts are insufficient to resist perpetual wretchedness. In all nations, where death is used as punishment, every example supposes a new crime committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 102 ] Whereas, in perpetual slavery, every criminal affords a frequent and lasting example: and if it be necessary that men should often be witnesses of the power of the laws, criminals should often be put to death; but this supposes a frequency of crimes; and from hence this punishment will cease to essay, have its effect, so that it must be useful and useless at the same time.
I shall be told, that perpetual slavery is as painful a punishment as death, and therefore as cruel. I answer, that if all the miserable moments in the life of thermodynamics research papers, a slave were collected into in winter, one point, it would be a more cruel punishment than any other; but these are scattered through his whole life, whilst the pain of death exerts all its force in a moment. There is also another advantage in the punishment of research, slavery, which is, that it is in winter, more terrible to when writing a reflective, the spectator than to the sufferer himself; for the spectator considers the sum of all his wretched moments, whilst the in winter essay sufferer, by the misery of the present, is prevented from binding online, thinking of the future. All evils are increased by a drugstore in winter, the imagination, and the sufferer finds resources and consolation, of really good essay, which the spectators are ignoran; who judge by a drugstore in winter, their own sensibility of what passes in a mind by habit grown callous to misfortune. Edition: current; Page: [ 103 ] Let us, for a moment, attend to the reasoning of a robber or assassin, who is a reflective about an experience life, deterred from violating the laws by the gibbet or the wheel. I am sensible, that to develop the sentiments of one#x2019;s own heart, is an art which education only can teach; but although a villain may not be able to give a clear account of his principles, they nevertheless influence his conduct. He reasons thus: #x201C;What are these laws that I am bound to respect, which make so great a difference between me and the rich man? He refuses me the farthing I ask of in winter essay, him, and excuses himself by bidding me have recourse to labour, with which he is unacquainted. Who made these laws? The rich and the great, who never deigned to visit the miserable hut of the poor; who have never seen him dividing a piece of mouldy bread, amidst the cries of his famished children, and the tears of his wife. Let us break those ties, fatal to the greatest part of review sat essay, mankind, and only useful to a few indolent tyrants.
Let us attack injustice at its source. I will return to my natural state of independence. I shall live free and happy on the fruits of my courage and industry. A day of essay, pain and repentance may come, but it will be short; and for driving range, an hour of grief, I shall enjoy years of pleasure and essay liberty. King of a small number, as determined Edition: current; Page: [ 104 ] as myself, I will correct the mistakes of fortune; and shall see those tyrants grow pale and tremble at the sight of really good essay, him, whom, with insulting pride, they would not suffer to rank with dogs and horses.#x201D; Religion then presents itself to the mind of a drugstore, this lawless villain, and promising him almost a certainty of eternal happiness upon the easy terms of driving plan, repentance, contributes much to lessen the horror of the last scene of the tragedy. But he who foresees that he must pass a great number of years, even his whole life, in pain and slavery; a slave to those laws by which he was protected; in sight of his fellow citizens, with whom he lives in freedom and society; makes an useful comparison between those evils, the uncertainty of his success, and a drugstore in winter essay the shortness of the time in which he shall enjoy the really good essay fruits of his transgression. The example of those wretches continually before his eyes, makes a much greater impression on him than a punishment, which, instead of correcting, makes him more obdurate. The punishment of death is pernicious to in winter, society, from the example of barbarity it affords. If the passions, or necessity of war, have taught men to shed the range blood of their fellow creatures, the laws which are intended to moderate the ferocity of mankind, should not increase it by examples Edition: current; Page: [ 105 ] of barbarity, the more horrible, as this punishment is usually attended with formal pageantry.
Is it not absurd, that the laws, which detect and punish homicide, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves? What are the true and most useful laws? Those compacts and conditions which all would propose and observe, in those moments when private interest is silent, or combined with that of the public. What are the natural sentiments of essay, every person concerning the punishment of death? We may read them in the contempt and indignation with which every one looks on the executioner, who is nevertheless an innocent executor of the public will; a good citizen, who contributes to the advantage of society; the instrument of the general security within, as good soldiers are without. Thesis Binding Online! What then is the origin of this contradiction? Why is this sentiment of mankind indelible to a drugstore in winter, the scandal of reason? It is, that in a secret corner of the mind, in which the original impressions of nature are still preserved, men discover a sentiment which tells them, that their lives are not lawfully in the power of any one, but of that necessity only, which with its iron sceptre rules the universe. What must men think, when they see wise Edition: current; Page: [ 106 ] magistrates and review grave ministers of justice, with indifference and tranquillity, dragging a criminal to death, and whilst a wretch trembles with agony, expecting the in winter essay fatal stroke, the judge, who has condemned him, with the coldest insensibility, and perhaps with no small gratification from the exertion of his authority, quits his tribunal to enjoy the comforts and pleasures of life? They will say, #x201C;Ah! those cruel formalities of justice are a cloak to tyranny, they are a secret language, a solemn veil, intended to conceal the sword by which we are sacrificed to the insatiable idol of princeton, despotism. In Winter! Murder, which they would represent to us as an horrible crime, we see practiced by them without repugnance or remorse.
Let us follow their example. Binding Online! A violent death appeared terrible in their descriptions, but we see that it is the affair of a moment. It will be still less terrible to him, who, not expecting it, escapes almost all the a drugstore in winter pain.#x201D; Such is the fatal, though absurd reasoning of men who are disposed to commit crimes; on whom the abuse of religion has more influence than religion itself. If it be objected, that almost all nations in all ages have punished certain crimes with death, I answer that the force of these examples vanishes, when opposed to truth, against which prescription Edition: current; Page: [ 107 ] is urged in vain. The history of princeton review sat essay, mankind is an immense sea of errors, in which a few obscure truths may here and there be found. But human sacrifices have also been common in almost all nations. That some societies only, either few in number, or for a very short time, abstained from the punishment of death, is essay, rather favourable to my argument, for such is the fate of great truths, that their duration is a reflective about in your life, only as a flash of lightning in the long and dark night of error. The happy time is not yet arrived, when truth, as falsehood has been hitherto, shall be the portion of the greatest number. I am sensible that the voice of one philosopher is too weak to be heard amidst the clamours of a multitude, blindly influenced by custom; but there is a small number of sages, scattered on the face of the earth, who will echo to me from the bottom of their hearts; and if these truths should happily force their way to the thrones of princes, be it known to them, that they come attended with the a drugstore essay secret wishes of all mankind, and tell the sovereign who deigns them a gracious reception, that his fame shall outshine the glory of conquerors, and that equitable posterity will exalt his peaceful trophies above those of review sat essay, a Titus, an Antoninus, or a Trajan. Edition: current; Page: [ 108 ] How happy were mankind, if laws were now to be first formed! now that we see on the thrones of Europe benevolent monarchs, friends to the virtues of peace, to the arts and sciences, fathers of their people, though crowned yet citizens; the increase of whose authority augments the happiness of their subjects, by essay, destroying that intermediate despotism which intercepts the prayers of the people to the throne.
If these humane princes have suffered the old laws to subsist, it is princeton grader, doubtless because they are deterred by the numberless obstacles which oppose the subversion of errors established by the sanction of a drugstore in winter essay, many ages; and therefore every wise citizen will wish for the increase of their authority. That a magistrate, the executor of the laws, should have a power to imprison a citizen, to deprive the man he hates of his liberty upon Edition: current; Page: [ 109 ] frivolous pretences, and to leave his friend unpunished, notwithstanding the strongest proofs of his guilt, is an error as common as it is contrary to the end of society, which is personal security. Imprisonment is a punishment, which differs from all other in this particular, that it necessarily precedes conviction; but this difference does not destroy a circumstance, which is essential, and common to it with all other punishments, viz. that it should never be inflicted, but when ordained by the law. The law should, therefore, determine the crime, the presumption, and the evidence sufficient to subject the accused to imprisonment and thesis examination. Public report, his flight, his extra-judicial confession, that of an accomplice, menaces, and his constant enmity with the person injured, the a drugstore in winter essay circumstances of the crime, and such other evidence, may be sufficient to justify the imprisonment of a citizen.
But the nature of this evidence should be determined by the laws, and not by the magistrates, whose decrees are always contrary to political liberty, when they are not particular applications of a general maxim of the public code. When punishments become less severe, and prisons less horrible; when compassion and humanity shall penetrate the thermodynamics iron gates of dungeons, and direct the Edition: current; Page: [ 110 ] obdurate and inexorable ministers of justice, the laws may then be satisfied with weaker evidence for imprisonment. A person accused, imprisoned, tried and acquitted, ought not to be branded with any degree of infamy. Among the Romans, we see that many, accused of essay, very great crimes, and afterwards declared innocent, were respected by the people, and research papers honoured with employments in the state. But why is the fate of an innocent person so different in this age? It is, because the present system of penal laws presents to our minds an in winter, idea of power rather than of justice.
It is, because the accused and convicted are thrown indiscriminately into the same prison; because imprisonment is rather a punishment, than a means of essay and papers online, securing the person of the accused; and because the interior power, which defends the laws, and the exterior, which defends the throne and kingdom, are separate when they should be united. Essay! If the first were (under the common authority of the laws) combined with the right of judging, but not, however immediately dependent on the magistrate, the pomp that attends a military corps, would take off the infamy; which, like all popular opinions, is writing a reflective essay about life, more attached to the manner and form, than to the Edition: current; Page: [ 111 ] thing itself; as may be seen in military imprisonment, which, in the common opinion, is not so disgraceful as the a drugstore in winter essay civil. But the barbarity and ferocity of our ancestors, the hunters of the north, still subsist among the people, in our customs and our laws, which are always several ages behind the actual refinements of a nation. CHAPTER XXX.: OF PROSECUTION AND PRESCRIPTION. The proofs of the crime being obtained, and the certainty of it determined, it is princeton review, necessary to allow the criminal the time and means for his justification; but a time so short, as not to diminish that promptitude of punishment, which, as we have shewn, is one of the most powerful means of essay, preventing crimes. A mistaken humanity may object to essay and papers, the shortness of the time, but the force of the objection will vanish, if we consider that the danger of the innocent increases with the defects of the legislation. Edition: current; Page: [ 112 ] The time for inquiry and for justification should be fixed by the laws, and in winter essay not by the judge, who, in that case, would become legislator. With regard to and papers online, atrocious crimes, which are long remembered, when they are once proved, if the criminal have fled, no time should be allowed; but in less considerable and more obscure crimes, a time should be fixed, after which the delinquent should be no longer uncertain of his fate. Essay! For in the latter case, the length of time, in which the crime is almost forgotten, prevents the example of impunity, and range business allows the criminal to amend, and become a better member of society. General principles will here be sufficient, it being impossible to fix precisely the limits of time for any given legislation, or for any society in any particular circumstance. I shall only add, that in a nation willing to prove the utility of moderate punishment, laws which, according to the nature of the crime increase or diminish the time of inquiry and justification, considering the imprisonment or the voluntary exile of the criminal as a part of the punishment, will form an easy division of a small number of mild punishments for a great number of crimes.
But, it must be observed, the in winter essay time for inquiry and a reflective essay about an experience in your life justification, should not increase in direct Edition: current; Page: [ 113 ] proportion to the atrociousness of crimes; for the probability of such crimes having been committed, is inversely as their atrociousness. Therefore the time for in winter essay, inquiring ought, in some cases, to be diminished, and essay and papers online that for justification increased, and vice versa. A Drugstore In Winter! This may appear to contradict what I have said above, namely, that equal punishments may be decreed for unequal crimes, by when writing a reflective in your life, considering the time allowed the criminal, or the prison, as a punishment. In order to explain this idea, I shall divide crimes into two classes. The first comprehends homicide, and all greater crimes; the a drugstore second, crimes of an inferior degree. Review Sat Essay! This distinction is founded in human nature.
The preservation of life is in winter essay, a natural right; the preservation of property is a right of society. The motives that induce men to shake off the natural sentiment of when a reflective essay about in your, compassion, which must be destroyed before great crimes can be committed, are much less in number than those by which, from the natural desire of being happy, they are instigated to essay, violate a right, which is not founded in the heart of man, but is the work of society. The different degrees of probability in research, these two classes, require that they should be regulated on different principles. In the greatest crimes, as they are less frequent, Edition: current; Page: [ 114 ] and the probability of the innocence of the accused being greater, the time allowed him for his justification should be greater, and the time of a drugstore essay, inquiry less. For by hastening the definitive sentence, the flattering hopes of impunity are destroyed, which are more dangerous, as the grader crime is in winter, more atrocious. On the thesis binding online contrary, in in winter essay, crimes of less importance, the probability of the innocence being less, the time of inquiry should be greater, and that of justification less, as impunity is not so dangerous. But this division of crimes into two classes should not be admitted, if the consequences of impunity were in proportion to the probability of the princeton sat essay crime. It should be considered, that a person accused, whose guilt or innocence is not determined for want of a drugstore, proofs, may be again imprisoned for the same crime, and be subject to a new trial, if fresh evidence arises within the time fixed. This is, in my opinion, the best method of providing at the same time for the security and liberty of the subject, without favouring one at the expence of the other; which may easily happen, since both these blessings, the inalienable and equal patrimony of driving business plan, every citizen, are liable to be invaded, the one by open or disguised despotism, and the other by tumultuous and popular anarchy. CHAPTER XXXI.: OF CRIMES OF DIFFICULT PROOF.
With the foregoing principles in view, it will appear astonishing, that reason hardly ever presided at the formation of the laws of nations; that the weakest and most equivocal evidence, and even conjectures, have been thought sufficient proof for crimes the most atrocious, (and therefore most improbable), the most obscure and chimerical; as if it were the interest of the laws and the judge not to inquire into the truth, but to prove the crime; as if there was not a greater risk of condemning an innocent person, when the probability of his guilt is less. The generality of a drugstore essay, men want that vigour of mind and resolution, which are as necessary for great crimes as for great virtues, and which at the same time produce both the one and the other, in those nations which are supported by the activity of their government, and a passion for the public good. For in those which subsist by their greatness or power, or by the goodness Edition: current; Page: [ 116 ] of their laws, the thermodynamics papers passions being in a drugstore essay, a weaker degree, seem calculated rather to maintain than to improve the form of government. This naturally leads us to an important conclusion, viz. that great crimes do always produce the destruction of a nation. There are some crimes which, though frequent in society, are of difficult proof, a circumstance admitted, as equal to the probability of the innocence of the accused. But as the frequency of thermodynamics papers, these crimes is not owing to their impunity, so much as to other causes, the danger of their passing unpunished is of less importance, and in winter therefore the time of examination and prescription may be equally diminished. These principles are different from those commonly received; for it is in crimes, which are proved with the greatest difficulty, such as adultery, and sodomy, that presumptions, half-proofs, etc. are admitted; as if a man could be half innocent, and half guilty; that is, half punishable and half absolvable. It is in these cases that torture should exercise its cruel power on the person of the accused, the review sat essay witnesses, and even his whole family, as, with unfeeling indifference, some civilians have taught, who pretend to dictate laws to in winter, nations. Edition: current; Page: [ 117 ] Adultery is a crime which, politically considered, owes its existence to two causes, viz. pernicious laws, and about life the powerful attraction between the sexes. This attraction is similar in many circumstances to gravity, the spring of motion in the universe. Like this, it is diminished by distance; one regulates the motions of the body, the other of the soul.
But they differ in a drugstore in winter essay, one respect; the force of plan, gravity decreases in proportion to the obstacles that oppose it; the other gathers strength and in winter vigour as the obstacles increase. If I were speaking to and papers online, nations guided only by the laws of nature, I would tell them, that there is a considerable difference between adultery and all other crimes. Adultery proceeds from an abuse of that necessity which is constant and universal in a drugstore in winter, human nature; a necessity anterior to the formation of society, and indeed the founder of society itself; whereas, all other crimes tend to the destruction of society, and arise from momentary passions, and not from a natural necessity. It is the opinion of a reflective an experience in your, those, who have studied history and mankind, that this necessity is constantly in the same degree in the same climate. If this be true, useless, or rather pernicious must all laws and customs be, which tend to diminish the sum total of the effects of Edition: current; Page: [ 118 ] this passion. Such laws would only burden one part of the society with the additional necessities of the other; but, on the contrary, wise are the laws which, following the in winter natural course of the river, divide the stream into a number of equal branches, preventing thus both sterility and inundation. Conjugal fidelity is always greater in essay, proportion as marriages are more numerous, and less difficult. But when the a drugstore in winter essay interest or pride of range plan, families, or paternal authority, not the inclination of the parties, unite the sexes, gallantry soon breaks the slender ties, in spite of common moralists, who exclaim against the effect, whilst they pardon the a drugstore cause. But these reflections are useless to those, who, living in thesis binding online, the true religion, act from sublimer motives, which correct the eternal laws of nature. The act of adultery is a crime so instantaneous, so mysterious, and so concealed by the veil which the laws themselves have woven; a veil necessary indeed, but so transparent, as to essay, heighten rather than conceal the thesis online charms of the object; the a drugstore in winter opportunities are so frequent, and the danger of discovery so easily avoided, that it were much easier for the laws to when writing an experience life, prevent this crime, than to punish it when committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 119 ] To every crime, which from its nature must frequently remain unpunished, the punishment is an incentive.
Such is the nature of the human mind, that difficulties, if not insurmountable, nor too great for our natural indolence, embellish the object, and spur us on to the pursuit. They are so many barriers that confine the imagination to the object, and oblige us to consider it in every point of view. In this agitation, the mind naturally inclines and fixes itself to the most agreeable part, studiously avoiding every idea that might create disgust. The crime of sodomy, so severely punished by the laws, and for the proof of which are employed tortures, which often triumph over innocence itself, has its source much less in the passions of man in a free and independent state, than in society and a slave. It is much less the effect of a satiety in pleasures, than of that education, which, in order to make men useful to others, begins by making them useless to themselves. In those public seminaries, where ardent youth are carefully excluded from all commerce with the other sex, as the vigour of nature blooms, it is consumed in a manner not only useless to mankind, but which accelerates the approach of old age. Edition: current; Page: [ 120 ] The murder of bastard children is, in like manner, the effect of in winter, a cruel dilemma, in which a woman finds herself who has been seduced through weakness, or overcome by force.
The alternative is, her own infamy, or the death of business, a being who is incapable of a drugstore, feeling the loss of life. How can she avoid preferring the last to the inevitable misery of herself and her unhappy infant! The best method of preventing this crime, would be effectually to protect the weak woman from that tyranny which exaggerates all vices that cannot be concealed under the cloak of virtue. I do not pretend to lessen that just abhorrence which these crimes deserve, but to discover the sources from whence they spring; and I think I may draw the following conclusions: That the punishment of a crime cannot be just, ( that is, necessary ), if the laws have not endeavoured to prevent that crime by the best means which times and circumstances would allow. Suicide is a crime, which seems not to admit of punishment, properly speaking; for papers, it cannot be inflicted but on the innocent, or upon in winter essay, an insensible dead body. In the really essay first case, it is unjust and tyrannical, for political liberty supposes all punishments entirely personal; in the second, it has the same effect, by way of example, as the scourging a statue.
Mankind love life too well; the objects that surround them; the seducing phantom of pleasure and hope, that sweetest error of mortals, which makes men swallow such large draughts of evil, mingled with a very few drops of good, allure them too strongly, to apprehend that this crime will ever be common from its unavoidable impunity. The laws are obeyed through fear of punishment, but death destroys all sensibility. What motive, then, can restrain the desperate hand of suicide? He who kills himself does a less injury to society, than he who quits his country for ever; Edition: current; Page: [ 122 ] for the other leaves his property behind him, but this carries with him at least a part of his substance. Besides, as the strength of a society consists in a drugstore essay, the number of citizens, he who quits one nation to reside in another, becomes a double loss.
This then is the thesis binding online question: whether it be advantageous to society, that its members should enjoy the unlimited privilege of migration? Every law that is not armed with force, or which, from circumstances, must be ineffectual, should not be promulgated. In Winter! Opinion, which reigns over the minds of men, obeys the slow and and papers indirect impressions of the legislator, but resists them when violently and directly applied; and useless laws communicate their insignificance to the most salutary, which are regarded more as obstacles to be surmounted, than as safeguards of the public good. But further, our perceptions being limited, by enforcing the observance of laws which are evidently useless, we destroy the essay influence of the most salutary. From this principle, a wise dispenser of public happiness may draw some useful consequences, the thesis binding online explanation of which would carry me too far from my subject, which is to prove the inutility of making the nation a prison. Such a law is vain, because, unless inaccessible rocks, or impassable Edition: current; Page: [ 123 ] seas, divide the country from all others, how will it be possible to secure every point of the circumference, or how will you guard the essay guards themselves? Besides, this crime, once committed, cannot be punished; and to binding online, punish it before hand, would be to punish the intention and not the action; the will, which is entirely out a drugstore in winter essay of the power of human laws. To punish the absent by confiscating his effects, besides the facility of when an experience life, collusion, which would inevitably be the case, and which, without tyranny, could not be prevented, would put a stop to all commerce with other nations. To punish the criminal when he returns, would be to a drugstore in winter, prevent him from repairing the evil he had already done to society, by making his absence perpetual.
Besides, any prohibition would increase the desire of removing, and would infallibly prevent strangers from review, settling in essay, the country. What must we think of a government which has no means, but fear, to driving plan, keep its subjects in their own country; to which, by the first impressions of their infancy, they are so strongly attached. The most certain method of keeping men at essay, home, is, to make them happy; and it is the interest of every state to turn the balance, not only of commerce, but of felicity in favour Edition: current; Page: [ 124 ] of its subjects. The pleasures of luxury are not the principal sources of this happiness; though, by preventing the too great accumulation of introduction, wealth in few hands, they become a necessary remedy against the too great inequality of individuals, which always increases with the progress of society. When the populousness of a country does not increase in proportion to its extent, luxury favours despotism, for where men are most dispersed, there is least industry, the dependence of the poor upon a drugstore essay, the luxury of the rich is greatest, and the union of the oppressed against the oppressors is thermodynamics papers, least to be feared. In such circumstances, rich and powerful men more easily command distinction, respect and service, by which they are raised to a greater height above the in winter essay poor; for men are more independent the less they are observed, and are least observed when most numerous. On the contrary, when the number of people is too great in proportion to the extent of a country, luxury is when a reflective about an experience in your, a check to despotism; because it is a spur to industry, and because the labour of the poor affords so many pleasures to the rich, that they disregard the luxury of essay, ostentation, which would remind the people of their dependence.
Hence we see that Edition: current; Page: [ 125 ] in vast and depopulated states, the luxury of ostentation prevails over that of convenience; but, in the countries more populous, the luxury of convenience tends constantly to diminish the luxury of ostentation. The pleasures of luxury have this inconvenience, that though they employ a great number of hands, yet they are only enjoyed by a few, whilst the rest, who do not partake of them, feel the want more sensibly, on comparing their state with that of others. Security and liberty, restrained by the laws, are the basis of thesis online, happiness, and when attended by these, the pleasures of luxury favour population, without which they become the instrument of tyranny. As the most noble and generous animals fly to solitude and inaccessible deserts, and abandon the fertile plains to man, their greatest enemy; so men reject pleasure itself, when offered by the hand of tyranny. But to return. If it be demonstrated, that the laws which imprison men in their own country are vain and unjust, it will be equally true of those which punish suicide, for that can only be punished after death, which is in the power of God alone; but it is no crime, with regard to man, because the punishment falls on Edition: current; Page: [ 126 ] an innocent family. If it be objected, that the consideration of such a punishment may prevent the crime; I answer, that he who can calmly renounce the pleasure of in winter essay, existence; who is so weary of life as to brave the idea of eternal misery, will never be influenced by the more distant and less powerful considerations of family and children. Smuggling is a real offence against the sovereign and the nation; but the punishment should not brand the offender with infamy, because this crime is not infamous in the public opinion. By inflicting infamous punishments, for crimes that are not reputed so, we destroy that idea where it may be useful. If the same punishment be decreed for killing a pheasant as for killing a man, or for review sat essay grader, forgery, all difference between those crimes will shortly vanish. It is thus that moral sentiments are destroyed in the heart of a drugstore essay, man; Edition: current; Page: [ 127 ] sentiments, the work of many ages and essay of much bloodshed; sentiments, that are so slowly, and in winter with so much difficulty, produced, and for the establishment of and papers, which such sublime motives, and in winter essay such an apparatus of ceremonies, were thought necessary.
This crime is owing to the laws themselves; for princeton review, the higher the duties, the greater is the advantage, and, consequently, the temptation; which temptation is a drugstore essay, increased by the facility of perpetration, when the circumference that is guarded is of great extent, and essay the merchandise prohibited is small in essay, bulk. The seizure and loss of the goods attempted to be smuggled, together with those that are found along with them, is just; but it would be better to lessen the duty, because men risk only in proportion to the advantage expected. This crime being a theft of what belongs to the prince, and consequently to the nation, why is it not attended with infamy? I answer, that crimes, which men consider as productive of no bad consequences to themselves, do not interest them sufficiently to excite their indignation. The generality of mankind, upon whom remote consequences make no impression, do not see the evil that may result from the practice of smuggling, Edition: current; Page: [ 128 ] especially if they reap from it any present advantage. Essay Introduction! They only perceive the loss sustained by the prince. They are not then interested in refusing their esteem to the smuggler, as to one who has committed a theft or a forgery, or other crimes, by which they themselves may suffer; from this evident principle, that a sensible being only interests himself in those evils with which he is acquainted. Shall this crime, then, committed by in winter, one who has nothing to lose, go unpunished? No. Princeton Sat Essay! There are certain species of smuggling, which so particularly affect the essay revenue, a part of government so essential, and managed with so much difficulty, that they deserve imprisonment, or even slavery; but yet of such a nature as to be proportioned to the crime.
For example, it would be highly unjust that a smuggler of tobacco should suffer the same punishment with a robber or assassin; but it would be most conformable to the nature of the offence, that the online produce of his labour should be applied to the use of the crown, which he intended to defraud. The necessity of a drugstore in winter essay, good faith in contracts and the support of commerce oblige the legislature to secure, for the creditors, the persons of bankrupts. It is, however, necessary to thermodynamics research papers, distinguish between the fraudulent and the honest bankrupt. The fraudulent bankrupt should be punished in the same manner with him who adulterates the coin; for to falsify a piece of coin, which is a pledge of the mutual obligation between citizens, is not a greater crime than to violate the obligations themselves. But the a drugstore in winter bankrupt who, after a strict examination, has proved before proper judges, that either the fraud or losses of others, or misfortunes unavoidable by really, human prudence, have stript him of his substance; upon what barbarous pretence is he thrown into prison, and in winter essay deprived of the only remaining good, the range melancholy enjoyment of mere liberty? Why is he ranked with criminals, and in despair compelled to repent of his honesty? Conscious of his innocence, Edition: current; Page: [ 130 ] he lived easy and happy under the protection of those laws, which it is true, he violated, but not intentionally. Laws, dictated by the avarice of the rich, and accepted by the poor, seduced by that universal flattering hope which makes men believe, that all unlucky accidents are the lot of others, and the most fortunate only their share.
Mankind, when influenced by the first impressions, love cruel laws, although being subject to in winter essay, them themselves, it is the interest of every person that they should be as mild as possible; but the fear of essay and papers, being injured is always more prevalent than the intention of injuring others. But to return to a drugstore in winter, the honest bankrupt. Let his debt, if you will, not be considered as cancelled till the payment of the whole; let him be refused the grader liberty of leaving the country without leave of his creditors, or of carrying into another nation that industry which, under a penalty, he should be obliged to employ for their benefit; but what pretences can justify the depriving an in winter essay, innocent, though unfortunate man of his liberty, without the least utility to his creditors? But, say they, the hardships of confinement will induce him to discover his fraudulent transactions; an event that can hardly be supposed, after a rigorous examination of his conduct and Edition: current; Page: [ 131 ] affairs. But if they are not discovered, he will escape unpunished. It is, I think, a maxim of government, that the importance of the political inconveniences, arising from the impunity of a crime, are directly as the injury to the public, and inversely as the difficulty of proof. It will be necessary to distinguish fraud, attended with aggravating circumstances, from simple fraud, and that from perfect innocence. For the first, let there be ordained the same punishment as for forgery; for thesis, the second, a less punishment but with the loss of liberty; and if perfectly honest, let the bankrupt himself chuse the method of re-establishing himself, and of satisfying his creditors; or if he should appear not to have been strictly honest, let that be determined by his creditors: but these distinctions should be fixed by the laws, which alone are impartial, and not by the arbitrary and a drugstore dangerous prudence of judges.* Edition: current; Page: [ 132 ] With what ease might a sagacious legislator prevent the greatest part of fraudulent bankruptcies, and remedy the and papers online misfortunes that befal the honest and industrious! A public register of all contracts, with the liberty of consulting it, allowed to every citizen; a public fund formed by a contribution of the opulent merchants for the timely assistance of unfortunate industry, were establishments that could produce no real inconveniences, and in winter essay many advantages. But unhappily the most simple, the easiest, yet the wisest laws, that wait only for the nod of the legislator, to diffuse through nations wealth, power and felicity; laws which would be regarded by research, future generations with eternal gratitude, are either unknown or rejected.
A restless and trifling spirit, the timid prudence of the present moment, a distrust and aversion to the most useful novelties, possess the minds of those who are empowered to regulate the actions of mankind. Are sanctuaries just? Is a convention between nations, mutually to give up their criminals, useful? In the whole extent of essay, a political state, there should be no place independent of the laws. Their power should follow every subject, as the and papers online shadow follows the a drugstore in winter essay body. Sanctuaries, and impunity, differ only in degree, and as the effect of punishment depends more on their certainty, than their greatness, men are more strongly invited to crimes by essay online, sanctuaries, than they are deterred by punishment. To increase the in winter number of sanctuaries, is to erect so many little sovereignties; for, when the laws have no power, new bodies will be formed in opposition to the public good, and a spirit established contrary to that of the state. History informs us, that from the use of sanctuaries have arisen the greatest revolutions in kingdoms and in essay, opinions. Some have pretended, that in whatever country Edition: current; Page: [ 134 ] a crime, that is, an action contrary to in winter, the laws of society, be committed, the criminal may be justly punished for it in any other; as if the character of subject were indelible, or synonimous with, or worse than that of slave; as if a man could live in one country, and be subject to the laws of another, or be accountable for his actions to two sovereigns, or two codes of really good essay, laws, often contradictory. There are also who think, that an in winter, act of cruelty committed, for and papers, example, at Constantinople may be punished at Paris; for a drugstore essay, this abstracted reason, that he who offends humanity, should have enemies in all mankind, and be the about in your object of universal execration; as if judges were to be the knights-errant of human nature in general, rather than guardians of a drugstore, particular conventions between men. The place of punishment can certainly be no other, than that where the crime was committed; for the necessity of punishing an individual for the general good subsists there, and there only.
A villain, if he has not broke through the research conventions of a society of which, by my supposition, he was not a member, may be feared, and by force banished and excluded from that society; but ought not to be formally punished by the laws, which were only intended to maintain the social compact, Edition: current; Page: [ 135 ] and not to punish the intrinsic malignity of actions. Whether it be useful that nations should mutually deliver up their criminals? Although the certainty of there being no part of the in winter earth where crimes are not punished, may be a means of thesis online, preventing them, I shall not pretend to determine this question, until, laws more conformable to the necessities and rights of in winter essay, humanity, and until milder punishments, and the abolition of the arbitrary power of when about an experience life, opinion, shall afford security to virtue and innocence when oppressed; and until tyranny shall be confined to the plains of a drugstore in winter essay, Asia, and Europe acknowledge the universal empire of reason, by which the interests of sovereigns and driving range business subjects are best united. CHAPTER XXXVI.: OF REWARDS FOR APPREHENDING, OR KILLING CRIMINALS. Let us now inquire, whether it be advantageous to society, to set a price on the head of a criminal, and so to a drugstore essay, make of every citizen an executioner. Edition: current; Page: [ 136 ] If the offender hath taken refuge in another state, the driving range business plan sovereign encourages his subjects to commit a crime, and to expose themselves to a just punishment; he insults that nation, and a drugstore essay authorises the subjects to commit on their neighbours similar usurpations. If the criminal still remain in his own country, to set a price upon his head, is the strongest proof of the weakness of the government.
He who has strength to defend himself, will not purchase the essay introduction assistance of another. Besides, such an in winter, edict confounds all the essay and papers ideas of virtue and morality, already too wavering in the mind of a drugstore essay, man. At one time treachery is punished by the laws, at another encouraged. With one hand the legislator strengthens the really essay ties of kindred and friendship, and with the other rewards the violation of both. Always in a drugstore, contradiction with himself, now he invites the suspecting minds of men to mutual confidence, and now he plants distrust in every heart.
To prevent one crime, he gives birth to a thousand. Such are the expedients of weak nations, whose laws are like temporary repairs to a tottering fabric. On the contrary, as a nation becomes more enlightened, honesty and thermodynamics papers mutual confidence become more necessary, and are daily tending to unite with sound policy. Edition: current; Page: [ 137 ] Artifice, cabal, and a drugstore essay obscure and indirect actions are more easily discovered, and the interest of the good whole is better secured against the passions of the a drugstore in winter essay individual. Even the times of ignorance, when private virtue was encouraged by public morality, may afford instruction and example to more enlightened ages. But laws which reward treason, excite clandestine war, and mutual distrust, oppose that necessary union of morality and policy, which is the foundation of happiness and universal peace. CHAPTER XXXVII.: OF ATTEMPTS. ACCOMPLICES AND PARDON. The laws do not punish the intention; nevertheless an good essay introduction, attempt which manifests the intention of committing a crime, deserves a punishment, though less, perhaps, than if the crime were actually perpetrated. A Drugstore! The importance of preventing even attempts to commit a crime sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 138 ] authorises a punishment; but as there may be an interval of time between the attempt and good introduction the execution, it is proper to reserve the greater punishment for the actual commission, that even after the a drugstore in winter attempt there may be a motive for desisting. In like manner, with regard to the accomplices, they ought not to suffer so severe a punishment as the writing a reflective in your immediate perpetrator of the crime.
But this for a different reason. When a number of men unite, and run a common risk, the greater the danger, the more they endeavour to distribute it equally. Now, if the principals be punished more severely than the accessaries, it will prevent the danger from being equally divided, and will increase the difficulty of finding a person to execute the crime, as his danger is in winter, greater by the difference of the punishment. There can be but one exception to this rule; and review sat essay that is, when the principal receives a reward from the accomplices. In that case, as the difference of the danger is compensated, the punishment should be equal. These reflections may appear too refined to in winter, those who do not consider, that it is of great importance, that the laws should leave the associates as few means as possible of agreeing among themselves.
Edition: current; Page: [ 139 ] In some tribunals, a pardon is offered to good essay introduction, an accomplice in a great crime, if he discover his associates. This expedient has its advantages. The disadvantages are, that the a drugstore law authorises treachery, which is detested even by the villains themselves; and introduces crimes of cowardice, which are much more pernicious to a nation than crimes of courage. Courage is not common, and only wants a benevolent power to direct it to the public good. Cowardice, on the contrary, is a frequent self-interested, and contagious evil, which can never be improved into a virtue. When Writing About An Experience In Your Life! Besides, the tribunal, which has recourse to this method, betrays its fallibility, and the laws their weakness, by imploring the assistance of those by whom they are violated.
The advantages are, that it prevents great crimes, the effects of a drugstore in winter essay, which being public, and the perpetrators concealed, terrify the people. It also contributes to research, prove, that he who violates the laws, which are public conventions, will also violate private compacts. It appears to me, that a general law, promising a reward to every accomplice who discovers his associates, would be better than a special declaration in every particular case; because it would prevent the union of those villains, as it would inspire a mutual distrust, and Edition: current; Page: [ 140 ] each would be afraid of exposing himself alone to danger. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! The accomplice, however, should be pardoned, on condition of transportation. * * * * * But it is in vain, that I torment myself with endeavouring to extinguish the remorse I feel in attempting to induce the sacred laws, the thesis online monument of a drugstore in winter, public confidence, the foundation of human morality, to authorise dissimulation and perfidy. But what an example does it offer to a nation, to see the interpreters of the laws break their promise of pardon, and on the strength of learned subtleties, and to the scandal of public faith, drag him to punishment who hath accepted of their invitation! Such examples are not uncommon, and this is the reason, that political society is regarded as a complex machine, the springs of which are moved at pleasure by the most dexterous or most powerful.
CHAPTER XXXVIII.: OF SUGGESTIVE INTERROGATIONS. The laws forbid suggestive interrogations; that is, according to the civilians, questions which, with regard to the circumstances of the crime, are special when they should be general; or, in other words, those questions which, having an immediate reference to the crime, suggest to the criminal an immediate answer. Interrogations, according to the law, ought to lead to the fact indirectly and obliquely, but never directly or immediately. The intent of thermodynamics, this injunction is, either that they should not suggest to the accused an immediate answer that might acquit him, or that they think it contrary to nature that a man should accuse himself. But whatever be the motive, the laws have fallen into a palpable contradiction, in condemning suggestive interrogations, whilst they authorise torture. Can there be an interrogation more suggestive than pain? Torture will suggest to a robust villain an obstinate silence, that he may exchange a greater punishment for a less; Edition: current; Page: [ 142 ] and to a feeble man confession, to relieve him from the present pain, which affects him more than the a drugstore in winter essay apprehension of the future.
If a special interrogation be contrary to the right of nature, as it obliges a man to accuse himself, torture will certainly do it more effectually. But men are influenced more by the names than the nature of things. He who obstinately refuses to answer the interrogatories, deserves a punishment, which should be fixed by the laws, and that of the severest kind; that criminals should not, by their silence, evade the example which they owe the public. When Writing An Experience! But this punishment is not necessary when the guilt of the criminal is indisputable, because in that case interrogation is useless, as is likewise his confession, when there are, without it, proofs sufficient. This last case is most common, for experience shews, that in the greatest number of criminal prosecutions, the culprit pleads not guilty. CHAPTER XXXIX.: OF A PARTICULAR KIND OF CRIMES. The reader will perceive that I have omitted speaking of a certain class of crimes, which has covered Europe with blood, and essay raised up those horrid piles, from whence, midst clouds of whirling smoke, the when writing life groans of human victims, the crackling of their bones, and the frying of a drugstore in winter, their still panting bowels, were a pleasing spectacle and agreeable harmony to online, the fanatic multitude. But men of understanding will perceive, that the age and country in which I live will not permit me to inquire into a drugstore essay, the nature of this crime. It were too tedious, and foreign to my subject, to prove the necessity of a perfect uniformity of opinions in a state, contrary to the examples of many nations; to prove that opinions, which differ from one another only in some subtile and business obscure distinctions, beyond the reach of human capacity, may nevertheless disturb the public tranquillity, unless one only religion be established by a drugstore, authority; and that some opinions, by Edition: current; Page: [ 144 ] being contrasted and opposed to each other, in their collision strike out the thesis online truth; whilst others, feeble in themselves, require the support of a drugstore essay, power and authority.
It would, I say, carry me too far, were I to prove, that, how odious soever is the empire of force over the opinions of mankind, from whom it only obtains dissimulation followed by contempt; and princeton review sat essay grader although it may seem contrary to the spirit of humanity and brotherly love, commanded us by essay, reason, and sat essay authority, which we more respect, it is nevertheless necessary and indispensible. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! We are to believe, that all these paradoxes are resolved beyond a doubt, and are conformable to in your life, the true interest of mankind, if practised by a lawful authority. I write only of crimes which violate the laws of nature and the social contract, and in winter essay not of sins, even the temporal punishments of which must be determined from other principles than those of a limited human philosophy. CHAPTER XL.: OF FALSE IDEAS OF UTILITY. A principal source of errors and injustice, are false ideas of utility. For example; that legislator has false ideas of utility, who considers particular more than general conveniences; who had rather command the driving range business plan sentiments of mankind than excite them, and dares say to reason, #x201C;Be thou a slave;#x201D; who would sacrifice a thousand real advantages to the fear of an imaginary or trifling inconvenience; who would deprive men of the use of fire for fear of being burnt, and of water for fear of their being drowned; and who know of a drugstore in winter, no means of preventing evil, but by destroying it. The laws of in your life, this nature, are those which forbid to wear arms, disarming those only who are not disposed to commit the crime which the laws mean to prevent.
Can it be supposed, that those who have the courage to violate the most sacred laws of humanity, and the most important of the code, will respect the less considerable and arbitrary Edition: current; Page: [ 146 ] injunctions, the violation of which is essay, so easy, and of so little comparative importance? Does not the thermodynamics research execution of this law deprive the a drugstore in winter essay subject of that personal liberty, so dear to mankind and to the wise legislator; and does it not subject the innocent to all the disagreeable circumstances that should only fall on the guilty? It certainly makes the driving business plan situation of the assaulted worse, and the assailants better, and rather encourages than prevents murder, as it requires less courage to attack armed than unarmed persons. It is a false idea of utility, that would give to a multitude of sensible beings that symmetry and essay order, which inanimate matter is alone capable of receiving; to neglect the present, which are the only motives that act with force and essay online constancy on the multitude, for the more distant, whose impressions are weak and transitory, unless increased by that strength of imagination so very uncommon among mankind. Finally, that is a false idea of utility, which, sacrificing things to in winter, names, separates the public good from that of individuals.
There is this difference between a state of society and a state of nature, that a savage does no more mischief to another than is necessary to Edition: current; Page: [ 147 ] procure some benefit to himself; but a man in society is sometimes tempted, from plan, a fault in the laws, to essay, injure another, without any prospect of advantage. The tyrant inspires his vassals with fear and servility, which rebound upon sat essay, him with double force, and a drugstore are the cause of essay and papers online, his torment. Fear, the more private and domestic it is, the less dangerous is it to him who makes it the instrument of his happiness; but the more it is public, and the greater number of a drugstore essay, people it affects, the greater is the probability that some mad, desperate or designing person will seduce others to his party, by flattering expectations; and this will be the more easily accomplished, as the danger of the enterprize will be divided amongst a great number, because the value the unhappy set upon their existence is an experience, less, as their misery is greater. CHAPTER XLI.: OF THE MEANS OF PREVENTING CRIMES. It is better to prevent crimes than to punish them. This is the fundamental principle of good legislation, which is the art of conducting men to the maximum of happiness, and to the minimum of misery, if we may apply this mathematical expression to the good and evil of life. But the means hitherto employed for that purpose, are generally inadequate, or contrary to the end proposed. It is impossible to reduce the tumultuous activity of mankind to absolute regularity; for, midst the various and opposite attractions of pleasure and pain, human laws are not sufficient entirely to prevent disorders in society. Such, however, is the chimera of weak men, when invested with authority.
To prohibit a number of indifferent actions, is a drugstore in winter essay, not to prevent the crimes which they may produce, but to create new ones; it is to change at will the ideas of virtue and vice, which, at other times, we are told, are eternal and immutable. Review! To what a situation should we be Edition: current; Page: [ 149 ] reduced, if every thing were to be forbidden that might possibly lead to a crime? We must be deprived of the use of a drugstore essay, our senses. For one motive that induces a man to princeton sat essay grader, commit a real crime, there are a thousand which excite him to those indifferent actions, which are called crimes by bad laws. If then, the probability that a crime will be committed be in proportion to the number of motives, to in winter essay, extend the sphere of good essay, crimes will be to increase that probability. In Winter Essay! The generality of laws are only exclusive privileges; the tribute of all to the advantage of a few. Would you prevent crimes? Let the laws be clear and simple; let the entire force of the nation be united in their defence; let them be intended rather to favour every individual, than any particular classes of men; let the laws be feared, and the laws only. The fear of the laws is driving plan, salutary, but the fear of men is in winter essay, a fruitful and and papers fatal source of crimes.
Men enslaved are more voluptuous, more debauched, and more cruel than those who are in a state of freedom. Essay! These study the sciences, the interest of driving plan, nations, have great objects before their eyes, and imitate them; but those, whose views are confined to the present moment, endeavour, midst the distraction of riot and debauchery, to forget their situation; accustomed Edition: current; Page: [ 150 ] to the uncertainty of all events, for the laws determine none, the consequence of a drugstore in winter, their crimes becomes problematical, which gives an additional force to the strength of their passions. In a nation, indolent from the nature of the climate, the uncertainty of the laws confirms and increases men#x2019;s indolence and stupidity. Review Sat Essay! In a voluptuous but active nation, this uncertainty occasions a multiplicity of a drugstore essay, cabals and intrigues, which spread distrust and diffidence through the hearts of all, and dissimulation and treachery are the foundation of their prudence. In a brave and powerful nation, this uncertainty of the laws is at last destroyed, after many oscillations from liberty to slavery, and from slavery to liberty again. Would you prevent crimes? Let liberty be attended with knowledge. As knowledge extends, the disadvantages which attend it diminish, and Edition: current; Page: [ 151 ] the advantages increase. A daring impostor, who is always a man of some genius, is adored by the ignorant populace, and despised by men of understanding. Knowledge facilitates the comparison of objects, by shewing them in different points of view. When the clouds of ignorance are dispelled by the radiance of sat essay grader, knowledge, authority trembles, but the force of the laws remains immoveable.
Men of enlightened understanding must necessarily approve those useful conventions, which are the foundation of public safety; they compare, with the highest satisfaction, the inconsiderable portion of liberty of which they are deprived, with the sum total sacrificed by others for their security; observing that they have only given up the a drugstore in winter pernicious liberty of injuring their fellow-creatures, they bless the throne, and the laws upon which it is established. It is false that the sciences have always been prejudicial to mankind. When they were so, the evil was inevitable. The multiplication of the human species on the face of the earth introduced war, the rudiments of arts, and the first laws, which were temporary compacts arising from necessity, and perishing with it. This was the first philosophy, and its few elements were Edition: current; Page: [ 152 ] just, as indolence and want of writing a reflective essay in your life, sagacity, in the early inhabitants of the world, preserved them from error. But necessities increasing with the a drugstore in winter essay number of mankind, stronger and more lasting impressions were necessary to prevent their frequent relapses into a state of barbarity, which became every day more fatal. When Writing Essay An Experience! The first religious errors, which peopled the earth with false divinities, and created a world of a drugstore in winter essay, invisible beings to govern the research papers visible creation, were of the utmost service to mankind. The greatest benefactors to humanity were those who dared to deceive, and led pliant ignorance to the foot of the altar. By presenting to the minds of the vulgar, things out of the reach of their senses, which fled as they pursued, and always eluded their grasp; which, as they never comprehended, they never despised, their different passions were united, and attached to a drugstore, a single object. This was the binding first transition of all nations from their savage state.
Such was the necessary, and a drugstore perhaps the only bond of all societies at their first formation. I speak not of the chosen people of God, to whom the most extraordinary miracles, and essay the most signal favours, supplied the place of human policy. But as it is the nature of error to subdivide Edition: current; Page: [ 153 ] itself ad infinitum, so the pretended knowledge which sprung from it transformed mankind into a blind fanatic multitude, jarring and destroying each other in the labyrinth in which they were inclosed; hence it is not wonderful, that some sensible and philosophic minds should regret the ancient state of barbarity. This was the first epocha in which knowledge, or rather opinions, were fatal. The second may be found in the difficult and terrible passage from error to truth, from darkness to light.
The violent shock between a mass of errors, useful to the few and powerful, and in winter the truths so important to the many and thesis binding the weak, with the fermentation of passions excited on that occasion, were productive of infinite evils to essay, unhappy mortals. In the study of range plan, history, whose principal periods, after certain intervals, much resemble each other, we frequently find, in the necessary passage from the obscurity of ignorance to the light of philosophy, and from tyranny to liberty, its natural consequence, one generation sacrificed to the happiness of the next. But when this flame is extinguished, and a drugstore essay the world delivered from its evils, truth, after a very slow progress, sits down with monarchs on the throne, and is worshiped in the assemblies of Edition: current; Page: [ 154 ] nations. Shall we then believe, that light diffused among the people is more destructive than darkness, and that the knowledge of the relations of thermodynamics papers, things can never be fatal to mankind? Ignorance may indeed be less fatal than a small degree of knowledge, because this adds, to the evils of ignorance, the essay inevitable errors of a confined view of things on this side the driving business plan bounds of a drugstore, truth; but a man of enlightened understanding, appointed guardian of the laws, is the greatest blessing that a sovereign can bestow on a nation. Such a man is accustomed to behold truth, and not to fear it; unacquainted with the greatest part of those imaginary and range business plan insatiable necessities, which so often put virtue to a drugstore in winter, the proof, and accustomed to contemplate mankind from the most elevated point of view, he considers the nation as his family, and his fellow citizens as brothers; the distance between the great and when writing a reflective essay the vulgar appears to him the less, as the number of mankind he has in view is greater. The philosopher has necessities and interests unknown to the vulgar, and the chief of these is not to belie in public the principles he taught in obscurity, and the habit of loving virtue for its own sake. A few such philosophers would constitute the happiness of a nation; which however Edition: current; Page: [ 155 ] would be but of short duration, unless by good laws the in winter number were so increased as to lessen the probability of an essay online, improper choice.
Another method of preventing crimes is, to in winter, make the observance of the laws, and not their violation, the interest of the magistrate. The greater the number of those who constitute the tribunal, the less is the danger of corruption; because the binding online attempt will be more difficult, and the power and temptation of each individual will be proportionably less. If the sovereign, by pomp and the austerity of edicts, and by a drugstore in winter essay, refusing to driving plan, hear the complaints of the oppressed, accustom his subjects to respect the magistrates more than the laws, the magistrates will gain indeed, but it will be at the expence of public and essay private security. Yet another method of preventing crimes is, to reward virtue. Upon this subject the laws of business, all nations are silent. If the rewards, proposed by academies for a drugstore in winter, the discovery of useful truths, have increased our knowledge, and multiplied good books, is it not probable that rewards, distributed by the beneficent hand of a sovereign, would also multiply virtuous actions?
The coin of honour is inexhaustible, and is abundantly fruitful in the hands of a prince who distributes it wisely. Finally, the most certain method of preventing crimes, is to perfect the system of education. But this is an online, object too vast, and exceeds my plan; an object, if I may venture to declare it, which is in winter essay, so intimately connected with the nature of government, that it will always remain a barren spot, cultivated only by a few wise men. A great man, who is persecuted by that world he hath enlightened, and to whom we are indebted for many important truths, hath most amply detailed the principal maxims of useful education. This chiefly consists in presenting to the mind a small number of select objects; in substituting the originals for the copies, both of physical and moral phenomena; in leading the pupil to when essay about, virtue by the easy road of sentiment, and in withholding him from evil by the infallible power of necessary inconveniences, rather than by command, which only obtains counterfeit and momentary obedience. As punishments become more mild, clemency and pardon are less necessary. Happy the nation in which they will be considered as dangerous! Clemency, which has often been deemed a sufficient substitute for every other virtue in sovereigns, should be excluded in a perfect legislation, where punishments are mild, and the proceedings in criminal cases regular and expeditious. This truth will seem cruel to those who live in countries, where, from the absurdity of the laws, and the severity of punishments, pardons, and the clemency of the prince, are necessary. It is indeed one of the noblest prerogatives of the throne, but, at the same time, a tacit disapprobation of the laws. Clemency is a virtue which belongs to the legislator, and not to in winter, the executor of the laws; a virtue which ought to shine in the code, and not in private judgment.
To shew mankind, that crimes are sometimes pardoned, and that punishment is not the necessary consequence, is Edition: current; Page: [ 159 ] to nourish the flattering hope of impunity, and is the cause of their considering every punishment inflicted as an act of injustice and oppression. The prince, in pardoning, gives up the public security in favour of an individual, and, by his ill-judged benevolence, proclaims a public act of impunity. Let, then, the executors of the laws be inexorable, but let the research legislator be tender, indulgent and humane. He is a wise architect, who erects his edifice on the foundation of self-love, and contrives, that the interest of the public shall be the interest of each individual; who is not obliged by a drugstore, particular laws, and irregular proceedings, to separate the public good from that of individuals, and good erect the image of public felicity on the basis of fear and distrust; but, like a wise philosopher, he will permit his brethren to a drugstore in winter, enjoy, in quiet, that small portion of happiness, which the immense system, established by the first cause, permits them to taste on this earth, which is but a point in the universe. A small crime is sometimes pardoned, if the person offended chuses to forgive the offender. When A Reflective Essay Life! This may be an act of good nature and humanity, but it is contrary to a drugstore in winter, the good of the public. The right of punishing belongs not to any individual in particular, but to thesis binding online, society in general, or the a drugstore in winter essay Edition: current; Page: [ 160 ] sovereign. He may renounce his own portion of this right, but cannot give up that of others. I conclude with this reflection, that the severity of punishments ought to be in proportion to the state of the nation.
Among a people hardly yet emerged from barbarity, they should be most severe, as strong impressions are required; but in proportion as the minds of men become softened by their intercourse in society, the severity of punishments should be diminished, if it be intended, that the necessary relation between the and papers object and the sensation should be maintained. From what I have written results the following general theorem, of considerable utility, though not conformable to custom, the common legislator of nations. That a punishment may not be an act of violence, Edition: current; Page: [ 161 ] of one or of many, against in winter a private member of society, it should be public, immediate and necessary; the least possible in the case given; proportioned to the crime, and determined by the laws. A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: THE OCCASION OF THIS COMMENTARY. Having read, with infinite satisfaction, the little book on Crimes and Punishments, which in morality, as in medicine, may be compared to one of binding online, those few remedies, capable of alleviating our sufferings; I flattered myself that it would be a means of softening the remains of barbarism in the laws of many nations; I hoped for some reformation in mankind, when I was Edition: current; Page: [ 164 ] informed, that, within a few miles of a drugstore in winter, my abode, they had just hanged a girl of eighteen, beautiful, well made, accomplished, and of a very reputable family.
She was culpable of having suffered herself to be got with child, and also, of having abandoned her infant. This unfortunate girl, flying from her father#x2019;s house, is taken in essay, labour, and, without assistance, is a drugstore, delivered of her burden by the side of a wood. Shame, which in the sex is a powerful passion, gave her strength to princeton, return home, and to conceal her situation. She left her child exposed; it is found the next morning; the mother is discovered, condemned and a drugstore in winter essay executed. The first fault of this unhappy victim ought to have been concealed by the family, or rather claims the protection of the laws, because it was incumbent on thermodynamics papers, her seducer to repair the injury he had done; because weakness hath a right to indulgence; because concealing her pregnancy may endanger her life; because declaring her condition destroys her reputation, and in winter essay because the difficulty of driving range business plan, providing for her infant is a great additional misfortune. Her second fault is in winter essay, more criminal. She abandons the princeton grader fruit of in winter essay, her weakness, and review sat essay exposes it to perish.
Edition: current; Page: [ 165 ] But because a child is dead, is a drugstore in winter, it absolutely necessary to kill the mother? She did not kill the child. She flattered herself, that some passenger would have compassion on the innocent babe. It is even possible that she might intend to return and provide for it; a sentiment so natural in the breast of a mother, that it ought to be presumed. The law in really introduction, the country of which I am speaking is, indeed, positively against in winter essay her. But is it not an really good introduction, unjust, inhuman, and pernicious law? Unjust, because it makes no distinction between her who murders, and a drugstore in winter essay her who abandons her infant; inhuman, because it punishes with death a too great desire of concealing a weakness; pernicious, because it deprives the state of a fruitful subject, in a country that wants inhabitants. Charity hath not yet established, in that nation, houses of reception for exposed infants.
Where charity is wanting, the online law is always cruel. It were much better to prevent, than to think only of punishing these frequent misfortunes. A Drugstore Essay! The proper object of jurisprudence is, to hinder the commission of crimes, rather than condemn to death a weak woman, when it is evident that her transgression was unattended with malice, and binding online that she hath already been severely punished by the pangs of her own heart. Edition: current; Page: [ 166 ] Insure, as far as possible, a resource to those who shall be tempted to a drugstore in winter, do evil, and you will have less to essay and papers, punish. This misfortune, and this very hard law, with which I was so sensibly affected, prompted me to cast my eyes on the criminal code of nations. The humane author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments, had but too much cause to complain, that the latter frequently exceed the former, and are sometimes detrimental to the state they were intended to serve. Those ingenious punishments, the ne plus ultra of the a drugstore essay human mind, endeavouring to driving range business, render death horrible, seem rather the inventions of tyranny than of justice. The punishment of the wheel was first introduced in Germany in the times of a drugstore in winter essay, anarchy, when those who usurped the regal power resolved to Edition: current; Page: [ 167 ] terrify, with unheard-of torments, those who should dispute their authority. In England they ripped open the belly of a man guilty of really, high-treason, tore out his heart, dashed it in his face, and then threw it into the fire.
And wherein did this high-treason frequently consist? In having been, during a civil war, faithful to an unfortunate king; or, in having spoken freely on essay, the doubtful right of the conqueror. At length, their manners were softened; they continued to tear out the heart, but not till after the death of the offender. The apparatus is dreadful, but the thermodynamics research death is mild, if death can ever be mild. CHAPTER III.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF HERETICS. The denunciation of a drugstore in winter essay, death to thermodynamics research papers, those who, in in winter essay, certain dogmas, differed from the established church, was peculiarly the thermodynamics papers act of tyranny. No Christian emperor, before the tyrant Maximus, ever thought of a drugstore in winter, condemning a man to punishment Edition: current; Page: [ 168 ] merely for points of plan, controversy. It is true, indeed, that two Spanish bishops pursued to death the Priscilianists under Maximus; but it is also true, that this tyrant was willing to gratify the reigning party with the blood of heretics. Barbarity and justice were to him indifferent. Jealous of Theodosius, a Spaniard like himself, he endeavoured to deprive him of the empire of the East, as he had already obtained that of the West.
Theodosius was hated for his cruelties; but he had found the means of gaining to a drugstore in winter essay, his party the heads of the church. Maximus was willing to display the binding online same zeal, and to attach the Spanish bishops to his faction. He flattered both the old and the new religion; he was as treacherous as inhuman, as indeed were all those who at that time either pretended to, or obtained empire. That vast part of the world was then governed like Algiers at present. Emperors were created and dethroned by the military power, and were often chosen from among nations that were reputed barbarous. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! Theodosius opposed to about life, his competitor other barbarians from Scythia. In Winter Essay! He filled the range army with Goths, and surprised Alaric the conqueror of Rome.
In this horrible confusion, each endeavoured to strengthen his party by in winter, every means in when a reflective essay, his power. Edition: current; Page: [ 169 ] Maximus having caused the Emperor Gratian, the colleague of Theodosius, to essay, be assassinated at Lyons, meditated the destruction of Valentinian the second, who, during his infancy, had been made successor to Gratian. He assembled at Treves a powerful army, composed of Gauls and Germans. He caused troops to be levied in Spain, when two Spanish bishops, Idacio and Ithacus, or Itacius, both men of credit, came and demanded of him the thesis binding blood of essay, Priscilian, and all his adherents, who were of opinion, that souls were emanations from God; that the Trinity did not contain three hypostases; and moreover, they carried their sacrilege so far as to fast on Sundays. Maximus, half Pagan, and half Christian, soon perceived the enormity of these crimes. The holy bishops, Idacio and Itacius, obtained leave to driving range, torture Priscilian and his accomplices before they were put to in winter, death. They were both present, that things might be done according to order, and they returned blessing God, and numbering Maximus, the defender of the faith, among the saints. Princeton Sat Essay! But Maximus being afterward defeated by a drugstore essay, Theodosius, and assassinated at the feet of his conqueror, had not the good fortune to be canonized.
It is proper to observe, that Saint Martin, Edition: current; Page: [ 170 ] bishop of princeton review sat essay, Tours, who was really a good man, solicited the in winter essay pardon of Priscilian; but being himself accused of really good essay, heresy by the bishops, he returned to Tours, for fear of the torture at Treves. As to Priscilian, he had the consolation, after he was hanged, of being honoured by his sect as a martyr. His feast was celebrated, and would be celebrated still, if there were any Priscilianists remaining. This example made the entire church tremble; but it was soon after imitated and surpassed. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! Priscilianists had been put to death by the sword, the halter, and by lapidation. A young lady of quality, suspected to have fasted on a Sunday, was at Bourdeaux only stoned to death. These punishments appeared too mild; it was proved that God required that heretics should be roasted alive. The peremptory argument, in support of this opinion was, that God punishes them in that manner in the next world, and that every prince, or his representative, even down to a petty constable, is the image of God in this sublunary world. On this principle it was, that all over Europe they burnt witches and sorcerers, who were manifestly under the empire of the devil; and princeton review also heterodox Christians, which were deemed still more criminal and dangerous. Edition: current; Page: [ 171 ] It is not certainly known, what was the crime of those priests who were burnt at a drugstore in winter essay, Orleans in the presence of king Robert and his wife Constantia, in the year 1022.
How indeed should it be known? there being, at that time, but a small number of clerks and when essay an experience monks that could write. All we certainly know is, that Robert and his wife feasted their eyes with this abominable spectacle. One of the sectaries had been confessor to her majesty, who thought she could not better repair the in winter essay misfortune of having confessed to a heretic, than by seeing him devoured by the flames. Custom becomes law; from that period to the present time, a space of more than seven hundred years, the church hath continued to burn those that are guilty, or supposed guilty, of an error in opinion. CHAPTER IV.: ON THE EXTIRPATION OF HERESY. It seems necessary to good essay introduction, distinguish an heresy of opinion from faction.
From the essay first ages of Christianity opinions have been different. The Christians of Alexandria were, in many points, of a different opinion from those of Antioch. The Achaians differed from the Asiatics. This diversity of opinion existed from the beginning, and probably will continue for ever. Jesus Christ, who could have united all the faithful in the same sentiments, did it not; and princeton sat essay grader therefore we may conclude that it was not his design; but that he chose rather to exercise all his churches in a drugstore essay, acts of indulgence and charity, by permitting different systems, yet all agreeing to acknowledge him their lord and master. These several sects, so long as they were tolerated by the emperors, or concealed from their sight, had it not in their power to prosecute each other, being equally subject to the Roman magistrates; they could only dispute. If they were persecuted, they equally Edition: current; Page: [ 173 ] claimed the privilege of research, nature: #x201C;Suffer us,#x201D; they said, #x201C;to adore our God in peace, and a drugstore essay do not refuse us the liberty you grant to the Jews:#x201D; Every sect may now urge the same argument to their oppressors.
They may say to those who want privileges to the Jews; #x201C;Treat us as you treat the sons of Jacob; let us, like them, pray to really introduction, God according to our conscience. Our opinion will no more injure your state, than Judaism. You tolerate the enemies of Jesus Christ, tolerate us who adore him, and who differ from you only in theological subtleties. Do not deprive yourselves of useful subjects; useful in your manufactures, your marine, and the cultivation of your lands. Of what importance is it, that their creed be somewhat different from yours? You want their labour, and not their catechism?#x201D; Faction is quite a different thing. It always happens, that a persecuted sect degenerates into faction. A Drugstore In Winter! The oppressed naturally unite and animate each other; and are generally more industrious in strengthening their party, than their persecutors in their extermination. They must either destroy or be destroyed. So it happened after the persecution excited in 304, by Galerius, in the two last years of Dioclesian.
The Christians, having been favoured by that emperor Edition: current; Page: [ 174 ] during eighteen years, were become too numerous and too rich to life, be exterminated. They joined Chlorus; they fought for his son Constantine, and a total revolution of the empire was the consequence. Small events may be compared with great, when they are produced by the same spirit. In Winter Essay! Revolutions of a similar kind happened in Holland, in Scotland, and in Switzerland. When Ferdinand and Isabella drove the sat essay grader Jews out of Spain, where they were established not only before the reigning family, but before the Moors, the Goths, or even the essay Carthaginians; if the Jews had been as warlike as they were rich, they might easily, in conjunction with the Arabs, have effected a revolution. In short, no sect ever changed the government, unless excited by despair. Mahomed himself succeeded only because he was driven from Mecca, and essay and papers online a reward offered for his head. Would you prevent a sect from overturning the state, imitate the present wise conduct of England, of Germany, of Holland; use toleration. The only methods, in policy, to a drugstore in winter, be taken with a new sect, are, to put to death the thesis binding chief and in winter essay all his adherents, men, women, and children, without sparing one individual; or to tolerate them, when Edition: current; Page: [ 175 ] numerous. The first method is that of binding online, a monster; the second of a wise man.
Chain your subjects to the state by their interest. Let the Quaker and the Turk find their advantage in living under your laws. Religion is of God to man; the civil law is of you to your people. Lewis IX. king of France, who for his virtues was numbered among the saints, made a law against blasphemers. He condemned them to a new punishment; their tongues were pierced with a hot iron. It was a kind of retaliation; the sinning member suffering the punishment. But it was somewhat difficult to determine what was blasphemy. Expressions frequently escape from a man in a passion, from joy, or even in conversation, which are merely expletives, such as the sela and the vab of the Hebrews, the pol and in winter the Edition: current; Page: [ 176 ] #xE6;depol of the Latins, as also per Deos immortales, an sat essay, expression frequently used, without the least intention of swearing by the immortal gods. The words which are called oaths and blasphemy, are commonly vague terms that may be variously interpreted. The law by which they are punished, seems to a drugstore essay, be founded on that of the Jews, which says: Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
The best commentators are of opinion, that this commandment relates to perjury; and there is the more reason to essay, believe them right, as the word shave, which is translated in vain, properly signifies perjury. Now, what analogy can there be between perjury and a drugstore in winter essay Cabo de Dios, Cadedis, Sangbleu, Ventrebleu, Corpo de Dio, etc.? It was customary with the Jews to swear by introduction, the life of God, as the essay Lord liveth: the phrase was common; so that it was lying in when writing essay in your life, the name of God that was forbidden. Philip Augustus, in 1181, condemned the nobility who should pronounce the essay words which are softened in the terms Tetebleu, Ventrebleu, Corbleu, Sangbleu, to pay a fine, and the plebeians to be drowned. Research Papers! The first part of this law seems puerile, the latter abominable.
It was an outrage to nature, to drown one man for a crime for which another paid a few pence of the money of those Edition: current; Page: [ 177 ] times. So that this law, like many other, remained unexecuted, especially when the king was excommunicated, and his kingdom interdicted by Pope Celestine III. Saint Lewis, transported with zeal, ordered indiscriminately, that whosoever should pronounce these indecent words, should have his tongue bored, or his upper lip cut off. A citizen of Paris, having suffered this punishment, complained to Pope Innocent IV. This pontiff remonstrated to in winter essay, the king that the and papers online punishment was too great for the crime, which however had no effect upon his majesty. Happy had it been for mankind, if the popes had never affected any other superiority over kings. The ordinance of a drugstore in winter essay, Lewis XIV. says, #x201C;Those who shall be convicted of having sworn by, or blasphemed the holy name of God, of his most holy mother, or of his saints, shall, for princeton review sat essay, the first offence, pay a fine; for the second, third, and fourth, a double, triple, and quadruple fine; for the fifth, shall be put in the stocks; for the sixth, shall stand in the pillory, and lose his upper lip; for the seventh, shall have his tongue cut out.#x201D; This law appears to in winter essay, be humane and just, as it inflicts a cruel punishment only on a seven-fold repetition, which can hardly be presumed. Edition: current; Page: [ 178 ] But with regard to more atrocious profanations, which are called Sacrilege, the range plan criminal ordinance mentions only robbing of churches; it takes no notice of a drugstore essay, public impieties, perhaps because they were not supposed to happen, or were too difficult to specify.
They are left therefore to the discretion of the judge; and range plan yet nothing ought to a drugstore in winter, be left to discretion. In such extraordinary cases, how is the judge to act? He should consider the age of the essay and papers online offender, the nature and degree of his offence, and particularly the necessity of a public example. Pro qualitate person#xE6;, quoque rei conditione et temporis et #xE6;tatis et sexus, vel clementius statuendum. If the law does not expressly say that such a crime shall be punished with death, what judge shall think himself authorised to pronounce that sentence? If the law be silent; if nevertheless a punishment be required, the in winter judge ought certainly, without hesitation, to decree the least severe, because he is a man.
Sacrilegious profanations are never committed except by young debauchees. Online! Would you punish them as severely as if they had murdered a brother? Their youth pleads in their favour. They are not suffered to dispose of essay, their possessions, because they are supposed to good introduction, want maturity Edition: current; Page: [ 179 ] of judgment, sufficient to foresee the consequences of an imprudent transaction. Is it not therefore natural to suppose, that they are incapable of foreseeing the consequences of a drugstore in winter, their impiety? Would you treat a wild young man, who, in his phrenzy, had profaned a sacred image, without stealing it, with the really essay same rigour that you punished a Brinvilliers, who poisoned his father and his whole family? There is no law against the unhappy youth, and you are determined to make one that shall condemn him to the severest punishment! He deserved chastisement, but did he deserve such excruciating torture, and the most horrible death? But he had offended God! True, most grievously. Imitate God in your proceedings against him.
If he be penitent, God forgives him. Impose a penance, and let him be pardoned. Your illustrious Montesquieu hath said: It is our duty to honour the Deity, and not to revenge him. Let us weigh these words. They do not mean, that we should neglect the maintenance of a drugstore in winter, public decorum; but, as the judicious author of the preceding Essay observes, that it is absurd for an insect to pretend to revenge the Supreme Being. A village magistrate, or the thermodynamics research magistrate of a drugstore in winter essay, a city, is neither a Moses nor a Joshua. CHAPTER VI.: OF THE INDULGENCE OF THE ROMANS IN MATTERS OF RELIGION. The amazing contrast between the Roman laws, and the barbarous institutions by which they were succeeded, hath often been the subject of conversation among the speculative part of essay, mankind. Doubtless the a drugstore in winter Roman senate held the and papers supreme God in as great veneration as we; and professed as much esteem for their secondary deities as we for a drugstore essay, our saints.
Ab Jove principium was their common formule. Pliny, in his panegyric on the good Trajan, attests, that the Romans never omitted to begin their discourse and affairs by invoking the Deity. Cicero and Livy tell us the online same thing. No people were more religious; but they were too wise, and too great, to a drugstore essay, descend to the punishment of driving range plan, idle language or philosophic opinions. They were incapable of inflicting barbarous punishments on those who, with Cicero, himself an augur, had no faith in auguries; or Edition: current; Page: [ 181 ] on those who, like C#xE6;sar, asserted in full senate, that the gods do not punish men after death. It hath often been remarked that the essay senate permitted the chorus in the Troad to sing, There is nothing after death, and death itself is nothing. You ask, what becomes of the dead?
They are where they were ere they were born. * Was ever profanation more flagrant than this? From Ennius to online, Ausonius all his profanation, notwithstanding the respect for divine worship. Why were these things disregarded by the senate? Because they did not, in any wise, affect the government of the state; because they disturbed no institution, nor religious ceremony. The police of the Romans was nevertheless excellent; they were nevertheless absolute masters of the best part of the world, till the reign of Theodosius the second. It was a maxim of the Romans, Deorum offens#xE6;, Diis cur#xE6;, Offences against the gods concern the gods only. The senate, by the wisest institution, being at the head of religion, were under no apprehensions that a convocation of priests should force them to revenge the priesthood under a pretext of revenging Heaven. They never said, let us tear the impious asunder, lest we ourselves Edition: current; Page: [ 182 ] be deemed impious; let us shew the priesthood, by our cruelty, that we are no less religious than they. But our religion is in winter essay, more holy than that of the Romans, and consequently impiety is a greater crime.
Granted. God will punish it. The part of man is, to punish that which is criminal in the public disorder which the range business impiety hath occasioned. But if in the act of impiety the a drugstore in winter essay delinquent hath not even stolen a handkerchief; if the ceremonies of religion have been in range business plan, no wise disturbed, shall we, as I said before, punish the impiety as we would punish parricide? The Marshal d#x2019;Ancre had caused a white cock to essay, be killed when the essay online moon was at full: ought we therefore to burn the a drugstore in winter essay Marshal D#x2019;Ancre? Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines; Nec scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello. CHAPTER VII.: ON THE CRIME OF PREACHING; AND OF ANTHONY. A Calvanist teacher, who, in certain provinces, preaches to his flock, if he be detected, is punished with death; and those who have given him a supper, or a bed, are sent to the gallies for life. In other countries, if a Jesuit be caught preaching, he is hanged. Is it to avenge God that this Calvinist and this Jesuit are put to death?
Have both parties built upon princeton sat essay, the following Evangelical law? If he neglect to hear the in winter church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. But the Evangelist does not order that this heathen and this publican should be hanged. Or have they built on this passage in Deuteronomy:* If among you a prophet arise; and that which he hath said come to pass; and he sayeth unto you, let us follow strange gods; and if thy brother, or thy son, or thy wife, or the friend of thy heart, say unto thee, Come, let us follow strange gods: let them Edition: current; Page: [ 184 ] be straightways killed, strike thou first, and all the people after thee. But neither this Jesuit nor the Calvanist said unto you, Come, let us follow strange gods. The counsellor Dubourg, the monk Jehan Chouvin, named Calvin, the when a reflective essay about life Spanish physician Servetus, the Calabrian Gentilis, all worshipped the same God: and yet the president Minard caused counsellor Dubourg to be burnt; and Dubourg#x2019;s friends caused president Minard to be assassinated; Jehan Calvin caused the physician Servetus to be roasted; and had likewise the consolation to be a principal means of bringing the a drugstore in winter Calabrian Gentilis to the block; and the successors of Jehan Calvin burnt Anthony. Was it reason, or piety, or justice, that committed these murders? This history of Anthony is one of the most singular which the annals of phrenzy hath preserved. I read the following account in a very curious manuscript; it is in part related by Jacob Spon. Anthony was born at Brieu in Lorrain, of catholic parents, and he was educated by the Jesuits at sat essay, Pont a Mousson. The preacher Feri engaged him in a drugstore essay, the protestant religion at Metz.
Having returned to Nancy he was prosecuted as Edition: current; Page: [ 185 ] a heretic, and, had he not been saved by a friend, would certainly have been hanged. He fled for refuge to Sedan, where, being taken for a Papist, he narrowly escaped assassination. Seeing by what strange fatality his life was not in safety, either among Papists or Protestants, he went to Venice and online turned Jew. He was positively persuaded, even to the last moments of his life, that the religion of the Jews was the only true religion; for that, if it was once true, it must always be so. The Jews did not circumcise him, for fear of offending the state; but he was no less internally a Jew. He now went to a drugstore in winter, Geneva, where, concealing his faith, he became a preacher, was president of the college, and finally what is called a minister.
The perpetual combat in his breast between the when writing a reflective an experience religion of essay, Calvin, which he was obliged to preach, and that of thermodynamics, Moses, which was the only religion he believed, produced a long illness. He became melancholy, and at last quite mad, crying aloud, that he was a Jew. The ministers of the gospel came to visit him, and endeavoured to bring him to a drugstore, himself; but he answered, #x201C;that he adored none but the God of Israel; that it was impossible for God to change; that God could never have given a law, and inscribed it with his Edition: current; Page: [ 186 ] own hand, with an intention that it should be abolished.#x201D; He spoke against Christianity, and afterwards retracted all he had said, and even wrote his confession of online, faith, to escape punishment; but the unhappy persuasion of his heart would not permit him to a drugstore in winter essay, sign it. The council of the city assembled the clergy, to consult what was to be done with the unfortunate Anthony. The minority of these clergy were of opinion, that they should have compassion on him, and rather endeavour to cure his disease than punish him. The majority determined that he should be burnt, and when writing a reflective essay an experience he was burnt. This transaction is of the year 1632.* A hundred years of reason and virtue are scarce sufficient to expiate such a deed. CHAPTER VIII.: THE HISTORY OF SIMON MORIN. The tragical end of Simon Morin is a drugstore essay, not less horrible than that of poor Anthony. When Writing Essay An Experience! It was midst the feasting, pleasures, and gallantry of a brilliant court; it was even in the times of the greatest licentiousness, that this unfortunate madman was burnt at Paris, in the year 1663.
Imagining that he had seen visions, he carried his folly so far, as to believe that he was sent from God, and that he was incorporated with Jesus Christ. The Parliament very wisely condemned him to be confined in a drugstore, a mad-house. What was very remarkable, there happened to writing a reflective about in your, be confined in the same mad-house another fool, who called himself God the Father. Simon Morin was so struck with the folly of his companion, that he acknowledged his own, and appeared for a time to have recovered his senses. He declared his repentance, and, unfortunately for himself, obtained his liberty. Edition: current; Page: [ 188 ] Some time after, he relapsed into his former nonsense, and began to dogmatize. In Winter Essay! His unhappy destiny brought him acquainted with St.
Sorlin Desmarets, who, for some months, was his friend, but who afterwards, from jealousy, became his most cruel persecutor. This Desmarets was no less a visionary than Morin. His first follies indeed were innocent. He printed the Tragi-Comedies of Erigone and Mirame, with a translation of the Psalms; the Romance of essay and papers, Ariane, and the Poem of Clovis, with the office of the holy Virgin turned into verse. He likewise published dithyrambic poems, enriched with invectives against Homer and in winter essay Virgil. From this kind of follies he proceeded to others of a more serious nature.
He attacked Port-Royal, and after confessing that he had perverted some women to atheism, he commenced prophet. He pretended that God had given him, with his own hand, the range business key to the treasure of the Apocalypse, that with this key he would reform the whole world, and that he should command an essay, army of an hundred and forty thousand men against the Jansenists. Nothing could have been more reasonable and more just, than to have confined him in the same place with Simon Morin; but can it be Edition: current; Page: [ 189 ] believed, that he found credit with the Jesuit Annat, the king#x2019;s confessor? whom he persuaded, that this poor Simon Morin would establish a sect almost as dangerous as the Jansenists themselves. In short, carrying his infamy so far as to turn informer, he obtained an order to seize the person of his rival. Shall I tell it! Simon Morin was condemned to be burnt alive? In conducting him to the stake, there was found, in one of his stockings, a paper in which he begged forgiveness of God for essay and papers, all his errors.
This ought to have saved him; but no: the a drugstore sentence was confirmed, and he was executed without mercy. Such deeds are enough to when writing about, make a man#x2019;s hair bristle with horror. Yet where is the country that hath not beheld such shocking spectacles? Mankind universally forget that they are brothers, and in winter essay persecute each other even to death. Let us console ourselves with the hope, that such dreadful times are passed, never more to return. In the year 1748, in thermodynamics papers, the bishopric of Wurtsburg, an essay, old woman was convicted of when writing a reflective essay about life, witchcraft and essay burnt. This was an extraordinary phenomenon in the present century. But how incredible it seems, that a people, who boasted of their reformation, and of having trampled superstition under their feet, and who flattered themselves that they had brought their reason to perfection; is it not wonderful, I say, that such a people should have believed in witchcraft; should have burnt old women accused of this crime, and that above a hundred years after the pretended reformation of their reason?. In the year 1652, a country woman, named Michelle Chaudron, of the little territory of Geneva, met the devil in her way from the city. The devil gave her a kiss, received her homage, and imprinted on her upper lip and on her right breast, the princeton sat essay grader mark which he is wont to bestow upon his favourites.
This seal of the devil is a Edition: current; Page: [ 191 ] little sign upon the skin, which renders it insensible, as we are assured by all the demonographical civilians of those times. The devil ordered Michelle Chaudron to bewitch two young girls. She obeyed her master punctually. A Drugstore! The parents of the two girls accused her of dealing with the devil. Writing About In Your Life! The girls, being confronted with the criminal, declared, that they felt a continual prickling in some parts of their bodies, and that they were possessed. Physicians were called, at least men that passed for physicians in those days. They visited the girls. They sought for the seal of the devil on the body of Michelle, which seal is called, in the verbal process, the Satanical mark. Into one of these marks they plunged a long needle, which was already no small torture. In Winter! Blood issued from the wound, and Michelle testified by thesis binding, her cries that the part was not insensible.
The judges not finding sufficient proof that Michelle Chaudron was a witch, ordered her to be tortured, which infallibly produced the proof they wanted. The poor wretch, overcome by torment, confessed at last every thing they desired. The physicians sought again for the Satanical mark, and found it in a little black spot on a drugstore in winter, one of her thighs. Into this they plunged their Edition: current; Page: [ 192 ] needle. The poor creature, exhausted and almost expiring with the pain of the torture, was insensible to the needle, and did not cry out. She was instantly condemned to be burnt; but the world beginning at this time to good introduction, be a little more civilized, she was previously strangled. At this period every tribunal in Europe resounded with such judgments, and fire and faggot were universally employed against witchcraft as well as heresy. The Turks were reproached with having amongst them neither sorcerers, witches, nor demoniacs; and the want of the latter was considered as an infallible proof of the falsity of a drugstore in winter, their religion. A zealous friend to thermodynamics, the public welfare, to humanity, and to true religion, in one of a drugstore in winter essay, his writings in favour of innocence, informs us, that there have been above a hundred thousand witches condemned to die by Christian tribunals. If, to these lawful massacres, we add the much superior number of heretics sacrificed, our part of the globe will appear one vast scaffold covered with executioners and victims, and surrounded by judges, guards, and spectators.
CHAPTER X.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. It hath long since been observed, that a man after he is hanged is good for nothing, and that punishments invented for the good of society, ought to writing a reflective essay in your life, be useful to a drugstore in winter, society. It is evident, that a score of stout robbers, condemned for life to some public work, would serve the state in their punishment, and that hanging them is a benefit to nobody but the executioner. A Reflective An Experience In Your! Thieves, in England, are seldom punished with death, but are transported to a drugstore in winter essay, the colonies. This is also practised in Russia, where not one criminal was executed during the whole reign of the autocratical Elisabeth. Catherine II. Thesis Binding Online! who hath succeeded her, with much more genius, follows her example; yet crimes are not multiplied by this humanity; and it generally happens that the criminals sent to Siberia in time become honest people. The same is observed in the English colonies.
We are astonished at the change, and yet nothing can be more natural. The condemned are forced to Edition: current; Page: [ 194 ] continual labour for a livelihood. In Winter! The opportunities of vice are wanting. They marry and multiply. Oblige men to work, and you certainly make them honest. It is well known, that atrocious crimes are not committed in the country, unless when there is thesis binding, too much holiday, and consequently too much idleness, and consequently too much debauchery.
The Romans never condemned a citizen to death, unless for crimes which concerned the safety of the state. These our masters, our first legislators, were careful of the blood of their fellow-citizens; but we are extravagant with the blood of ours. The question hath been frequently debated, whether a judge ought to have the power to punish with death, when the punishment is undetermined by the law? This question was solemnly agitated in the presence of the Emperor Henry VII. who decreed that no judge should have such a power.* There are some criminal cases which are either so new, so complicated, and so unaccountable as to have escaped the provision of the laws, and which, therefore, in some countries are left to the discretion of the judge. Essay! But for one case in which the laws permit the death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 195 ] whom they have not condemned, there are a thousand wherein humanity should save whom the laws have condemned to range business, suffer. The sword of a drugstore in winter essay, justice is in our hands, but we ought rather to blunt than to sharpen its edge. It remains within its sheath in the presence of kings, to inform us that it ought seldom to be drawn. There have been some judges who were passionately fond of spilling human blood; such was Jefferies in essay, England, and such in France was the man whom they called Coupe-tete. Nature never intended such men for magistrates, but for executioners. Must we go to the end of the a drugstore world, must we have recourse to thermodynamics research, the laws of a drugstore, China, to online, learn how frugal we ought to be of human blood?
It is now more than four thousand years that the tribunals of that empire have existed; and it is also more than four thousand years that the Edition: current; Page: [ 196 ] meanest subject, at the extremity of the empire, hath not been executed without first transmitting his case to the emperor, who causes it to be thrice examined by one of his tribunals; after which he signs the death warrant, alters the sentence, or entirely acquits. But it is unnecessary to travel so far for examples of this nature; Europe will abundantly supply us. In England, no criminal is put to death, whose death warrant is not signed by the king. It is in winter, also practised in Germany, and in most parts of the north. Such likewise was formerly the custom in France, and such it ought to writing a reflective essay in your life, be in all polished nations. A sentence, at a distance from the throne, may be dictated by cabal, prejudice, or ignorance. Such little intrigues are unknown to monarchs, who are continually surrounded by great objects. The members of the a drugstore in winter supreme council are more enlightened, less liable to prejudice, and better qualified than a provincial judge, to binding, determine whether the state require severe punishments. In short, when inferior courts have judged according to the letter of the law, which possibly may be rigorous, the council mitigates the sentence according to the true spirit of all laws, which teaches, never to sacrifice a man, but in evident necessity. All mankind being exposed to the attempts of violence or perfidy, detest the crimes of which they may possibly be the victims: all desire that the principal offender and his accomplices may be punished; nevertheless, there is a natural compassion in the human heart, which makes all men detest the cruelty of torturing the a drugstore accused in order to extort confession.
The law has not condemned them, and yet, though uncertain of their crime, you inflict a punishment more horrible than that which they are to suffer when their guilt is confirmed. #x201C;Possibly thou mayst be innocent; but I will torture thee that I may be satisfied: not that I intend to make thee any recompence for the thousand deaths which I have made thee suffer, in lieu of that which is papers, preparing for thee.#x201D; Who does not shudder at the idea? St. Augustin opposed such cruelty. The Romans tortured their slaves only; and Quintilian, recollecting that they Edition: current; Page: [ 198 ] were men, reproved the Romans for such want of humanity. If there were but one nation in essay, the world which had abolished the use of torture; if in that nation crimes were no more frequent than in others; and if that nation be more enlightened and more flourishing since the abolition, its example surely were sufficient for the rest of the papers world. A Drugstore! England alone might instruct all other nations in this particular; but England is not the only nation. Torture hath been abolished in other countries, and with success; the question therefore is decided.
Shall not a people, who pique themselves on princeton review grader, their politeness, pride themselves also on their humanity? Shall they obstinately persist in a drugstore essay, their inhumanity, merely because it is an ancient custom? Reserve, at least, such cruelty for the punishment of those hardened wretches, who shall have assassinated the essay father of a family, or the father of his country; but that a young person, who commits a fault which leaves no traces behind it, should suffer equally with a parricide; is not this an useless piece of barbarity? I am ashamed of having said any thing on this subject, after what hath been already said by the author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments. Edition: current; Page: [ 199 ] I ought to in winter essay, have been satisfied with wishing, that mankind may read with attention the work of that friend to humanity. CHAPTER XIII.: OF CERTAIN SANGUINARY TRIBUNALS. Is it credible, that there formerly existed a supreme tribunal more horrible than the Inquisition, and that this tribunal was established by Charlemagne? It was the judgment of princeton, Westphalia, otherwise called the Vhemic Court.
The severity, or rather cruelty, of a drugstore essay, this court, went so far as to punish with death, every Saxon who broke his fast during Lent. The same law was also established in Franche-Comte, in the beginning of the essay online seventeenth century. In the archives of a little place called St. Claude, situated in a remote corner of the most mountainous part of the county of Burgundy, are preserved the particulars of the sentence and in winter essay verbal process of execution of a poor gentleman named Claude Edition: current; Page: [ 200 ] Guillon, who was beheaded on the 28th of July, 1629. Being reduced to the utmost poverty, and urged by the most intolerable hunger, he eat, on a fish-day, a morsel of horse flesh, which had been killed in a neighbouring field. This was his crime.
He was found guilty of sacrilege. Had he been a rich man, and had spent two hundred crowns in essay, a supper of sea-fish, suffering the poor to die of hunger, he would have been considered as a person fulfilling every duty. The following is a copy of his sentence: #x201C;Having seen all the papers of the process, and heard the opinions of the essay doctors learned in the law, we declare the said Claude Guillon to be truly attainted and online convicted of having taken away part of the flesh of a drugstore in winter, a horse, killed in really good introduction, the meadow of that town; of having caused the said flesh to be dressed, and of eating the same on Saturday the 31st of essay, March,#x201D; etc. What infamous doctors must these have been, who gave their opinions on this occasion? Was it among the Topinambous, or among the princeton review sat essay grader Hottentots, that these things happened? The Vhemic Court was yet more horrible.
Delegates from this court were secretly spread over all Germany, taking informations unknown to the accused, who were condemned without being heard; and frequently, Edition: current; Page: [ 201 ] in want of an executioner, the youngest judge performed the office himself.* It was requisite, in a drugstore in winter, order to be safe from the assassination of sat essay grader, this court, to procure letters of exemption from the emperor; and in winter even these were sometimes ineffectual. This chamber of assassins was not entirely abolished till the reign of research, Maximilian I. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! It ought to have been dissolved in the blood of its members. The Venetian Council of princeton review sat essay, Ten was, in comparison with this, a court of mercy. What shall we think of such horrid proceedings? Is it sufficient to bewail humanity? There were some cases that cried aloud for vengeance. CHAPTER XIV.: ON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLITICAL AND NATURAL LAWS. I call natural laws, those which nature dictates in all ages to all men, for the maintenance of that justice which she (say what they will of her) hath implanted in our hearts.
Theft, violence, homicide, ingratitude to essay, beneficent parents, perjury against innocence, conspiracies against one#x2019;s country, are crimes that are universally and justly punished, though with more or less severity. I call political laws, those that are made in business plan, compliance with present necessity, whether it be to a drugstore in winter essay, give stability to the government, or to prevent misfortune. For example; being apprehensive that the enemy may receive intelligence from the inhabitants of the city, you shut the gates, and forbid any one to really essay introduction, pass the essay ramparts on pain of death. Or, fearful of a new sect of people, who publicly disclaim all obedience to their sovereign, Edition: current; Page: [ 203 ] and secretly consult of means to divest themselves of that obedience; who preach, that all men are equal, and that obedience is due to God alone; who, accusing the reigning sect of superstition, mean to destroy that which is consecrated by the state; you denounce death against those who, in publicly dogmatizing in favour of this sect, may instigate the people to revolt. Or, two ambitious princes contend for a crown: the princeton strongest gains the prize, and punishes with death the partizans of the in winter weaker. The judges become the instruments of vengeance of the new sovereign, and the supports of his authority.
When Richard the Third, the research murderer of essay, his two nephews, was acknowledged king of England, the jury found Sir William Collinburn guilty of princeton review grader, having written to a friend of the Duke of Richmond, who was at that time raising an army, and who afterwards reigned by the name of Henry VII. They found two ridiculous lines of Sir William#x2019;s writing, which were sufficient to in winter, condemn him to a horrible death. History abounds with such examples of justice. The right of reprisal is also a law adopted by nations. For example, your enemy has hanged one of your brave captains, for having defended an range business plan, old ruined castle against a whole army. One Edition: current; Page: [ 204 ] of his captains falls into your hands; he is a worthy man, and you esteem him; nevertheless you hang him by way of reprisal. You say it is the law: that is to a drugstore, say, because your enemy has been guilty of an driving range business plan, enormous crime, you must be guilty of another.
These political sanguinary laws exist but for in winter essay, a time; they are temporary, because they are not founded in sat essay, truth. They resemble the necessity which, in cases of a drugstore in winter, extreme famine, obliges people to eat each other: they cease to eat men as soon as bread is to be had. CHAPTER XV.: ON THE CRIME OF HIGH-TREASON. Thermodynamics Research! ON TITUS OATES, AND ON THE DEATH OF AUGUSTIN DE THOU. High-treason is an a drugstore essay, offence committed against the security of the commonwealth, or of the and papers king its representative. It is considered as parricide, and therefore ought not to essay, be extended to thesis binding online, offences which bear no analogy to that crime. Edition: current; Page: [ 205 ] In making it high-treason to commit a theft in any house belonging to the state, or even to speak seditious words, you lessen the horror which the crime of high-treason ought to inspire. In our ideas of great crimes, there should be nothing arbitrary. If a theft from, or imprecation against, a father be considered as parricide, you break the bond of filial piety; the son will then regard his parent as a terrible monster. Every exaggeration in a law tends to its destruction. In common crimes, the laws of England are favourable to the accused; but in cases of a drugstore in winter, high-treason they are against him.
The Jesuit Titus Oates being legally interrogated in the House of Commons, and having upon his oath declared, that he had related the whole truth, yet afterwards accused the secretary of the Duke of York, and several others, of high-treason, and his information was admitted. Papers! He likewise swore before the king#x2019;s council, that he had not seen the secretary, and afterwards that he had. Notwithstanding these illegalities and contradictions, the secretary was executed. The same Titus Oates and another witness deposed, that fifty Jesuits had conspired to assassinate Charles II. and that they had seen commissions, Edition: current; Page: [ 206 ] signed by father Oliva, general of the Jesuits, for the officers that were to command an army of rebels. This evidence was sufficient to authorize the tearing out the essay hearts of several people, and dashing them in their faces. But seriously, can two witnesses be thought sufficient to convict a man whom they have a mind to destroy? At least one would imagine they ought not to be notorious villains; neither ought that which they depose to be improbable. Let us suppose that two of the review grader most upright magistrates in the kingdom were to accuse a man of having conspired with the Mufti, to circumcise the whole Council of State, the Parliament, the Archbishop and the Sorbonne; in vain these two magistrates might swear, that they had seen the letters of the Mufti: it would naturally be supposed that they were wrong in their heads. It was equally ridiculous to imagine, that the general of the Jesuits should raise an army in England, as that the Mufti intended to circumcise the Court of France.
But unhappily Titus Oates was believed; that there might remain no species of atrocious folly, which hath not entered into the heart of man. The laws of England do not consider as guilty of conspiracy those who are privy to a drugstore essay, it, and thesis do Edition: current; Page: [ 207 ] not inform. They suppose the informer as infamous as the a drugstore conspirator is culpable. In France, if any one be privy to a conspiracy, and does not reveal it, he is punished with death. Lewis XI. against whom conspiracies were frequent, made this law; a law which a Lewis XII. or a Henry IV. could never have imagined. It not only obliges an honest man to divulge a crime, which, by his resolution and advice, he might possibly prevent; but it renders him liable to be punished as a calumniator, it being easy for the accused to manage their affairs in such a manner as to elude conviction.
This was exactly the case of the truly respectable Augustin de Thou, counsellor of state, and son of the only good historian of which France can boast; equal to Guicciardini in point of abilities, and perhaps superior in point of impartiality. This conspiracy was against Cardinal de Richelieu, rather than against Lewis XIII. The design was not to betray France to an enemy; for the king#x2019;s brother, who was the principal author of the plot, could never intend to betray a kingdom to which he was the papers presumptive heir, there being only between him and the crown a dying brother, and two children in the cradle. Edition: current; Page: [ 208 ] De Thou was neither guilty in a drugstore, the sight of God nor man. One of the agents of the king#x2019;s brother, of the Duke of Bouillon, sovereign prince of Sedan, and of the grand Equerry d#x2019;Effiat St. Mars, had communicated their intention to de Thou, who immediately went to St. Mars, and endeavoured to dissuade him from the enterprize.
If he had informed against him, he had no proof, and must inevitably have fallen a sacrifice to business plan, the resentment of the presumptive heir of a sovereign prince, of the king#x2019;s favourite, and to public execration. In short, he would have been punished as a malignant calumniator. The chancellor Seguier was convinced of this in confronting de Thou with the grand Equerry, when de Thou asked the latter the following question: #x201C;Do you not remember, Sir, that there never passed a day, in a drugstore, which I did not endeavour to dissuade you from the attempt?#x201D; St. Mars acknowledged it to be true. Thesis! So that de Thou deserved a recompence, rather than death, from a tribunal of Equity. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! He certainly deserved to have been saved by Cardinal Richelieu; but humanity was not his virtue. Good! There is in this case something more than summum jus summa injuria. In the sentence of this worthy man we read, #x201C;for having had knowledge and participation Edition: current; Page: [ 209 ] of the said conspiracy.#x201D; It does not say for essay, not having revealed. So that his crime was, his having been informed of a crime; and he was punished for having had ears and eyes. All that we can say in thermodynamics, extenuation of the severity is, that it was not the act of Justice herself, but of a delegated power. The letter of the law was positive; but I appeal not only to the lawyers, but to all mankind, whether the spirit of the law was not perverted?
It is a drugstore essay, a melancholy absurdity, that a small number of people should condemn as criminal, a man judged innocent by a whole nation, and worth their esteem! CHAPTER XVI.: OF RELIGIOUS CONFESSION. Jaurigny and Balthazar Gerard, who assassinated William I. Princeton Review Sat Essay! Prince of Orange; Clement the a drugstore essay Dominican, Chatel, Ravaillac, and all the driving range business plan other parricides of those times, went to confession before they committed their crimes. A Drugstore! Fanaticism, Edition: current; Page: [ 210 ] in that deplorable age, was carried to such excess, that confession was an additional engagement to the perpetration of villainy; an engagement deemed sacred, because confession is a sacrament. Strada himself says, that Jaurigny non ante facinus aggredi sustinuit quam expiatam necis animam apud Dominicanum sacerdotem c#xE6;lesti pane firmaverit. It appears in the interrogatory of Ravaillac that coming from the Feuillants, and going towards the Jesuits college, he addressed himself to the Jesuit d#x2019;Aubigny; that after talking to him of several apparitions which he had seen, he shewed him a knife, on the blade of which was engraved a heart and a cross; and that he said, this heart signifies, that the heart of the king should be induced to driving range business plan, make war against the Huguenots. If this d#x2019;Aubigny had informed the king of these words, and described the in winter essay man, the research best of kings might possibly have escaped assassination. On the 20th of August, 1610, three months after the death of Henry IV. whose wounds were yet bleeding in a drugstore in winter, the hearts of thesis binding, his subjects, the a drugstore in winter essay advocate-general Servin, of illustrious memory, required that the really good essay introduction Jesuits should be obliged to sign the four following articles: I. That the Council is superior to the Pope.
Edition: current; Page: [ 211 ] II. That the Pope cannot deprive the king of any of a drugstore, his rights by excommunication. III. That the ecclesiastics are, like other people, entirely subject to the king. IV. That a priest who, by confession, is apprized of driving range plan, a conspiracy against the king or the state, should reveal it to the magistrates.
On the 22d, the parliament published an arret, forbidding the Jesuits to instruct youth, until they had signed those four articles. But the court of Rome was at that time so powerful, and that of France so weak, that the arret was disregarded. It is worth notice, that this court of Rome, which would not suffer confession to a drugstore in winter essay, be revealed when the life of a sovereign was concerned, obliged the confessors to inform the Inquisition in case any female should accuse another priest of having seduced or attempted to seduce her. Paul IV. Pius IV.
Clement VIII. and Gregory XV. ordered this revelation. It was a dangerous snare both for essay and papers, the confessor and the penitent. It was converting a sacrament into a register of a drugstore essay, accusations and sacrilege; for by the sat essay grader ancient canons, and particularly by the Lateran council, under Innocent III. every confessor who reveals confession, of whatsoever nature it may be, shall be interdicted and imprisoned for life. Edition: current; Page: [ 212 ] Thus we see four different Popes, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, ordering the revelation of a sin of a drugstore in winter, impurity, and forbidding it in cases of thermodynamics research papers, parricide. A woman confesses, or supposes in her confession to a Carmelite, that a Cordelier attempted to seduce her; the Carmelite must impeach the Cordelier.
A fanatical assassin, believing that he shall serve God by killing his prince, consults his confessor on a drugstore essay, this case of conscience; the confessor is guilty of sacrilege if he save the life of his sovereign. This horrible absurdity is one of the unhappy consequences of the continual opposition, which hath subsisted for so many ages, between the ecclesiastical and civil law. Mankind have in a thousand instances been suspended between the crimes of sacrilege and high-treason, and the distinctions of right and wrong have been buried in a chaos, from which they are not yet emerged. Confession of in your, sins hath been authorised in a drugstore in winter essay, all times and in binding online, all nations. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! The ancients accused themselves in the mysteries of Orpheus, of Isis, of Ceres, of Samothrace.
The Jews confessed their sins on the day of solemn expiation, and still continue the same practice. Each penitent chuses his confessor, who becomes his penitent in when about in your life, turn, and each receives from his companion Edition: current; Page: [ 213 ] thirty-nine lashes whilst he is repeating, three times, the formule of confession, which consists only in thirteen words, and which consequently must be general. None of these confessions were particular, and consequently could never serve for a pretence to those secret consultations, under the shadow of which fanatical penitents think to sin with impunity; a pernicious practice, by which a salutary institution is corrupted. Confession, which was intended as a curb to iniquity, hath frequently, in times of confusion and seduction, become an incentive to wickedness. Probably it was for this reason, that so many Christian states have abolished a holy institution, which appeared to be as dangerous as useful. The crime of coining false money is deemed high-treason in the second degree, and justly.
To rob all the people is to be a traitor to the state. But it is asked whether a merchant who imports ingots of gold from America, and privately converts them into good money, be guilty of high-treason, and merit death? which is the punishment annexed to this crime in almost all countries. Nevertheless, he has robbed nobody; on a drugstore in winter, the contrary, he has done service to the state by increasing the essay online currency. In Winter Essay! But he hath defrauded the king of the small profit upon the coin. He hath indeed coined good money; but he hath led others into thesis, the temptation of coining bad. A Drugstore! Yet death is a severe punishment. I knew a lawyer who was of opinion, that such a criminal should be condemned, as a useful hand, to work in the royal mint, with irons to driving range plan, his legs. In countries where a trifling domestic theft, or breach of trust, is punished with death, is not the disproportioned punishment dangerous to society? Is it not even an encouragement to larceny? If, in this case, a master prosecutes his servant, and the unhappy wretch suffer death, the whole neighbourhood hold the master in abhorrence: they perceive that the law is contrary to nature, and a drugstore in winter consequently that it is a bad law. What is the result?
Masters, to good, avoid opprobrium, content themselves with discharging the thief, who afterwards steals from in winter, another, and gradually becomes familiar with dishonesty. The punishment being the same for a small theft as for a greater, he will naturally steal as much as he can, and at last will not scruple to thermodynamics research papers, turn assassin to prevent detection. If, on a drugstore essay, the contrary, the punishment be proportioned to the crime; if those who are guilty Edition: current; Page: [ 216 ] of a breach of trust be condemned to labour for the public, the master will not hesitate to bring the offender to justice, and the crime will be less frequent: so true it is, that rigorous laws are often productive of crimes. The celebrated Du Verger de Hauranne, Abb#xE8; de St. Cyran, one of the and papers founders of a drugstore, Port Royal, in essay, the year 1608, wrote a treatise on suicide, which is essay, become one of the scarcest books in driving range, Europe. #x201C;The Decalogue,#x201D; says that author, #x201C;forbids us to commit murder; in which precept self-murder seems no less to be understood, than the in winter essay murder of another: if, therefore, there be cases in which it is lawful to binding online, kill another, there may be cases also wherein suicide may be allowed. But a man ought not to attempt his own life, till after having consulted his reason. Public Edition: current; Page: [ 217 ] authority, which is the representative of God, may dispose of a drugstore in winter, our lives. The reason of man may also represent that of the Deity, it being a ray of the eternal light.#x201D;
St. Cyran extends his argument to a great length, which after all is a mere sophism. But when he comes to exemplify, he is not quite so easily answered. #x201C;A man may kill himself,#x201D; says he, #x201C;for the good of his prince, for the good of his country, or for the good of his parents.#x201D; It does not appear, that we could with justice condemn a Codrus, or a Curtius. What prince would dare to punish the family of a man who had sacrificed himself for his service? Or rather, is there any prince who would dare not to reward them. St. Thomas, before St. Cyran, said the same thing. But there was no need of when writing essay about life, either of Thomas, of Bonaventure, nor of Huranne, to a drugstore essay, inform us, that a man who dies for his country deserves our praise.
St. Cyran concludes, that it is lawful to do for one#x2019;s own sake, that which is praise-worthy if done for another. The arguments of Plutarch, of Seneca, of Montaigne, and a hundred others, are well known. I do not pretend to apologise for an action which the laws have condemned; but I do not recollect, that either the Old or Edition: current; Page: [ 218 ] New Testament forbid a man to relinquish his life, when it is no longer supportable. By the Roman laws, suicide was not forbidden; on the contrary, in a law of Mark Antony, which was never repealed, we find it thus written: #x201C;If your brother or your father, being convicted of no crime, hath put himself to death, either to avoid pain, or being weary of life, or from despair or madness, his will shall nevertheless be valid, or his heirs inherit according to law.#x201D; Notwithstanding this humane law of essay and papers online, our ancient masters, we ordain, that a stake shall be driven through the corps of the offender, and his memory becomes infamous. We do all in our power to a drugstore in winter essay, dishonour his family. We punish a son for sat essay grader, having lost a father, and a widow because she is deprived of her husband.
We even confiscate the effects of the deceased, and rob the living of that which is justly their due. This custom, with many others, is derived from our canon law, which denies Christian burial to a drugstore in winter, those who are guilty of suicide, concluding thence, that it is not lawful to inherit on an experience in your life, earth from one who hath himself no inheritance in heaven. The cannon law assures us, that Judas committed a greater crime in hanging himself, than in betraying Jesus Christ. CHAPTER XX.: ON A CERTAIN SPECIES OF MUTILATION. We find, in the Pandect, a law of Adrian, which denounces death to the physicians who should make an eunuch, either by castration or by bruising the testes. By the a drugstore essay same law, the possessions of those who suffered castration were confiscated. Origen ought certainly to have been punished, who submitted to this operation, from the rigid interpretation of driving range business, that passage in St. Matthew, which says, There be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven#x2019;s sake. Things changed in the reigns of succeeding emperors, who adopted the essay luxury of Asia; especially in the lower empire of Constantinople, where eunuchs became patriarchs and generals of armies. In these our own times, it is the custom at sat essay, Rome to castrate young children, to render them worthy of being musicians to his Holiness; so that Castrato and in winter essay Musico del Papa are synonimous. Range Business! It is not long since you might have seen at Naples, Edition: current; Page: [ 220 ] written in great letters over the doors of certain barbers, Qui si castrano mar avigliosamente i puti: here boys are castrated in the best manner.
It is a maxim received at the bar, that he who forfeits his life forfeits his effects; a maxim which prevails in a drugstore essay, those countries where custom serves instead of law. So that, as we have already observed, the children of one who puts an end to his own life, are condemned to driving range business plan, perish with hunger, equally with those of an assassin. Thus, in a drugstore, every case, a whole family is punished for the crime of an individual. Thus when the binding online father of a family is condemned to the gallies for life, by an arbitrary sentence, whether it be for having harboured a preacher, or for hearing his sermon in essay, a cavern or a desert, his wife and children are reduced to beg their bread. That law which consists in depriving an orphan Edition: current; Page: [ 221 ] of support, and in giving to one man the possessions of papers, another, was unknown in in winter essay, the times of the thermodynamics research papers Roman republic. It was first introduced by Sylla, in his proscriptions, whose example one would scarce have thought worthy imitation. Nor indeed was this law adopted by Cesar, by a drugstore essay, Trajan, or by Antoninus, whose name is still pronounced with respect by all nations; and under Justinian, confiscation took place only in case of princeton sat essay, high-treason.
It seems that, in a drugstore in winter, the times of feudal anarchy, princes and lords not being very rich, sought to increase their revenue by the condemnation of thermodynamics papers, their subjects. Essay! Their laws being arbitrary, and the Roman jurisprudence unknown, customs either cruel or ridiculous prevailed. But now that the power of when essay about an experience, princes is founded on immense and in winter certain revenues, there can be no need to swell their treasuries with the essay inconsiderable wreck of an unfortunate family. In countries where the Roman law is established, confiscation is not admitted, except within the jurisdiction of the parliament of essay, Toulouse. It was formerly the law at Calais, but was abolished by the English, whilst that city was in their possession. Princeton Review Sat Essay! It is strange, that the inhabitants of the a drugstore essay capital should be subject to a severer law Edition: current; Page: [ 222 ] than the people in the country: but laws, like the cottages in a village, were generally established by accident, and without attention to business plan, the regularity of a drugstore in winter essay, a general plan. Who would believe that, in the year 1673, in the most brilliant period of the princeton review sat essay grader kingdom of a drugstore in winter, France, the advocate-general, Omer Talon, did in thermodynamics papers, full parliament express himself, on in winter, the subject of a young lady named Canillac, in the following words: #x201C;God says, in when writing a reflective an experience in your, the 13th chapter of Deuteronomy, If thou comest into a city where idolatry reigneth, thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly and all that is therein.
And thou shalt gather all the a drugstore spoil thereof into the midst of the street, and shalt burn with fire the online city, and all the spoil thereof, for the Lord thy God; and it shall be an a drugstore in winter, heap for princeton review, ever; and there shall cleave nought of the cursed thing to thine hand.#x201D; #x201C;In like manner, in the crime of high-treason, the children were deprived of their inheritance, which became forfeited to the king. Naboth being prosecuted quia maledixerat regi, king Ahab took possession of his effects. David being informed that Mephibosheth had rebelled, gave all his possessions to Ziba who brought him the news: tua sint omnia qu#xE6; fuerunt Mephibosheth. #x201D; Edition: current; Page: [ 223 ] The question in dispute was, who should inherit the paternal estate of in winter, Mlle. de Canillac, which having been confiscated, was abandoned by the king to a lord of the treasury, and afterwards bequeathed by him to the testatrix. In this cause concerning a girl of Auvergne it was, that an advocate-general referred to Ahab, king of essay and papers, a part of Palestine, who confiscated the vineyard of Naboth, after assassinating the a drugstore owner with the sword of justice: an action so abominable as to have passed into a proverb, intended to inspire mankind with detestation for really essay, such acts of tyranny. There was certainly no analogy between the vineyard of Naboth and the inheritance of Mlle. de Canillac; nor hath the murder and confiscation of the possessions of Mephibosheth, the grandson of Saul, and son of Jonathan, the friend and protector of David, the least affinity with the will of a drugstore essay, this lady.
It was with such pedantry, with such foolish quotations foreign to the subject, with such ignorance of the first principles of human nature, with such prejudices ill conceived and ill applied, that laws have been explained and executed, by men who acquired reputation in their sphere. I leave to the reader that, which to tell him were superfluous. CHAPTER XXII.: ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, AND OTHER FORMS. If, in France, it should ever happen that the laws of humanity soften some of our rigorous customs, without facilitating the commission of crimes, we may hope for reformation in those legal proceedings, wherein our legislators seem to have been influenced by too much severity. Our criminal procedure appears in many instances to point only at online, the destruction of the in winter essay accused. Thesis Binding! It is the only law which is uniform throughout the in winter essay whole kingdom; a law which ought certainly to be no less favourable to the innocent, than terrible to the guilty. In England a man may recover damages for false imprisonment. In France, on the contrary, an research papers, innocent person, who has had the misfortune to be thrown into a dungeon and tortured almost to death, has no consolation, no damages to hope for, no action against any one; and to add to his misfortune, he has for ever lost his reputation.
Why? Because his joints have been dislocated; Edition: current; Page: [ 225 ] a circumstance which ought rather to inspire compassion and respect. The discovery of crimes, say they, requires severity: it is a war of a drugstore in winter essay, human justice against iniquity. But there is generosity and compassion even in war. Really Good Essay Introduction! The brave are ever compassionate; and shall the law delight in barbarity? Let us compare the criminal procedure of the Romans with ours. With them, the evidence were heard publicly in presence of the accused, who might answer or interrogate them, or employ counsel. This procedure was open and noble; it breathed Roman magnanimity. With us, all is conducted in secret. A Drugstore In Winter! A single judge, only attended by his clerk, hears each witness separately.
This custom, established by Francis I. was confirmed by the commissioners who were employed to digest the ordinance of Lewis XIV. in 1670; which confirmation was entirely owing to a mistake. They imagined, in reading the code de Testibus, that the words testes intrare judicii secretum, signified that the witnesses were examined in private; but secretum means here the research papers chamber of the judge. In Winter Essay! Intrare secretum, if intended to signify private interrogation, would be false Latin. This part of our law therefore is founded on a solecism. Edition: current; Page: [ 226 ] The evidence in these cases are commonly the dregs of the people, whom the judge may, in such private examination, make say whatever he pleases. They are examined a second time, but still privately; and if, after this re-examination, they retract from their deposition, or vary in any material circumstance, they are punished as false evidence. So that if a simple honest fellow, recollecting that he has said too much, that he misunderstood the judge, or the judge him, revoke his deposition from a principle of justice, he is punished as a reprobate.
The natural consequence of this is, that men will confirm a false testimony rather than expose themselves, for their honesty, to certain punishment. The law seems to oblige the magistrate to be the enemy of the accused, rather than his judge; it being left in binding, the power of the magistrate to essay, confront the evidence with the accused, or not, as he shall think proper. Amazing! that so necessary a part of the procedure should be left undetermined. A man being suspected of princeton grader, a crime, knowing that he is denied the a drugstore in winter benefit of counsel, flies his country; a step to thermodynamics research, which he is encouraged by every maxim of the law. But he may be condemned in his absence, whether the essay crime be Edition: current; Page: [ 227 ] proved or not.
Strange laws! If a man be charged with owing a sum of money, before he can be condemned to pay the demand, it is required that the debt be proved; but if his life be in question, he may be condemned, by default, without any proof of the crime. Is money then of sat essay grader, more importance than life? O ye judges and legislators! Consult the in winter pious Antoninus, and the good Trajan: they suffered not the binding absent to be condemned. Do your laws then allow the privilege of counsel to an extortioner, or a fraudulent bankrupt, and refuse it to in winter, one who may possibly be a very honest and honourable man? If there ever were an instance of innocence being justified by means of counsel, the law, which deprives the accused of that benefit, is evidently unjust. The parliament of Toulouse hath a very singular custom relative to the validity of evidence. In other places demi-proofs are admitted, which is a palpable absurdity, there being no such thing as demi-truth; but at Toulouse they admit of quarters and eighths of a proof. For instance, an hearsay may be considered as a quarter, and another hearsay, more vague than the essay and papers former, as an eighth: so that eight hearsays, which in fact are no other than an echo of a groundless report, Edition: current; Page: [ 228 ] constitute a full proof.
Upon this principle it was, that poor Calas was condemned to the wheel. CHAPTER XXIII.: THE IDEA OF REFORMATION. Magistrates are in themselves so respectable, that the inhabitants of the a drugstore in winter only country in which they are venal, sincerely pray to be delivered from this custom: they wish that the civilian may by his merit establish that justice, which in his writings he hath so nobly defended. We may then possibly hope to binding, see a regular and uniform system of laws. Shall the law of the provinces be always at variance with the law in the capital? Shall a man be right in Britanny, and wrong in Languedoc? Nay, there are as many laws as there are towns; and, even in the same parliament, the maxims of one chamber are not the maxims of another. Edition: current; Page: [ 229 ] What astonishing contrariety in the laws of one kingdom! In Paris, a man who has been an inhabitant during one year and a day, is reputed a citizen. In Franche-Comte, a freeman who, during a year and a day, inhabits a house in mortmain, becomes a slave; his collateral heirs are excluded from inheriting his foreign acquisitions, and even his children are deprived of their inheritance, if they have been a year absent from the house in which the father died.
This province is called Franche, but where is their freedom? Were we to attempt to draw a line between civil authority and ecclesiastical customs, what endless disputes would ensue? In short, to what side soever we turn our eyes, we are presented with a confused scene of contradictions, uncertainty, hardships, and in winter essay arbitrary power. In the present age, we seem universally aiming at perfection; let us not therefore neglect to perfect the range business plan laws, on which our lives and fortunes depend. It may be alledged, that the interest of commerce and property should be secured; but commerce and property are not the end of the a drugstore in winter essay social compact, but the means of obtaining that end; and to oppose all the members of society to cruel laws, to preserve them from evils, necessarily occasioned by the infinite combinations which result from the actual state of political societies, would be to make the end subservient to the means, a paralogism in all sciences, and particularly in politics. Research! In the former editions of this work, I myself fell into this error, when I said that the honest bankrupt should be kept in custody, as a pledge for his debts, or employed as a slave to work for his creditors. I am ashamed of having adopted so cruel an opinion. I have been accused of impiety; I did not deserve it. Essay! I have been accused of sedition; I deserved it as little. But I insulted all the rights of humanity, and was never reproached. Post mortem nihil est, mors ipsaque nihil, etc.
Seneca. Spon, p. Essay And Papers! 500. Guy Vances. Boudin de Republica, lib. iii, c. 5. See the excellent abridgement of the in winter essay chronological history and laws of plan, Germany, an. 803. Copyright ©2004 - 2017 Liberty Fund, Inc.
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Essay Reviews: Essay: "A Drugstore in Winter " Cynthia Ozick 1982
Top 10 Details to Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of nursing resumes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of a drugstore in winter them were missing multiple details that were important to the Nurse Managers and Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for making the hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to a lower ranking within the Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in today’s hiring process. Thermodynamics Research! We hope the in winter, information provided here will help you create an amazing resume! First, it’s important to have an idea of princeton sat essay grader how the hiring process typically works in order to in winter, thoroughly understand the essay, importance of these critical details. When a job opens up to the general public, the healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of resumes.
In some cases, the resumes are electronically ranked by Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for resumes that include the critical skills and experiences sought for the job. In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the rankings and resumes and pass along the “best” candidates to a drugstore in winter essay, the hiring managers. Binding Online! It’s important to note that being the “best” often means having a resume with all the a drugstore in winter essay, critical details. If the information isn’t there, then the resume stands a far greater chance of being removed from the writing a reflective essay about an experience, process. It’s important to note that missing these details is in winter not the nurse’s fault. Unfortunately, the vast majority of informational resources pertaining to resumes is very general in nature. General resources are useful only for people with very general careers like “Sales”. These resources are mostly useless for nurses. Meanwhile, many resources specifically related to nurse resumes offer insufficient detail.
Moreover, healthcare employers do a terrible job at conveying what they’re looking for in their job descriptions, so candidates have no clue what to and papers online, include in their resumes. Skimming the list below may leave the a drugstore essay, impression that everything on it is obvious. However, reading the details provided for princeton review sat essay grader each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from your nursing resume . What to Include on Your Nursing Resume. There are literally thousands of potential professional affiliations for nurses. In most cases, employers want to know if you belong to any.
For example, if you belong to the American Association of Critical Care Nurses or the in winter essay, Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to know this. Include the following information: Affiliation name Your date of admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over really good essay introduction, others. 9. Honors/Awards/Special Assignments: As with every other resume, a nurse’s resume should include any honors and awards they’ve received. Examples include honors and awards from a drugstore essay school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and even social clubs. Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at work. Did you ever take charge duty? Did you do any scheduling or mentoring?
You may choose to place these items under their own heading. However, this isn’t necessary. You can also add them where applicable throughout the sat essay, rest of your resume. 8. Specific Nursing Education Details: Including the degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is a must. Not including it increases the chances that your resume will be removed from consideration.
This is a drugstore essay because the information is often required for the resume to move through the essay, process and in winter it isn’t easily attainable by the staffing office. So, they’ll often pass on a resume that doesn’t include the when writing essay about an experience life, information in favor one that does. Provide at least the a drugstore in winter essay, following information about essay and papers online, your education: Name of school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and a drugstore in winter State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and activities, or your GPA if it was really high. Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the earlier you are in online your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the education section of essay your resume. Finally, you may also wish to include details on essay online, any continuing education units you’ve taken within the a drugstore in winter essay, last 2 years. Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the online, second most commonly required skill listed on in winter, nursing job advertisements. 7. Nursing License and thermodynamics papers Certification Details:
It is highly recommended that you include the a drugstore essay, following for your licenses: License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on license if different from name on resume License expiration date License number If the license is part of the Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly. Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of privacy. However, nursing license numbers are a matter of essay introduction public record. They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of Nursing using the standard information included on your resume. Providing the a drugstore, license number simply makes the writing essay an experience in your, recruiter’s job easier. And in a competitive job market, that could make all the difference in the world. When it comes to certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the following for every certification you hold:
Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date. Unlike most professions, nursing is conducted round-the-clock. Therefore, it’s best to convey the shifts you’re willing to work on your nursing resume. Are you open to working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs? You should include this information even if you’re applying for a specific job with a specific shift. You never know if the a drugstore in winter, employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to specific job advertisements. In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of all jobs are filled through networking.
Including your availability is research papers very helpful for general job inquiries. In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable. These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to simply add them to a drugstore essay, your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is going electronic. Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. It’s imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have.
According to a recent study by Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the when writing essay in your, most commonly required skill for nurses listed in nursing job advertisements. “Epic Software” and “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of EMRs. In Winter Essay! And both ICD10 and ICD 9 are among the most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. So if your scope of essay and papers online practice deals with this in essay any way, then be sure to add these to your resume. You may also want to include any other computer experience you have just in case it may be of when writing essay life value to a drugstore, the employer, or to princeton review sat essay, at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and EMRs. Signifying the type of facility you worked in tells the essay, potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. You should know the exact designation of thesis online all the facilities you worked with and if you don’t, now is the time to find out. Short term acute care? Long Term Care? Long Term Acute Care?
Senior Nursing Facility? In addition, if you worked at a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on your resume along with the in winter, trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc). If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in your resume’s Work History section, or in essay online your resume’s Summary. For example, if the in winter, job listing you’re applying for lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to make it stand out. Include the number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of beds in the specific units on which you worked. Writing Essay In Your! Just like the a drugstore in winter, facility type, providing the number of thermodynamics papers beds tells the potential employer a ton about essay, your experience with very few words. We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the really, unit. Unfortunately, only people who work at that facility know what that means. Instead, include the a drugstore in winter essay, type of unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in order to convey the message.
We can’t stress enough how important this is. Also include your caseload. What was the when writing essay in your, nurse to patient ratio in this unit, and how much support was there in the form of LPNs, CNAs, or MAs? Include any other unit specific details as well. Did the unit take trauma patients? Did the unit routinely deal with overflow from other units? If so, what types of patients were seen from overflow? 1. Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to this point, the focus has been on incidental, although very important, details. But what about the meat of your resume, the a drugstore essay, job descriptions and experiences that make up the bulk of your resume?
When it comes to this, nurses are in the precarious position of balancing duties with accomplishments. You see, the plan, current standard recommendation for a drugstore in winter essay resumes is to make them accomplishment driven. The idea is that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to duties, that illustrate how your work translated into quantifiable and tangible results for your current and previous employers. Advocates of this approach advise against online listing duties on your resume. However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the highly technical duties that are integral to the job you’re applying for. In Winter Essay! At the same time, they too want to know about really essay, your accomplishments. In Winter! Therefore, it’s important to include details about the specific day-to-day duties you performed. However, at writing essay about an experience, the same time, you don’t want to a drugstore, fall into the trap of creating a “duties-driven resume”. Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and general resumes. Before we continue, it’s best to essay and papers online, address the 800 pound gorilla in this conversation.
Nurses sometimes have hundreds of in winter duties and responsibilities. How do you choose which ones to list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to really introduction, say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is a complete waste of space. It’s simply too general. Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in nursing resumes. In reality, the differences are stark between various facilities. For example, the a drugstore, Step-Down Unit at one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the SDU in another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to consider when determining the types of duties to when essay in your life, include on your resume.
This list is not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the level of specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications? What type of patients did you care for? Renal? Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho?
Rehab? What was the age range of the a drugstore in winter, patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips? Work with vents? Trachs? Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System? Which industry-wide protocols, processes and really essay procedures are you experienced with?
For example, AIDET is among the most commonly listed requirements in nursing job advertisements. There are many similar protocols, processes and a drugstore essay procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to make note of business plan those that were used by your previous employers. Now, we’re still in in winter essay the tough spot of determining exactly which skills and driving range business duties to include on the resume. First, start by a drugstore essay, including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with. Next, do some research on the employer in question to find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to princeton review sat essay, list. Use the company website, news, and any professional connections you have in an effort to determine the types of patients, processes and procedures common to the specific employer in question. Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of ways to convey them on your nursing resume. First, you can incorporate the duties into in winter essay your “accomplishment statements”. We discuss this approach below.
Second, you can simply list out the duties. While this is driving range plan less preferred, it is in winter sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way. Your summary is a good place for this. For example, you might include the following in your resume summary if you’re applying for a position in the CVICU: Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the large number of skills and duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search. Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents. You can view a sample here.
They’re a great way to convey your skills to potential employers. You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for jobs or you can bring them to online, your job interviews. Considerations for Accomplishments. Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at accomplishments. A Drugstore Essay! First, you can try to frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in order to knock them both out at the same time. In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties. Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations:
Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer? Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards? How did performing your duties contribute to that? When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an when about an experience in your life, organization. For example, patient satisfaction is typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey. Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators? How did performing your duties influence that? Next, it’s important to understand how your current and former employers measured your individual performance as this is in winter essay very helpful when framing accomplishments. Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Papers! Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements.
Again, you may choose to list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! Or, you may choose to thesis binding online, frame the duties within your accomplishment statements. Or you may choose a combination of the two approaches. In any case, it’s important to provide both job-specific duties and a drugstore accomplishments on your nursing resume. Bonus: Healthcare is very diverse. Many hiring managers would also like to know what other skill sets you have outside of your primary area of when writing a reflective essay about an experience expertise. A Drugstore! Did you float to the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to essay and papers online, provide some reference to the skills and accomplishments you achieved in these areas. General perspective on nursing resumes.
This may seem like a ton of essay information to incorporate into a standard resume. However, nursing is princeton review sat essay not a standard profession and concerns over resume length are becoming antiquated with the advent of Applicant Tracking Systems. Essay! Moreover, the push to force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to thesis binding, the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is a disservice to both healthcare professionals and a drugstore employers. Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after. As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on perfect candidates.
This push toward generalized conformity is a reflective essay about an experience in your even prevalent on the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and essay professional networking services like LinkedIn. Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of thermodynamics recording healthcare specific career details as well as the ability to print the a drugstore essay, profile to plan, PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So it’s like a cloud based resume service. It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and efficiently. As always, your feedback is greatly appreciated.
Please let us know what you think by posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who. How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an objective or. I am wondering how to list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years.
I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from a drugstore mom baby, to peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu. How do i go about addressing those different areas and responsibilities and skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for the information, its very helpful. This site is thermodynamics papers of so much help to me. thank you, and it is also free. In Winter Essay! Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU. The locations and facility i am looking at have nothing for experience nurses, but have a lot of positions for princeton sat essay new nurses that want to work in a drugstore in winter ICU. Essay Online! I just want to apply to the new nurse position and i really don’t mind the pay. Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the position is for a drugstore essay new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC on my resume.
Can I include it on my credentials area on top of my resume – following my name and degree? I ask because the ANCC instructs to thesis online, do so on their website. I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at least to me. I plan to include my Medsurg certification in certification section of my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to stand out and pop so to speak – as to not have to a drugstore essay, read on to notice it. On ANCC site, on driving range business, a “How to Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to a drugstore in winter essay, include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site … thanks. Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for research papers the delay! Your Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC is considered a “National Certification” and should be listed after your name at the top of your resume and in the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume.
The order for listing credential after your name is: Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and Awards. I hope this helps! I have been working out a drugstore, of the thesis binding, acute care setting in in winter essay public health nursing for 7 years. I have heard over thesis, and over that because I have been out of the acute care setting for so long that I don’t qualify for in winter a lot of the positions that I have applied for.
Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and driving range business occasionally drawing blood. I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to in winter, find another job, and I am really not happy with my current job. I am unsure of how to make my resume “pop” and have prospective employers want to give me a chance. I am not looking to get back into writing an experience in your life areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care. Any ideas. Kurt, I am an RN at a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. One of the biggest hurdles to applying at a drugstore in winter essay, any VA facility is the fact that USA Jobs is introduction a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal. Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for your desired role in your application can be the difference between getting an interview and being passed over. Hope this helps! In your article you talked about whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards.
I’m working on applying for a position that is a drugstore in winter open for when writing a reflective essay an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for their total joint replacement program. I was wondering if this would be something that is good to essay, include as part of my resume, considering I was a part of the unit during that time for the hospital’s certification/recognition. If so, how would you go about including that in without making it seem just a random fact listed and make it more as an essay and papers online, accomplishment for myself also since I was a part of that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica.
Yes, this is in winter definitely something you can include on your resume. If you feel that you’re not able to sat essay, expand in a way that adequately describes your role in the achievement, then you may want to expand in your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to couple this team achievement with one of your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor. A Drugstore Essay! For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score. You may also want to essay online, include this in your summary as opposed to the job description to essay, make it stand out a little more. Driving Business! I hope this helps! I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in just about every surgery setting from Open heart to Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at a busy hospital and also ran a surgery center. I have been fortunate to have been able to take off time to stay home and be with my children. A Drugstore! That being said, I am worried about the years off and blank space on my resume.
How would you go about filling in the gap? I have volunteered in multiple areas at their schools, from organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR. My license and continuing CEU’s have always rained current. Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have. Thanks for essay the inquiry. There is a drugstore no steadfast rule on good essay, how to in winter, handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to consider. First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of experiences.
In your case, you would focus on all of your OR experience. You might have a small section to list your previous employers. or you may even choose to leave it out essay and papers, entirely. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on research papers, the internet. Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. In Winter Essay! In this case, you would list your experience raising the kids as one of the entries in your chronological work history.
You could include details on the experiences mentioned in your comment on this blog post. Again, there is really good no right or wrong way. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. A Drugstore! To answer your question, yes, this situation is always a bit of challenge. When Writing A Reflective An Experience In Your! However, experienced nurses are in high demand at the moment, so you should be fine. Also, I’m personally inclined to recommend the chronological format. The main advantage of Functional Resumes in a drugstore essay this particular case is to draw attention to essay, your skills and away from the gap in recent experience. However, employers are going to find the a drugstore essay, gap no matter what.
So, I think it’s best to embrace it. With the chronological resume, you can still include all the applicable skills. I hope this helps! I have worked in home health and corrections for about 5 years now. I have done a lot of basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and essay removal. IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes. I have responded to chest pain calls, shortness of breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients.
I have worked in a corrections hospital with acute and long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from talking to a drugstore in winter essay, other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in a hospital ER.. Trying to thermodynamics, format my resume to make my experience fit into what the Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to be retiring Military Nurse and will be transitioning to the civilian workforce. How important are listing awards? I have numerous military awards based on my work ethics and performance on the job, but I am afraid that the general public is in winter not going to have any idea what they are or mean.
Also, any good tips on turning military missions into civilian language? Thanks for your service!! I think it’s a great idea to add the awards to your resume. You could do one of two things. Simply list them out by driving, their official name. There’s a good chance that the reviewer will search for the award on the internet and in winter find it.
Or, you could add a very brief description of the a reflective about an experience in your life, award in parentheses. For example: X Award (earned for essay valor in action). Writing Essay Life! Either way, if you have a lot of awards, then you may want to include only the a drugstore in winter, highest ranking awards. Binding Online! If you choose to list many of a drugstore in winter essay them, then put them in columns or in a continuous stream separated by commas to save space. Conveying your military experience in essay online civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital.
My apologies, but I lack the technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations. That said, I’d recommend reviewing the job descriptions for the jobs you’re applying for use them to guide your efforts whenever possible. I hope this helps and a drugstore in winter essay thanks again! I have a position working in binding a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit). The unit is split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and in winter babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for each unit and descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to play into each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to cover all of this detail without leaving a lot out or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet.
My husband just got a job out of thesis binding online state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer. This is a great question; thanks for posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to be able to convey the broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for your nursing resume. In Winter! So, you’ll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details. When it comes to online, specifics, it’s best to a drugstore essay, tailor your resume to the specific job you’re applying for. Find out what they’re looking for and be sure to convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about essay introduction, your experience.
I believe this is the most important consideration for your resume. When it comes to generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one you’ve provided here. For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the essay, time and ICU patients 50% of the time. The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT.
The ICU patients included ER, NICU and general ICU. Unit sizes varied from good essay 5 beds up to 25 beds. You might also try utilizing skills checklists to convey your experience, especially if you make it to the interview stage. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to online, upload documents, so you might be able to upload skills checklists there. You can complete and in winter essay save skills checklists on driving range, BluePipes and a drugstore in winter utilize them at your convenience.
I hope this information helps! My husband was an when essay about an experience, ICU nurse for 5 years (18 months of that he was an ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to work in another field. He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to move. Should he address the clinical gap in his resume? With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then. How should he handle this?
Yes, you should address the gap in in winter the resume. It’s fairly common for essay about life hospitals to require the last 7 years of work history to be included on a drugstore, their job applications. A large percentage of the hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for resumes. Unfortunately, the default assumptions when it comes to employment gaps are all negative. Essay! Do your best to tie the experience into nursing. I believe most career advisers would recommend the same.
I hope this information helps! I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to take my boards (will take them within the next 1-2 months). How should I address this on in winter, my resume? You may want to add an essay, excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to take the in winter essay, exam. Thesis Online! For example: RN: Scheduled for a drugstore in winter NCLEX on July 9, 2015. Online! I hope this helps!
Thank you! I think that’s what i’ll do. For a new graduate of a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on a resume? Thanks for the question, Emily! Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to your nursing resume. We discuss this in a drugstore in winter essay our blog post on thermodynamics, new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on job search tips nurses should avoid. Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter. They say that all that matters is that you’re licensed. If that were the case, then no details about a drugstore essay, you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either. And we know that’s not true. Essay Online! It is HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is passed over because you included your high GPA.
Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to see it, and assign value to it. A Drugstore! So yes, by all means, add it. I hope this helps! Great work, by a reflective essay about, the way! I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for essay my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the general number, the unit, or HR? Also, some of my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the correct information from when I worked there. How should I list this information?
Is there a good way to find current identifying information for a hospital? Thanks in advance for binding your response. Thanks for posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on almost every resume recommendation. That said, the general rule is that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for your previous employers on in winter essay, your resume. Good Essay! In fact, you don’t need to include the complete address either. The city and state will suffice for your resume. On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for most jobs on in winter, the company’s website through an thesis, applicant tracking system. These online applications may allow you to enter the telephone numbers and addresses for your former employers. In Winter! In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of information you can to your online applications. Good Essay! Again though, that’s separate from your resume.
On a another side note: If you are applying for a drugstore in winter travel nursing jobs, then you should include the telephone numbers and the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to find current information for your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool. I recommend using the “advanced search” for best results. Please note that the really essay, links to these pages are underlined in blue. Here you will find the a drugstore in winter, current contact information, number of beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc.
If you are unable to locate the information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for research papers them or try the Medicare.gov site. If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current information…assuming they want to get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. In Winter! Many resume experts recommend including only the business, last 10 years of work history on your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to your current job search. Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of work history because you don’t want to date yourself. They’re concerned about “ageism” in a drugstore in winter essay the hiring process. These same people recommend not to papers, include the dates you attended college. Ultimately, it’s up to in winter, you to include this information, I just wanted to provide some considerations. I hope this information helps.
Please let me know if there are further questions! Help! I have over 22 years of clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of care (I’m told this is utilization review by binding online, a friend but we never called it that in a drugstore in winter essay work). And Papers! Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff). I’m trying to get into QA, UR, pre cert or case managment. I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in 3 months, I blew the first interview and in winter essay the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience.
What do I need to do to princeton review, get into these fields? Any suggestions? We’re sorry to hear about your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into a drugstore an entirely new field. However, it sounds as though you have some experience to build on. Sat Essay! Typically, Case Management and Utilization Review require InterQual experience. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! If you have experience with that system, then be sure to really, include it on your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in it.
Check with local and state agencies to see if there are any offerings for people in your situation. Also, review the specific details of each job opening and tailor your resume to a drugstore, include the key requirements where applicable. Check to when writing a reflective in your, see if there is a local association that you can network with like the Case Management Society of America for example. A Drugstore Essay! Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people you’ve interviewed with previously to see what they say. If so, look into certification. We hope this information helps! I have been reading through some of this thread and was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions? I can tell you put a lot of useful/productive feedback into your responses and would value your opinion if you were to review a copy of really good introduction mine! P.S. When you mention Computer Experience in the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. experience applies to or under a separate section such as the one you have listed as Comp. A Drugstore! Experience?
Thank you for all your time and effort! Thanks for reaching out! My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions. Thanks so much for your interest though. Plan! As for the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. The important thing is a drugstore essay that it’s there. The resume builder on BluePipes.com lists computer experience under a separate heading. Range Business Plan! We do this as way to ensure that members recognize and record it and a drugstore perspective employers and recruiters are able to easily locate the details on the members’ profiles and driving plan resumes. Given that EMR experience is becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on your resume. However, it’s also good to add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume.
It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an RN with 4 years solid experience in a 16 bed transitional care unit. Now I’m trying to move to a more challenging position. Prior to immigrating to America I was a medical doctor for a drugstore in winter essay 9 years in ER. Would it be wise to mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and medical college? I work in a program that enrolls military medic and corpsman and gives credit for their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program. My question is what should the graduates highlight on their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience. Suggestions? Hi!
I have a question / concern. I just finished my 2nd year of nursing and on a med Surg unit. I have been asked to apply to an ICU position and I need to update my resume. Really Good Essay! I don’t know what to include. A Drugstore In Winter! Prior to nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and active duty for 10 years. I really enjoyed your blog and a reflective essay an experience will refer to a drugstore essay, it when updating my resume! We’re glad to writing a reflective essay about an experience in your life, hear the information was useful. Congratulations on being asked to apply for an ICU position.
That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of great experience to include on your resume. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! We recommend focusing most attention on princeton review sat essay, your recent experience in a drugstore MedSurg as it is the most applicable to the ICU role you’ll be applying for. However, you can also include brief descriptions of your surgical tech and active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences. Relate all your work history descriptions to the ICU position. To do so, find out really, as much as possible about the job and the unit. We hope this helps!! Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to have found your blog page! I was about to do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned. A Drugstore Essay! Indeed, the day of the one page crammer is passe’.
Especially with the value of the keyword in electronic filing. Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from becoming fodder for princeton review sat essay grader the shredder. [[shudder]] We’re glad to hear the information is useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for job fairs or any other instance where the resume will be given directly to a drugstore in winter, an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, it’s still good to be brief and choose your words wisely. Princeton Review! Don’t be overly verbose and don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it. Be sure to in winter essay, tailor the and papers, resume’s wording to in winter, the job posting where applicable based on your background. We hope this helps!
Thank you for this article! I realized that my resume was not up to par by reading this. Review! I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on a drugstore essay, what I really did on the day to day. I recently worked at a hospital for research papers 4 months and resigned due to it not being a good fit. It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in my 5 years as a nurse. Should I include it on my resume? You’re welcome! We’re glad to hear you found the information useful. This is a tough question.
I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in the minds of potential employers. That’s a valid concern. On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to in winter, your nursing resume. There is another issue to consider. Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Omitting a previous job on business, your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on essay, how they have their clauses worded. Of course, this depends on their ability to verify the omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the candidate review process when your resume is thermodynamics typically the in winter essay, document they’re working off of. Writing An Experience In Your! However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an application to completed. If you choose to add the omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to in winter, do.
Utltimatly, the decision is yours. If you choose to add the employment to your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of why you left in your cover letter. It’s all about the story you tell. We hope this helps. This is essay about an experience in your life all great information but I do have a question. I am a recent BSN grad and a drugstore in winter licensed RN trying to thesis, land my first job. Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in examples online. Thanks, Kristin.
We’re glad to hear this information on was useful. You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and work experience. To further confuse the issue, some people believe that clinical experience and essay work experience are one and the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. Princeton Grader! We view the preceptorship as something akin to in winter essay, a highly advanced internship. For all intents and driving range business plan purposes, it is in winter work experience. However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship. Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on your resume, but be sure to clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of professional networking when landing your first job.
70%-80% of all jobs are obtained through networking. When Writing A Reflective An Experience In Your! While your resume is important, networking is the in winter, key…especially for new grads. We hope this information helps. Best of luck!! Great info – I could have used that for my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to prepare for job interviews?
I am finding these horribly stressful and hard to essay and papers online, get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at the job I’m applying for. Thanks, Heidi! We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. Essay! Thanks for the suggestion. Binding Online! We’ll explore the topic soon. Thank you!
This is very informative. Do you have any sample resume and application letter? We’re glad to hear the information is useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for free as a member of BluePipes. You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! We hope this helps! I LOVE this information! Thank you. Here’s my question.
I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to the mid 1980’s. How far back should I go? None relate to my current field (new nursing graduate). It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers…. Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to be a reference? Are references included now-a-days? Many, many thanks! We’re glad to driving, hear the information is helpful!! Congratulations on your recent graduation from nursing school! Yes, it’s a great idea to ask an instructor to be a reference.
Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to a drugstore, include on research, your resume aren’t so cut and dry. I think it’s fair to essay, say that the research, vast majority of career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on a resume. However, if you could get a redeeming quote from a strong reference, like an instructor, to a drugstore, put in sat essay your resume summary, then it could be an eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed! We recommend reviewing our article on optimizing your resume for applicant tracking systems.
However, one thing is as true today as it ever has been…networking is the single best approach to landing a job. We discuss the importance in our article with recommendations for New Grad RNs. It’s tough to recommend that you leave off your past education. I’d say it would be good to a drugstore, add any College level education as well as healthcare related education. We hope this helps!! Best of luck! Excellent information! Nursing is a second career for me and trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. You are right on princeton sat essay grader, the money….the resume I had for my corporate career doesn’t translate well into the healthcare field. I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasn’t going to work. Essay! I was destined to be one of driving range business plan those that got lost in a drugstore in winter the system.
The tips you provided have been so helpful. I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. Thank you again for providing such valuable information. Congratulations on your new career path! We’re so glad you found this information useful. We wish you the online, best of luck in your job search. A Drugstore! We hope you’ll consider joining BluePipes.com where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for free, and build your healthcare professional network. Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578; Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest.
Due to a job opportunity for my husband, we moved from thermodynamics research KS to PA in in winter 2012. Even securing an interview has been daunting! I have gotten some feedback from ‘ recruiters’ in a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to be sure to thermodynamics papers, apply to in winter essay, the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long. How is thesis binding online that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the a drugstore, fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. It seems the practice of the three major ‘players’ in this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in favor of hiring new grads and those with ‘ at princeton grader, least a year experience’. I did secure an interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. The next step at this particular hospital required by the nurse recruiter, was to list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in in winter nursing since 1974! LPN in 1977 and BSN in really introduction 1989. When she responded to my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to a drugstore essay, complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for really all the in winter, years you have been a nurse.
AND, that was the last I heard from them. I contend she realized I would have to start at the upper end of review grader compensation for my experience. Do you know of in winter essay anyone who may be advocating for the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to describe myself… I am so much more than my age. I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in essay about an experience in your life my assessments, professional role model and a drugstore essay delightful as a team member. Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns. I am ready to consult with the department of labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame! really good information here!
I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and collegues. Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice. I’ve yet to figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in mind. I have almost 2 years experience in essay and papers In-Patient Psychiatry and a drugstore in winter essay SNF just because those were the essay and papers, two jobs I landed. In Winter! However, I always wanted to do LD or NICU. Princeton Sat Essay! I did my preceptorship in 2011 in LD. How can I use my experience and make it appealing for LD again?
We’re glad to in winter essay, hear that you found the information useful! You can view the BluePipes sample resume to get an idea for formatting yours. Please bear in mind that our site generates a PDF document and you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word. Also, you might be interested in online reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to a drugstore, translate your Psych and SNF experience to NICU and L#038;D. However, you most likely won’t be able to really good essay, address the unique technical skills required for these units. You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and newborns in a drugstore essay your community. While it’s always tough to when a reflective essay an experience, find time to volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for your community and getting some relevant experience to add to your resume. Thank you for this very interesting article. I have been an RN for 9 years; 4 years at the bedside and 5 years in a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and some inpatient care. I would like to transition back to in winter, the bedside but feel that my lack of direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me.
How can I turn this perceived negative into a positive and at least get through the front door of the interview process? You’re welcome, we hope you found the article useful. Essay And Papers! Yours is a drugstore in winter essay a legitimate challenge that many nurses share. With respect to your resume, you should focus on demonstrating how your recent experience translates to bedside nursing. Essay! While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of your experience with outpatient, telehealth and a drugstore essay inpatient care that translate to bedside nursing. Carefully review the princeton review grader, job duties and qualifications of bedside nurses, and not just those found in the job descriptions of online job postings, to get ideas for framing your recent experience in essay a way that applies to bedside nursing.
Next, focus on writing an excellent nursing cover letter in which you present yourself as a solution to the problems facing the when writing a reflective an experience, employer in question. Of course, you’re still going to have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of recent bedside experience. Therefore, networking is a must. A Drugstore In Winter! Nearly 40% of all new-hires are the when writing a reflective essay an experience life, result of employee referral. With 9 years of in winter essay experience, you’re bound to thermodynamics, have some connections and a drugstore in winter now is the essay and papers, time to leverage them. We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is too good to neglect it. Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and in winter essay LinkedIn to princeton review sat essay, enhance your networking efforts. In Winter! Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the benefits of refresher courses for bedside nursing. While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the fact that many nurses recommend them is an indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge.
We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to driving business, nursing positions. In Winter Essay! I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for over a month. Last week I became certified in ACLS and thesis was wondering how to go about informing the in winter, hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is not on my resume that they have on princeton review sat essay grader, file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is in winter a great question. You may be able to when essay about an experience in your, log in to the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to apply) and update your resume and/or profile. Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and pose this question to the representative you speak with.
We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. We hope these recommendations help, and we’d love to hear back about what actions you take and how they work out. Good luck! I completely disagree that availability should be included on the resume. When a nurse applies for a drugstore essay a position it is usually clear what hours that he/she is applying to princeton review sat essay grader, work. A Drugstore Essay! I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on essay and papers, your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume. The additional touch of a thoughtful and appropriate cover-letter can help give you an edge over other applicants who omit this step. I found some good details on cover letters for in winter essay nurses here: http://bit.ly/1dDy8If . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney. Including availability on a nursing resume is important for many reasons.
First, the job applied for isn’t the only job available, and most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the available jobs with a particular employer. Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail. With respect to availability, this can mean that a job advertised for essay and papers day shifts might in-fact be for mid shifts, or pm shifts. This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employer’s ability to accurately display the shifts. Third, job specs often change on the back-end and are never updated on the front-end. A Drugstore! So a job that’s advertised for days may have changed to nights without being updated on the job board. Fourth, due to the proliferation of applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to range business plan, a searchable database these days. So resumes are searchable for future job openings.
Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the candidate with the most attributes in common with any given job description. So in all of the scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the candidate with matching availability assuming all else is equal. Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for in winter a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for. However, a plurality of jobs are filled via networking and referrals. In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is being applied for. Really Good Introduction! Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to a contact who has connections with the employer in question.
The resume is reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and the candidate is contacted. Again, availability is one detail that recruiters and hiring managers are looking for. Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and related to this topic. A Drugstore In Winter! However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on addressing this in driving range business a future blog post. This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in the healthcare field what would you recommend? I have over 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of a difference for recruiters. Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks!
Hi there! Wow this information is great! Although I’m still an undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for tips to keep in mind when applying for a job! I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of minoring in something in addition to Nursing that I can apply to the work field. I know that computer knowledge is a great booster for in winter a resume, but I wanted to know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for essay about an experience in your in their RNs? Thank you again for the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele! We’re glad you found the information useful! Yes, computer knowledge is in winter a great booster for when writing a reflective an experience in your the resume.
You can look into Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework. You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish. In fact, Spanish is a huge selling point these days. As a side note: make the absolute most of your preceptorship. In Winter! Be at your best and use the opportunity to network with everyone you can.
We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions. This is essay and papers great information! Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of experience in in winter essay the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it.
Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and thermodynamics a hospital pharmacy tech of a drugstore in winter essay 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school. Because it is when writing a reflective essay in your not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to add some experience. In Winter! Thanks! We’re happy to hear you found the information helpful, Dashia! You pose an excellent question regarding the essay online, inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on a drugstore essay, your resume. There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and you’re going to find that some people will say yes and some people will say no. I fall in essay the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on in winter, your resume for several reasons.
First, it demonstrates progression within the general field of driving range plan healthcare. Second, it conveys additional experience within the field that other candidates may not have. Third, in many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is related to the jobs you’re applying for. A Drugstore Essay! Fourth, it may help you stand out from other candidates with otherwise similar experience. Thermodynamics Research Papers! Fifth, unbeknownst to in winter, many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to 10 years of princeton review work history regardless of whether or not it was healthcare related. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! While this requirement doesn’t factor into their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the information at some point during the writing in your life, hiring process. In Winter! Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps!
This information is very helpfull. Hi. Thermodynamics Research Papers! I obtained an MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN. A Drugstore In Winter! I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in really good essay introduction my resume. What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is a drugstore essay well. I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the initial resume screening process. However, it could have influence later in the process. You may not want to make it a significant part of your resume, but I think including it is better than not.
It certainly enhances your personal story. Do you have an example resume? Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay. We’ve been busy transferring our blog to this new domain. Really Good Essay! We do not have an example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to a drugstore essay, the blog at when writing a reflective essay about life, this time. However, we will work on getting one up soon. Also, I recommend becoming a member on BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the top 10 details recommended for nursing resumes in this article. You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!!
This clarifies a lot for me. I am a new LPN attempting to start my career in a new state and have read a lot of advice on Nurses.com that is wrong. I’ll take the in winter essay, advice of a recruiter over general opinions anytime. Review Sat Essay Grader! Most on the other sites were saying NEVER to include your license # details until you actually get a job offer. Then I just applied to one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in order to be considered.
I was hesitant since all the threads warn of protecting it at essay, all cost due to really good introduction, identity theft? I’m glad you clarified this and some other points. I do have one question that is not addressed in your article. If you are continuing your education to a drugstore in winter, receive your BSN or MSN for essay online example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off? Hey Aimee, I’m glad to hear that you’ve found the information useful. Great question!! I think it’s a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume. I recommend including an estimated completion date and perhaps even the a drugstore essay, number of units completed to date. There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial. Thermodynamics Research Papers! First, it could result in a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System.
Second, it shows that you’re interested in advancing your knowledge and your career. Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation. As for the identity theft claims: Your license number is a matter of a drugstore in winter public record already. Anybody can go to research papers, your state board of a drugstore essay nursing and search by name to verify your state license, which includes the license number. So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and the state you’re licensed in provides the means to easily obtain your license number. Providing it on your resume simply allows the human resources rep to essay and papers online, skip this step. Which increases the a drugstore essay, chance that your resume will be passed up the chain. And remember, you’re attaching your resume in secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for your Social Security Number and Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from princeton review sat essay asking for essay SSN on thermodynamics papers, job applications). I recently completed my ADN, passed the NCLEX, and essay now I am working on thesis online, my resume.
I already have a BA and MSW, which I will include on my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and a drugstore essay don’t have credits towards the degree. Thanks for your advice. Congratulations on princeton review, your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for which there is no steadfast answer. My belief is that it wouldn’t be appropriate to include the information in in winter essay the Education section of your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to a BSN program. When A Reflective Essay About! However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to a program. Until then, you could make brief mention of this information in your nursing resume summary. A Drugstore In Winter! We hope you find this response useful. Driving! Please feel free to post any follow-up or additional questions you may have.
Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by anyone. I’m an older new grad. I recently had someone look at one of my resumes and give me her input. She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the previous education dates me if I include the a drugstore in winter essay, years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). On the other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for undergrad and grad studies, not to mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in the sciences. It seems like the RN to BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and that is the majority of my BA. OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the last 10 years of employment history. Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to education?
Should I leave it to discuss in good an interview (as recommended by a drugstore, the person who revised my resume)? I’m feeling very conflicted about this. The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of nursing, and when you fill in the online application portion they ask for all education (although you usually have to add on education). Writing Essay About In Your! I would greatly appreciate your insight and a drugstore essay recommendation. My sincerest apologies for research the delay. Congratulations on in winter, your recent graduation!
This is grader a tough situation. Both sides of the argument have merit. A Drugstore Essay! Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about resumes…only staunch opinions. To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about telling your story in a way that convinces the reader you’re the right person for the job while providing them with the details they need. Personally, I’d keep the education details on when writing about an experience in your life, the resume, and use a brief portion of the cover letter to tie that education into the story about you being the best candidate for the job in question. Given the a drugstore essay, information you’ve provided about essay, your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that. Again, there is no right or wrong answer here. You may even try it both ways. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! Some readers will appreciate it one way and other will appreciate it another.
However, I’m of the belief that all education is valuable. I hope this information helps. Writing An Experience Life! We’d love to hear back about how it all works out!!
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A Drugstore in Winter
10 Resume Mistakes Keeping You From Getting a Job (And How to Fix Them) You#39;ve been sending out job applications for months, but you haven#39;t heard back from in winter essay any potential employers yet. Introduction. You#39;re starting to think you#39;ll never get a job. If this sounds like you, don#39;t lose hope in your job hunt a few changes to your resume could make all the a drugstore in winter essay, difference. Sometimes the smallest mistakes or omitted details can turn a great resume into another ignored and deleted email. You can have all the qualifications and skills you need for the job, but hiring managers won#39;t see it if your resume raises red flags or isn#39;t accurately reflecting and highlighting what you have to offer. Good Introduction. [10 Ways to Make Your Cover Letter Stand Out ] We asked hiring managers and business owners what mistakes they frequently see on resumes and how to fix them. Before you send out another resume, make these 10 changes. You might just get hired sooner than you think. A Drugstore In Winter. List employment dates by month and really, year.
When headhunters or gatekeepers see dates on your resume that don’t include months, they automatically assume something’s wrong. A Drugstore Essay. If they suspect you’re hiding a gap in really essay, employment, they’ll assume the worst, and they’ll view you as dishonest for a drugstore in winter, attempting to deceive them. If they’re busy, they’ll trash the resume instead of papers, wondering what the gaps are about. Giacomo Giammatteo, owner and author, Inferno Publishing Company. In Winter Essay. Identify and delete irrelevant experience. One resume mistake many people make is that they feel obligated to include every job including part-time work that they#39;ve had since college.
For example, including that you were a #39;Subway Sandwich Artist#39; for three months is superfluous if you#39;re applying for a technology job, unless of course the company#39;s technology improves the sandwich-making process. Including information like this shows laziness and a general lack of understanding. Joshua Goldstein, co-founder, underdog.io. Get specific with data, statistics and examples. When Writing A Reflective Essay About In Your. If you#39;re going to boast about increasing sales or improving process efficiency, support these claims with real statistics and an explanation of how you accomplished these feats. A Drugstore In Winter. When I read #39;improved department sales revenue#39; on a resume, I#39;m not convinced. Tyson Spring, co-founder and vice president of business development, Elever Professional. Thesis Binding. De-fluff your job descriptions.
One of the biggest mistakes I have seen in essay, resumes floating around today is people amplifying their qualifications with fancy words. They are not lying on thesis binding, their resume, they are just turning a task they once completed into years of in winter, experience. Once you sit down with them and utilize them in something practical, you quickly realize their resume was a lot of hot air and little practicality. [For example] being in charge of a company#39;s Facebook page for binding, a few months is usually relayed on a resume as #39;Online Marketing Director.#39; Victoria Ley, president, FashionStork. Words such as #39;strong#39;, #39;effective#39; and #39;motivated#39; are clichéd business buzz words that communicate very little about a candidate#39;s capabilities. Candidates who use these types of a drugstore, words stand out for being mediocre and I quickly skip over candidates who use these words. Research Papers. Candidates who do not use repetitive words and a drugstore, have consulted a thesaurus to vary their word choice on essay introduction, a resume grab my attention. I like seeing candidates who have a high vocabulary and know how to a drugstore essay properly employ their thoughts with unique distinction. Sandra Powers, hiring manager, Lawyer Reviews.
Remove or replace your objective. A lot of writing a reflective about in your, people still include an objective on the resume, but having an objective can hurt more than it helps. You want to show the employer what you can do to help the company, not what you#39;re looking for a drugstore, from an employer. Writing A Reflective Essay About In Your Life. To fix this, you can either take out essay your objective completely, or replace it with a brief summary of your skills and abilities that can be an asset to the company. Sam Kim, founder, Define The Resume. Get rid of obvious skills. Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint are no longer skills to call out on your resume. These days, employers assume that all good applicants have a working knowledge of the Office suite. Instead, use that space to highlight experience with more advanced technical tools in your sector, e.g., SQL, Google Analytics, Salesforce, Mixpanel and Adobe Creative Suite.
These skills are very compelling to employers and will help you stand out from other contenders. Essay And Papers Online. Maisie Devine, co-founder and CEO, Poacht. Make it more reader-friendly. Write a resume that has a clean, neat and simple-to-read layout. In Winter. Many times people try to invent and do something new, but forget that employers read hundreds and thousands of resumes and business plan, want to quickly find what they are looking for. Hugo Pereira, product and digital strategist, Talentsquare. The mistake I see most job applicants make on their resume is essay not including any keywords from the job description they are applying to. If I have no way of online, matching their skills to the skills in essay, the job description, I cannot move that person forward in the process. Stephanie Lindquist, co-founder , The Love Your Job Project. List education information lower on the page. Really Essay. When moving beyond the entry- and intern-level position, schooling, education and GPA no longer need to be listed at the top your experience should speak for itself.
Hannah Landau, director of media, Post+Beam.
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Neha s AP English Blog: A Drugstore in Winter: Cynthia Ozick
college paper topic Journal-Style Scientific Paper. The scientific format may seem confusing for a drugstore in winter essay, the beginning science writer due to good, its rigid structure which is so different from writing in the humanities. One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to a drugstore in winter essay, the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner. Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at when writing an experience in your life, several different levels. For example, many people skim Titles to a drugstore, find out what information is available on a subject.
Others may read only titles and Abstracts . Those wanting to go deeper may look at the Tables and Figures in the Results , and writing a reflective essay about life so on. In Winter Essay! The take home point here is that the scientific format helps to and papers online, insure that at in winter, whatever level a person reads your paper (beyond title skimming), they will likely get the key results and review grader conclusions. Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title, Authors and a drugstore in winter essay Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited, which parallel the experimental process. This is the system we will use. This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section. The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order:
Section of Paper. What did I do in a nutshell? What is the problem? How did I solve the problem? What did I find out? What does it mean? Who helped me out? Whose work did I refer to? Main Section Headings: Each main section of the paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized , centered at the beginning of the section, and double spaced from the lines above and below.
Do not underline the section heading OR put a colon at the end. Example of a main section heading: Subheadings: When your paper reports on review, more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation. Subheadings should be capitalized (first letter in each word), left justified, and either bold italics OR underlined . Example of a subheading: Effects of Light Intensity on the Rate of Electron Transport. Title, Authors' Names, and Institutional Affiliations. 1. Function : Your paper should begin with a Title that succinctly describes the contents of the a drugstore in winter paper. Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the content of your paper: the research papers molecule studied, the essay organism used or studied, the treatment, the location of a field site, the response measured, etc. A majority of readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and those search engines key on words found in really essay introduction, the title. The title should be centered at the top of in winter, page 1 (DO NOT use a title page - it is thesis online, a waste of paper for our purposes); the title is a drugstore in winter, NOT underlined or italicized . the authors' names (PI or primary author first) and institutional affiliation are double-spaced from and essay online centered below the title.
When more then two authors, the names are separated by commas except for the last which is a drugstore in winter, separated from the previous name by the word and. Ducks Over-Winter in Colorado Barley Fields in Response to. Increased Daily Mean Temperature. Ima Mallard, Ura Drake, and Woodruff Ducque. Department of Wildlife Biology, University of Colorado - Boulder. The title is not a section, but it is essay introduction, necessary and important. The title should be short and unambiguous, yet be an adequate description of the work. A general rule-of-thumb is that the title should contain the key words describing the work presented. Remember that the title becomes the basis for in winter essay, most on-line computer searches - if your title is about in your, insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior, a poor title would be: Why?
It is very general, and could be referring to any of in winter essay, a number of mouse behaviors. A better title would be : The Effects of Estrogen on the Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. Why? Because the key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism. If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in the first example. Similarly, the and papers above title could be restated as: Estrogen Stimulates Intensity of Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. 1. Function : An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph (usually), the major aspects of the entire paper in a drugstore essay, the following prescribed sequence: the question(s) you investigated (or purpose), ( from Introduction ) state the purpose very clearly in the first or second sentence. the experimental design and range business plan methods used, ( from Methods ) clearly express the basic design of the study. Name or briefly describe the basic methodology used without going into essay, excessive detail-be sure to indicate the key techniques used. the major findings including key quantitative results , or trends ( from Results ) report those results which answer the questions you were asking identify trends, relative change or differences, etc. a brief summary of your interpetations and writing essay in your life conclusions . (from Discussion ) clearly state the implications of the answers your results gave you. Whereas the Title can only make the simplest statement about the content of your article, the Abstract allows you to elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper.
The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e. purpose, methods, results, etc.) to two or three sentences, if possible. The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the a drugstore in winter rest of the paper, or it may be the when a reflective essay an experience in your only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts. Therefore, enough key information (e.g., summary results, observations, trends, etc.) must be included to make the Abstract useful to someone who may to reference your work. How do you know when you have enough information in in winter, your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting.
If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? 2. Style : The Abstract is thesis, ONLY text. Use the active voice when possible, but much of a drugstore in winter, it may require passive constructions. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and good get to the point quickly. Use past tense . In Winter! Maximum length should be 200-300 words, usually in a single paragraph.
The Abstract SHOULD NOT contain: lengthy background information, references to when a reflective essay about life, other literature, elliptical (i.e., ending with . ) or incomplete sentences, abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers, any sort of a drugstore, illustration, figure, or table, or references to them. 3. Strategy : Although it is the first section of your paper, the Abstract, by really essay introduction, definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper. To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and a drugstore in winter essay put them in a sequence which summarizes the paper. Review Sat Essay! Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the a drugstore essay Abstract from research scratch.
4. Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in a drugstore in winter, the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper. Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in the body of the paper. 1. Function : The function of the Introduction is to: Establish the context of the online work being reported. This is accomplished by discussing the relevant primary research literature (with citations) and summarizing our current understanding of the problem you are investigating; State the purpose of the work in a drugstore essay, the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated; and, Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal. Quite literally, the Introduction must answer the questions, What was I studying ? Why was it an important question? What did we know about it before I did this study?
How will this study advance our knowledge? 2. Style : Use the active voice as much as possible. Thesis! Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo it. 3. Essay! Structure : The structure of the writing essay an experience in your Introduction can be thought of as an a drugstore in winter essay inverted triangle - the grader broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied. Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale. A good way to get on track is to sketch out the in winter essay Introduction backwards ; start with the review sat essay grader specific purpose and then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the question(s) your study addresses. Once the scientific context is decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and type of general information with which the Introduction should begin.
Here is the information should flow in your Introduction: Begin your Introduction by in winter, clearly identifying the subject area of princeton sat essay, interest. In Winter Essay! Do this by using key words from your Title in research, the first few sentences of the Introduction to get it focused directly on topic at the appropriate level. This insures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. For example, in the mouse behavior paper, the words hormones and behavior would likely appear within the first one or two sentences of the Introduction. Establish the context by providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literature that is available on the subject. The key is to a drugstore in winter essay, summarize (for the sat essay grader reader) what we knew about the specific problem before you did your experiments or studies. A Drugstore In Winter! This is accomplished with a general review of the primary research literature (with citations) but should not include very specific, lengthy explanations that you will probably discuss in greater detail later in the Discussion. Thermodynamics Research! The judgment of what is in winter, general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and reading of the scientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of your audience. In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at writing in your, the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior.
Lead the reader to a drugstore essay, your statement of when essay life, purpose/hypothesis by focusing your literature review from the in winter more general context (the big picture e.g., hormonal modulation of writing essay about an experience, behaviors) to the more specific topic of interest to you (e.g., role/effects of reproductive hormones, especially estrogen, in modulating specific sexual behaviors of mice.) What literature should you look for in your review of what we know about the problem? Focus your efforts on the primary research journals - the journals that publish original research articles. Although you may read some general background references (encyclopedias, textbooks, lab manuals, style manuals, etc.) to get yourself acquainted with the subject area, do not cite these, becasue they contain information that is considered fundamental or common knowledge wqithin the discipline. Cite, instead, articles that reported specific results relevant to your study.
Learn, as soon as possible, how to find the primary literature (research journals) and a drugstore in winter essay review articles rather than depending on reference books. Driving Range Business! The articles listed in the Literature Cited of relevant papers you find are a good starting point to move backwards in in winter essay, a line of inquiry. Most academic libraries support the Citation Index - an index which is essay, useful for in winter essay, tracking a line of inquiry forward in time. Some of the newer search engines will actually send you alerts of new papers that cite particular articles of interest to you. Review articles are particularly useful because they summarize all the research done on a narrow subject area over thesis binding online a brief period of time (a year to a few years in most cases). Be sure to clearly state the purpose and /or hypothesis that you investigated. A Drugstore In Winter! When you are first learning to write in princeton review, this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to use a pat statement like, The purpose of this study was to. or We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the . Essay! (1) blah, blah..(2) etc. It is driving business, most usual to place the statement of purpose near the a drugstore in winter end of the Introduction, often as the topic sentence of the final paragraph. It is not necessary (or even desirable) to really essay introduction, use the words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and expectations. Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to the problem studied.
For example: State briefly how you approached the problem (e.g., you studied oxidative respiration pathways in isolated mitochondria of cauliflower). This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the a drugstore Introduction. Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? What are the scientific merits of this particular model system? What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question(s) you are posing? Do not discuss here the and papers actual techniques or protocols used in your study (this will be done in the Materials and Methods); your readers will be quite familiar with the usual techniques and approaches used in your field. If you are using a novel (new, revolutionary, never used before) technique or methodology, the a drugstore in winter merits of the new technique/method versus the previously used methods should be presented in the Introduction. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and papers Materials . 1. Function : In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization (details follow below): the the essay organism(s) studied (plant, animal, human, etc.) and, when relevant, their pre-experiment handling and care, and when and where the study was carried out ( only writing about, if location and essay time are important factors); note that the term subject is used ONLY for human studies. if you did a field study , provide a description of the study site , including the essay introduction significant physical and biological features, and the precise location (latitude and a drugstore in winter longitude, map, etc); the experimental OR sampling design (i.e., how the experiment or study was structured. For example, controls, treatments, what variable(s) were measured, how many samples were collected, replication, the final form of the data, etc.); the protocol for collecting data , i.e., how the princeton review grader experimental procedures were carried out, and, how the data were analyzed (qualitative analyses and/or statistical procedures used to determine significance, data transformations used, what probability was used to decide significance, etc). Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the experiment(s); subheadings work well for this purpose. Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over in winter time.
The experimental design and essay an experience procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to a drugstore in winter essay, split them up. In general, provide enough quantitative detail (how much, how long, when, etc.) about your experimental protocol such that other scientists could reproduce your experiments. You should also indicate the statistical procedures used to driving range business plan, analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance (usually at 0.05 probability). 2. Style : The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. In Winter Essay! You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others. Avoid use of the first person in this section. Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and when writing a reflective essay life was performed in the past, not the a drugstore essay future. The Methods section is plan, not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in your lab manual. Describe the organism(s) used in the study. This includes giving the (1) source (supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected), (2) typical size (weight, length, etc) , (3) how they were handled, fed, and in winter essay housed before the research experiment, (4) how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment.
In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? FOR FIELD STUDIES ONLY : Describe the site where your field study was conducted. The description must include both physical and a drugstore in winter biological characteristics of the site pertinant to writing a reflective about an experience in your life, the study aims. A Drugstore Essay! Include the date(s) of the review study (e.g., 10-15 April 1994) and the exact location of the study area. Location data must be as precise as possible: Grover Nature Preserve, ½ mi SW Grover, Maine rather than Grover Nature Preserve or Grover.
When possible, give the actual latitude and in winter essay longitude position of the site: these can be obtained using handheld GPS units, OR, from web resources such as Google Earth( TM ) and MapQuest( TM ). It is often a good idea to include a map (labeled as a Figure) showing the study location in thesis online, relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area. Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of a drugstore in winter essay, your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. NOTE: For laboratory studies you need not report the date and location of the study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility. Most often it is not . If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the binding lab or facility. Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the data take, etc. Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number (e.g., use 2.5% NaCl rather than test 1.) When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment. A Drugstore! A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses.
Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. Foremost in your description should be the quantitative aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc., that another scientist needs in research, order to duplicate your experiment. When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the a drugstore procedures (e.g., serial dilution) or equipment used (e.g., autopipetter) since other scientists will likely be familiar with them already. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and research papers brand or category (e.g., ultracentrifuge vs. prep centrifuge), particularly if they are not commonly found in most labs. It is appropriate to in winter essay, report, parenthetically, the sat essay grader source (vendor) and catalog number for essay, reagents used, e.g., . poly-L-lysine (Sigma #1309) . When using a method described in thermodynamics, another published source, you can save time and words by providing the relevant citation to the source. Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. NOTE : Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together. If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the experimental design when describing the data collection procedure(s), likely you can combine them and be more concise. NOTE : Although tempting, DO NOT say that you recorded the data , i.e., in your lab notebook, in the Methods description. Of course you did , because that is a drugstore essay, what all good scientists do, and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations.
Describe how the online data were summarized and analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and a drugstore which analyses (usually hypothesis tests) were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance. The information should include: Statistical software used : Sometimes it is essay, necessary to report which statistical software you used; this would be at in winter, the discretion of your instructor or the journal; how the when a reflective life data were summarized (Means, percent, etc) and how you are reporting measures of variability (SD,SEM, 95% CI, etc) this lets you avoid having to repeatedly indicate you are using mean ± SD or SEM. which data transformations were used(e.g., to correct for normal distribution or equalize variances); statistical tests used with reference to the particular questions, or kinds of questions, they address. For example, A Paired t-test was used to compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to the glider's wings. One way ANOVA was used to compare mean weight gain in a drugstore in winter, weight-matched calves fed the three different rations. Comparisons among the three pH treatment groups for each variable were done using one way ANOVA (with Tukey's post hoc test) or a Kruskal-Wallis Test (with Dunn's post hoc test).
any other numerical (e.g., normalizing data) or graphical techniques used to analyze the data what probability ( a priori ) was used to decide significance ; usually reported as the Greek symbol alpha. Essay And Papers Online! NOTE: You DO NOT need to say that you made graphs and tables. Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. Problem : The Methods section is a drugstore, prone to being wordy or overly detailed. Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action ; this results in very lengthy, wordy passages. A related sequence of actions can be combined into grader, one sentence to improve clarity and readability: Problematic Example : This is a drugstore in winter essay, a very long and essay wordy description of a common, simple procedure. It is a drugstore, characterized by single actions per writing essay about in your life sentence and a drugstore lots of unnecessary details. The petri dish was placed on the turntable.
The lid was then raised slightly. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Improved Example : Same actions, but all the and papers important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Each plate was placed on a turntable and streaked at opposing angles with fresh overnight E. coli culture using an inoculating loop. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Best: Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of essay, microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information. The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions.
Each plate was streaked with fresh overnight E. coli culture and research papers incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Problem : Avoid using ambiguous terms to essay, identify controls or treatments, or other study parameters that require specific identifiers to be clearly understood. Designators such as Tube 1, Tube 2, or Site 1 and Site 2 are completely meaningless out of context and princeton review grader difficult to follow in context. Problematic example : In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the a drugstore various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of really good introduction, Tubes 1,2, and 3 immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. In Winter Essay! thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. Thermodynamics Research! Tube 4's A 600 was measured only at Time 0 and at a drugstore essay, the end of the experiment. Improved example: Notice how the substitution ( in red ) of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context.
A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of the reaction mixtures exposed to light intensities of 1500, 750, and 350 uE/m2/sec immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and thesis binding every 2 min. A Drugstore! thereafter until the when writing a reflective essay about an experience in your life DCIP was completely reduced. The A 600 of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at a drugstore in winter, the end of the essay and papers online experiment. 1. Function : The function of the a drugstore in winter essay Results section is to objectively present your key results, without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials (Tables and introduction Figures). The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text (usually parenthetically) or in the relevant Tables or Figures (in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure). The Results section should be organized around Tables and/or Figures that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. Essay! The text of the Results section should be crafted to follow this sequence and highlight the evidence needed to answer the questions/hypotheses you investigated. Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. 2. Style : Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively.
The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Use the past tense . Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the data here. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope. Consider the following two examples:
This example highlights the trend/difference that the author wants the reader to focus: The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages (Fig. 2). Seeds exposed to the 2-day treatment had the highest cumulative germination (84%), 1.25 times that of the range 12-h or 5-day groups and in winter 4 times that of online, controls. In contrast, this example strays subtly into interpretation by referring to in winter essay, optimality (a conceptual model) and range business plan tieing the observed result to a drugstore in winter, that idea: The results of the germination experiment (Fig.
2) suggest that the optimal time for running-water treatment is 2 days. Thermodynamics Research! This group showed the highest cumulative germination (84%), with longer (5 d) or shorter (12 h) exposures producing smaller gains in a drugstore essay, germination when compared to the control group. Things to consider as you write your Results section: What are the results? : When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about those organisms or phenomena. Those observations are then analyzed to yield an really good essay introduction answer to the question. A Drugstore! In general, the answer is the key result. The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ. Thermodynamics! So, in an introductory course your analysis may consist of visual inspection of figures and simple calculations of means and standard deviations; in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of statistical tests.
You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is a drugstore essay, expected. For example, suppose you asked the driving business question, Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected Biology majors ? You would first collect height data from large random samples of male and female students. You would then calculate the a drugstore descriptive statistics for those samples (mean, SD, n, range, etc) and plot these numbers. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on range, average, 12.5 cm taller than female majors; this is the a drugstore in winter answer to the question. Notice that the outcome of a statistical analysis is not a key result, but rather an papers analytical tool that helps us understand what is our key result. Differences, directionality, and magnitude : Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the a drugstore essay nature of differences or relationships. For eaxmple, if you testing for range business, differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to in winter essay, simply report that groups A and B were significantly different. How are they different? How much are they different?
It is and papers, much more informative to say something like, Group A individuals were 23% larger than those in Group B, or, Group B pups gained weight at twice the rate of Group A pups. A Drugstore In Winter! Report the direction of differences (greater, larger, smaller, etc) and the magnitude of differences (% difference, how many times, etc.) whenever possible. See also below about use of the word significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the good essay Tables and Figures as soon as all the essay data are analyzed and when essay about an experience in your life arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way. A good strategy is to note, on a draft of each Table or Figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the Results. Simple rules to essay, follow related to Tables and Figures: Tables and Figures are assigned numbers separately and in thesis binding, the sequence that you will refer to a drugstore in winter, them from the text. Thermodynamics Papers! The first Table you refer to is Table 1, the next Table 2 and so forth.
Similarly, the first Figure is in winter essay, Figure 1, the next Figure 2, etc. Each Table or Figure must include a brief description of the results being presented and online other necessary information in a legend. Table legends go above the Table ; tables are read from essay top to bottom. Figure legends go below the good introduction figure ; figures are usually viewed from bottom to in winter, top. Fig. 1 . Table is never abbreviated, e.g., Table 1 . The body of the Results section is online, a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the in winter essay Tables and good essay Figures. The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to the question(s) investigated. A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information. A Drugstore! You must refer to writing a reflective essay an experience in your, each Table and/or Figure individually and in sequence (see numbering sequence), and clearly indicate for the reader the key results that each conveys.
Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. Some problems to avoid : Do not reiterate each value from a Figure or Table - only the key result or trends that each conveys. Do not present the same data in both a Table and Figure - this is considered redundant and a drugstore a waste of space and energy. Decide which format best shows the result and go with it. Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means, percents, etc. Statistical test summaries (test name, p- value) are usually reported parenthetically in business plan, conjunction with the biological results they support. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in your course). This parenthetical reference should include the statistical test used and a drugstore in winter essay the level of significance (test statistic and princeton sat essay DF are optional).
For example, if you found that the in winter essay mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of female Biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and your statistical conclusion (shown in red) as follows: Males (180.5 ± 5.1 cm; n=34) averaged 12.5 cm taller than females (168 ± 7.6 cm; n=34) in princeton sat essay, the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001) . If the summary statistics are shown in a figure, the in winter essay sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to driving, the figure where they may be seen: Males averaged 12.5 cm taller than females in the AY 1995 pool of a drugstore essay, Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001; Fig. 1) . Note that the report of the when a reflective essay key result (shown in blue) would be identical in a paper written for a course in a drugstore, which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in essay online, red would simply not appear except reference to a drugstore in winter essay, the figure. Avoid devoting whole sentences to report a statistical outcome alone. Use and over-use of the word significant : Your results will read much more cleanly if you avoid overuse of the word siginifcant in any of its forms. In scientific studies, the use of this word implies that a statistical test was employed to make a decision about the data; in princeton review grader, this case the test indicated a larger difference in a drugstore essay, mean heights than you would expect to really, get by chance alone. Essay! Limit the use of the writing about an experience in your word significant to a drugstore, this purpose only. If your parenthetical statistical information includes a p-value that indicates significance (usually when p 0.05), it is unncecssary (and redundant ) to use the word significant in the body of the and papers sentence (see example above) because we all interpret the p-value the same way. Likewise, when you report that one group mean is somehow different from another (larger, smaller, increased, decreased, etc), it will be understood by your reader that you have tested this and a drugstore essay found the princeton sat essay grader difference to be statisticallysignificant, especially if you also report a p-value 0.05. Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction.
For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on in winter, the skeletal mass of the rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet. Report negative results - they are important! If you did not get the essay and papers anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be reformulated, or perhaps you have stumbled onto something unexpected that warrants further study. Moreover, the absence of an effect may be very telling in many situations. In any case, your results may be of importance to others even though they did not support your hypothesis.
Do not fall into the trap of thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily bad data. If you carried out the work well, they are simply your results and a drugstore in winter need interpretation. Many important discoveries can be traced to bad data. Always enter the appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics. for an individual value you would write, the mean length was 10 m , or, the maximum time was 140 min. Binding! When including a measure of in winter essay, variability, place the binding online unit after the error value, e.g., . was 10 ± 2.3 m . Essay! Likewise place the unit after the last in a series of online, numbers all having the in winter same unit. For example: lengths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m , or no differences were observed after 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. of incubation . 1. Function : The function of the Discussion is to interpret your results in light of what was already known about the subject of the writing a reflective essay life investigation, and to essay, explain our new understanding of the problem after taking your results into consideration. The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by way of the question(s) or hypotheses you posed and the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Introduction. Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the place you left us at research, the end of the Introduction. Fundamental questions to answer here include: Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses?
If so, how do you interpret your findings? Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps a unforseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?) Given your conclusions, what is our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction? If warranted, what would be the essay next step in your study, e.g., what experiments would you do next? 2. Style : Use the active voice whenever possible in this section. Watch out for wordy phrases; be concise and make your points clearly. Use of the first person is okay, but too much use of the first person may actually distract the reader from the main points. 3. Approach : Organize the Discussion to address each of the experiments or studies for which you presented results; discuss each in essay online, the same sequence as presented in the Results, providing your interpretation of what they mean in the larger context of the problem.
Do not waste entire sentences restating your results; if you need to a drugstore essay, remind the reader of the result to be discussed, use bridge sentences that relate the thesis online result to a drugstore essay, the interpretation: The slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to controls suggests that. Thesis Binding! [ interpretation ]. You will necessarily make reference to the findings of others in order to support your interpretations.Use subheadings, if need be, to help organize your presentation. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a drugstore in winter essay, a result for thesis binding online, an interpretation, and make sure that no new results are presented here that rightly belong in the results. You must relate your work to the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of a drugstore essay, other investigators. As stated previously, you may find crucial information in someone else's study that helps you interpret your own data, or perhaps you will be able to reinterpret others' findings in review sat essay grader, light of a drugstore essay, yours. In either case you should discuss reasons for similarities and differences between yours and range plan others' findings. Consider how the results of essay, other studies may be combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the problem.
Be sure to state the conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of these considerations. You may also choose to briefly mention further studies you would do to clarify your working hypotheses. Make sure to reference any outside sources as shown in the Introduction section. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (include as needed) | FAQs | If, in your experiment, you received any significant help in a reflective about in your, thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service or material provided. Authors always acknowledge outside reviewers of their drafts (in PI courses, this would be done only a drugstore essay, if an instructor or other individual critiqued the draft prior to research papers, evaluation) and any sources of funding that supported the research. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! Although usual style requirements (e.g., 1st person, objectivity) are relaxed somewhat here, Acknowledgments are always brief and never flowery. Place the Acknowledgments between the Discussion and princeton the Literature Cited. 1. A Drugstore In Winter Essay! Function : The Literature Cited section gives an alphabetical listing (by first author's last name) of the driving range business references that you actually cited in the body of your paper. Instructions for writing full citations for various sources are given in on a drugstore, separate page. A complete format list for binding online, virtually all types of publication may be found in Huth and others(1994) . NOTE : Do not label this section Bibliography . A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text.
Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers. Function : An Appendix contains information that is non-essential to understanding of the paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the presentation. An appendix is an optional part of the paper, and is only a drugstore essay, rarely found in published papers. Headings : Each Appendix should be identified by a Roman numeral in sequence, e.g., Appendix I, Appendix II, etc. Each appendix should contain different material. Some examples of thesis binding, material that might be put in essay, an appendix (not an essay online exhaustive list) : raw data maps (foldout type especially) extra photographs explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have invented some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis. specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of chemicals or compounds that you have referred to in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by some common name in the text of your paper. diagrams of specialized apparati. Figures and Tables in Appendices. Figures and Tables are often found in an appendix. These should be formatted as discussed previously (see Tables and Figures), but are numbered in a drugstore essay, a separate sequence from driving business plan those found in the body of the paper. So, the first Figure in the appendix would be Figure 1, the essay first Table would be Table 1, and so forth.
In situations when multiple appendices are used, the Table and Figure numbering must indicate the appendix number as well (see Huth and others, 1994). Department of binding, Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240.