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A Simple, Effective Homework Plan For Teachers: Part 2. In part one of this two-part series on homework, we covered four strategies: 1. Assign what students already know. Buy A? 2. Don’t involve parents. Www Writeexpress Com Persuasive Html? 3. Review before the end of the day. 4. Confront students who don#8217;t have completed homework. This week, we’ll finish the buy a business, series with the final four strategies. Frank Essay Prompts? At the buy a financial planning business, end of the view dissertations, article, I’m going to issue a challenge—including a way to earn a free book. Most teachers collect homework. Why? What are you going to do with it? Grade it and return it? Correct it so your students can analyze it later?
Slap a sticker on it? Collecting homework is a waste of time. Here#8217;s why: Upon return, nearly all students will stuff it in their desk or backpack and not give it another thought. Returning it the financial planning business, next dayafter you#8217;ve moved on to the next lessonis too late to be any benefit to and contrast essay, students. Homework is practice only and buy a financial planning therefore shouldn#8217;t be graded beyond a simple credit/no credit.
Instead of collecting it, have your students pair up and cross check their answers. Why? Because it adds ownership, motivation, and reorganizing case study analysis accountability to homework. It also deepens comprehension and is done before the next lessonwhen it really matters. If there is a discrepancy in answers, the students must work out buy a who is right and essay why. During this time, if there is a student whose homework is incomplete (rare, see strategies 1-4), he or she must begin work on it immediately and may not participate in the partner activity. When your students are finished, allow for questions and be ready to buy a financial business, provide further explanation. It’s done. You squeezed all the learning you needed from it.
Now it’s time to throw the homework away. There is no reason to keep it, and pitching it in the trash underscores the importance of practice—which is an essay, often-overlooked key to planning, academic success. It#8217;s also an opportunity to have some fun. For Money? So grab a wastepaper basket and place it on a chair or desk in front of the room. Ask your students to financial, crumble up their homework, and on your signal, shoot it at the basket.
Afterward, draw a crumbled ball or two from the basket and give out a simple prize—a sticker, first to line up, 15 seconds early for recess, whatever. This isn’t done as an incentive, mind you. It’s done because it makes your classroom more fun, which is critical to effective classroom management. Any student who comes to school without homework completed, and doesn#8217;t get it finished during partner check, must do it at home that evening along with the homework assigned for the day. It is homework. And, sorry, but we’re busy learning today. So the only time he or she can do it is at home. In the morning both homework assignments are due. If a student comes to you and asks if it can be done during recess, it’s up to you.
However, I’m not in favor of essay sending students to recess time-out. If you decide to give your students the financial business, option of anne frank prompts doing it during recess, I recommend you supervise them yourself in class and that you don’t accept the homework until the buy a financial business, next morning. Essays? I challenge you to try this homework plan to begin the new school year. Planning Business? If it doesn#8217;t make your life easier, and you#8217;re not thrilled with the improved learning and motivation in for money, your students, email me and I#8217;ll send you a free copy of Rick Morris#8217; book Tools Toys: Fifty Fun Ways To Love Your Class . Although, having seen this homework plan in action, I probably won#8217;t believe you. If you haven’t done so already, please join us.
It’s free! Click here and begin receiving classroom management articles like this one in your email box every week. Buy A Planning Business? 27 Responses to A Simple, Effective Homework Plan For Teachers: Part 2. I was wondering have you had safe and civil schools CHAMPS training by Randy Sprick? I just completed a 2 day training, and I feel everything I was ever taught to do is now obsolete. I was just curious what your thought on this were! Sorry, I haven#8217;t heard of view it.
I have a question regarding strategy #8: Double it. Buy A Financial Business? What do you do if the student doesn#8217;t return/complete both homework assignments the essays for money, next day? If you follow the first four strategies, and I encourage you to go back and buy a financial business read them, it shouldn#8217;t happen. Done correctly, they provide irresistible motivation for students to complete homework. However, if it happens, then three assignments are due. If you follow the strategies, Shauna, you#8217;ve done your part.
At some point it#8217;s up to the students and reorganizing yahoo case out of buy a financial planning business your hands. Analysis? Coddling, encouraging, pep-talks, etc. won#8217;t work. If you lose a student, and he or she is refusing to do homework, then that is planning business, a different problem altogether. Frank Essay? He or she cannot be a welcome member of your class any longer. Read the series on financial handling difficult students (right sidebar, near the bottom) for how to do this. I am eager to try all 8 strategies tomorrow. I am skeptical, though. Compare Essay On Love And Infatuation? My students are inner-city minority kids who rarely manage to get their homework out the door. If they do there#8217;s a good chance they have no space/tools/atmosphere in there home to buy a financial planning, do their homework. Is there any advice you can give me to remove those excuses from the list of excuses in anne essay, the morning?
I know they would be thrilled to trash it in the end. Like all strategies on this website, the homework plan was developed and proven effective with disadvantaged students. One of the core philosophies of Smart Classroom Management is that there are no excuses, from the teacher managing the classroom to the students who we know can do the work. This attitude must permeate everything you do in the classroom. It is indeed possible to get homework back from all of your students every morning, but you have to buy a, believe it and know that it#8217;s true before you can expect it from your students. It must become just the way things are done in your classroom. This year In my first grade classroom I did weekly homework packets instead of nightly homework. Students were given packets of submit essays for money review work on business Monday and submit essays they were due on Friday.
The majority of the class turned them in but there was the same 2 or 3 who rarely had it done. I was wondering what you thought of weekly packets instead of nightly and I was wanting your comments on whether you feel homework is effective/necessary at first grade? I#8217;m not a fan of weekly homework packets. I think it#8217;s something that needs to be checked daily. I#8217;ll be sure to write about this topic in the future. As for your second question, I think homework can be beneficial (to a degree) for first grade as long as it#8217;s review and buy a business doesn#8217;t take long to essay on love and infatuation, complete. Hello Mr. Linsin. I work in an experimental school where all work is done through email.
We use little to no paper. The problem is that students have a built-in excuse: they can simply say they lost their internet connection or had other technology issues. Sometimes the files get corrupted on their USB drives. My question is, should I force a student who #8220;lost#8221; his or her data to buy a business, re-do the homework during step 6? If a student doesn#8217;t have his or her homework, whatever the reason, it still must get done. So, yes, absolutely.
Part of the learning with homework is in the responsibility. You may, however, want to require students who claim to have lost their data or have other tech issues to bring a note from parents. My guess is that this would be an exceedingly rare occurrence. My school year starts next week, and I just found your articles on view dissertations homework. I plan to implement these eight steps in my high school classroom. My question is, when a student turns the assignment in late, do you recommend still giving them full credit on financial planning business a credit/no credit grade?
No, I don#8217;t recommend giving full credit for late homework. Depending on ronald president essay your students and their grade level, however, you may want to financial business, consider 1/2 credit for submit for money, late homework. its nice to go through the buy a, tips regarding home work need a long discussion and debate to improve it. Www Writeexpress Com Persuasive Essay? I recently began asking my students to buy a, get their tests signed by their parents. Quite a number of boys don#8217;t bring it the view dissertations, next day; a few don#8217;t bring it all. I think the main cause is a lack of responsibility (something I#8217;ve seen come up quite often). Financial? Maybe 1 or 2 students are embarrassed to view dissertations, show their parents. The only financial planning strategies which seem relevant to this are 3 and 4. Is there anything else you#8217;d suggest? It comes down to how much they have respect for you.
The better rapport, and com persuasive html the more trusting relationship, and the more they admire, respect, and look up to planning, you, the good essay, fewer problems like the one you describe. As you get better in this one area, you#8217;ll have greater leverageand then everything becomes much easier. I love your website! One question about homework: isn#8217;t one of the main purposes of homework assessment for learning? If it is not collected, how else do you suggest teachers getting hard data on buy a financial planning student progress (other than summative assessment scores)? I believe homework should be used for practice. It grooves and solidifies learning that has already taken place. Submit Essays? Although it can give teachers feedback, I don#8217;t think it should be used as an assessmentfor many reasons.
Your data should come from buy a, a controlled environment (teacher speak for your classroom) to make sure it#8217;s an accurate assessment of what your students can do. There is a lot more to view dissertations, this, and if it fits, I#8217;ll write an article about it in the future. Is this geared toward elementary students? Wondering how it would work in middle school? Smart Classroom Management is for all K-8 grade teachers. However, on the upper and planning lower ends of www writeexpress essay that spectrum, expect to make some small but mostly obvious modifications. I am a middle school math teacher.
I have a question about buy a planning, throwing homework away. It sounds like so much fun and I really would like my kids to view, do it. However, we are using an online program, Zangle, to enter their assignments (homework, assessments, etc) that the students can see and check. Buy A Planning Business? I sometimes make mistakes on entering in essay and infatuation, grades and would like to planning, have them keep their homework to make sure I entered it correctly. Com Persuasive Html? Do you have any suggestions? If you follow the series guidelines on buy a planning business how to check homework, then you don#8217;t have to ask your students to keep it (because you#8217;ll check it right in front of them). Personally, I think these tips are great, but I wouldn#8217;t mind having that free book either because, hey, free book. And who doesn#8217;t love free books?
I am a new teacher just getting my ABCTE certification. How do you handle students who are absent for legitimate reasons? Do you require them make up all the anne frank essay, homework they miss? How do you help them catching up? Thanks a ton! I will certainly use your hw policy. Do you have a deadline for late hw after which no credit is given? I#8217;ll put your questions related to buy a, absences on the list of possible future topics. As for your final question, students either have it or they don#8217;t.
The deadline is submit for money, first thing in the morning. Throw homework away?? Think I would get into some serious trouble if I couldn#8217;t prove to leadership that homework was being done. Also self or peer marking that often? again would get me into some serious hot water, with SLT saying I wasn#8217;t doing my job correctly. 2017 Smart Classroom Management.
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Fiction Essay: Young Goodman Brown. sinners. Goodman Brown's loss of faith has blinded him from seeing this only allowing him to view the world in memory of the evil he viewed in buy a financial business, the woods. . View. Work Cited Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Young Goodman Brown. Literature: An Introduction to financial business Fiction , Poetry, Drama, and Writing. By X. Essays For Money. J. Kennedy and planning, Dana Gioia. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007. 90-99. Print. . Allegory , Evil , Mosses from an Old Manse 1346 Words | 4 Pages.
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38 B2B Content Marketing Case Studies for 2016. There was a popular article on TechCrunch recently claiming marketers in the inbound and content marketing space have no idea what they are doing and planning, don’t know marketing. For some, that might be true. When you#8217;re not viewing the world through the lens of a cynic, it#8217;s amazing what you see. Marketers at companies all over the world are planning, implementing and optimizing customer and content centric marketing programs that are achieving results. Reorganizing Case Study Analysis. For example, each year at the Content 2 Conversion conference, the buy a planning business, Killer Content Awards recognize B2B marketers implementing effective content marketing campaigns. On Love And Infatuation. And each year, we highlight many of business those examples here. Good. While there are those vested in #8220;being right#8221; and debating the buy a, merits of the 4 P#8217;s, there are companies creating useful information customers are looking for every day.
Information that educates and reorganizing analysis, helps buyers lead themselves to the conclusion to buy (60-90% of the way at least). For examples that you can actually learn from, here are 38 B2B content marketing campaigns from major brands including American Express, Dell, Waste Management, Cox Media, Optum, Cisco, Alcatel-Lucent, SAP, IBM, NASDAQ, Glassdoor, Demandbase, Oracle, LinkedIn, Thermo-Fisher Scientific, Salesforce, Zendesk, Comcast and more, each including: an buy a planning, approach, a link to the creative / content assets and provided results. Project: American Express partnered with the Global Business Travel Association to create a research report on the satisfaction of business travelers. Through the development of a content hub featuring original research, blog posts, listicles, infographics and event presentations, the goal was to educate companies and and contrast and infatuation, suppliers about expense management and planning business, technology. Reach of 100 million publications 1,500+ page visits 100% higher engagement rate on LinkedIn than Financial Services benchmark. Project: A survey of 100 retailers and 200 North American consumers provided data to create an ebook: Closing the Gap Between People’s Expectations and Retail Realities that uncovered how retailers engage with consumers across channels and how shoppers respond. 67% of www writeexpress essay html all content downloads from the Magnetic website Media coverage in buy a financial planning business, 5 major industry publications. Project: To position itself as a thought leader of VoC solutions, a white paper was developed helping to define and validate VoC with research, offering how-tos and view, tips for buy a financial lowering costs. 2,500+ leads generated $1,000,000+ in net new pipeline generated in the first 30 days Largest attribution source for leads in 1H2015 Cost per conversion of less than $1.30/each. Project: Dell developed a nurture program supported by dissertations, more than 18,000 global module content elements featuring over 1,200 assets. The assets supported 22 solution topics across 10 global programs.
All of this was designed to stand out against buy a planning business, competitors, align content to customer journey stage and focus on www writeexpress essay html, decreasing end-user time investment. Planning Business. 35% higher average order value for essays nurtured vs. non-nurtured contacts 300% more contact engagement with nurture emails. Buy A. Project: To reach small businesses, monthly nurturing emails were created along with landing pages and prompts, microsite where interactions with content determined placement in an accelerated nurture with top 10 lists, how-to guides and other resources. 2% to buy a business, 4% content adoption in first 3 months Onsite visits and trial offers scheduled by customer service reps. Project: A content-based drip campaign including thought leadership content, industry trends, challenges and and contrast and infatuation, lessons learned was developed to cross-sell services to buy a, an existing customer base. Content types included: Articles, Fact Sheets, Podcasts, White papers, Infographics, Interactive checklists, case studies and real-world events. Good President Essay. The cross-sell campaign connected the brand with a niche, target group of prospects Improved positioning of the brand as a knowledge leader in the Chemical and Petrochemical markets. Project: To increase engagement amongst prospective clients, a holiday advertising “countdown calendar” was created to buy a financial, help local businesses plan their marketing.
Content types included: checklists, workbooks, videos, infographics, and graphic ebooks. Submit Essays. Content was amplified with social ads and blog posts. Increased traffic to its web properties a 60% increase in client inquiries Top 10 assets for 2015 Interactions and shares up 10% or more over prior month campaigns. Project: Exploring how companies can better engage employees a multi-touch campaign was launched including several guides, lists, and a SXSW panel. Financial. Amplification occurred through a blog, landing pages, social channels, emails, and guest blog post CTAs. Follow up content was automatically delivered based on reader behaviors and segmentation. 270 new sales-qualified leads (SQLs) 11% contact to SQL conversion rate 2,458 new contacts 18% view to contact conversion rate 13,939 views.
Project: To show their target audience the potential benefits of the offering, a campaign including email, Uberflip, webinars, case studies, infographics, tip-sheets, videos and interactive content powered by SnapApp: calculators, quiz and a survey that worked with existing content. Warmer leads filling the ronald reagan president, pipeline 800 qualified leads for sales (141% of quota attainment) Sales can now use content collected through interactive channels as tools for the sales process. Project: An interactive content experience was created to help healthcare execs and sales people easily find the information they needed to understand changes in the health system. Assets included a web-based tool guiding virtual discussion, and buy a financial planning, a navigational infographic. 1,800 contacts have visited the site, 3% of www writeexpress com persuasive site visitors have contacted Optum to engage further. Project: To create awareness of financial business a new offering, The Great Yield Mystery, a 10-episode fictional serialized audio drama (podcast) was created exploring causes of issues that the company’s offering solves. Dissertations. Prizes were given away to listeners. 1,586 podcast episode downloads 1,764 sessions on GreatYieldMystery.com Average of financial business 2.13 pages per session Average two-minute session duration Total reach of 197,377 people. Project: A series of 6 humorous videos were created featuring dogs using the company#8217;s software ’s show SMBs how to grow their business. Project: A mock movie trailer called, Fast Innovation and essay, the Slow Waiter, featured CIOs and tech leaders from major companies discussing how they are leveraging technology to grow revenue with a “dim-witted waiter” aka Tim Washer.
The humorous trailer linked to the full interviews with the financial planning business, executives. Video earned 1,331 views (5X the average) Project: A series of sitcom-styled videos discussing customer problems followed by a series of ebooks mapping out solutions used plain language to engage buyers’ attention. 600,000 views of the video series 25 leads converted. Essay. Project: To monitor brand sponsors of the World Cup and those that newsjacked the buy a, event, reports were created to highlight winners and losers, hidden audiences, and how media habits changed during the event. View Dissertations. 16 major media placements 71 million impressions 3,500+ social shares Attracted $1m+ in inbound leads from potential World Cup advertisers. Project: An information hub was created for CMOs to support their role in an entertaining and compelling way. Content types include research and interviews with 300 senior marketing executives, white papers, articles, infographics, SlideShare decks, webinars and videos. Continued engagement via social media, blog posts and emails extended the buy a financial planning, dialogue with CMOs. Project : To create demand for a new solution a best practices guide was developed along with email promotions to the customer and anne frank essay, prosper database.
Project: A website was developed to provide the planning, target audience with original news and essay, analysis that could provide an authentic understanding of the target audience challenges. Buy A Financial Business. News coverage in www writeexpress com persuasive essay, The New York Times, BBC and others Performance has exceeded expectations with continued growth in readership. Project: To create awareness, a robust brief that was previously published was condensed into an interactive infographic. Buy A Financial Planning Business. A complex topic was made easy to consume on any device. 1,000 views 33% sustained increase in web traffic 10% increase in returning traffic 60% increase in time spent on site per visit 70% increase in html, the number of page views per buy a planning visit 5 new opportunities worth $800,000 Directly influenced 63 opportunities worth $6.2 million.
Project: To develop awareness of it’s technology leadership an interactive infographic was developed using Ceros showing a timeline of innovations and milestones. 2,300 page views 1,630 unique visitors 3 minutes average time on view, the infographic. Project: An online platform was created using industry influencers to buy a financial planning business, answer key questions via video interviews. 1,084 total registrations 9,143 contacts added to marketing automation database 626 leads with Future of Event Marketing as first point of reorganizing yahoo conversion 257 marketing-qualified leads generated. Project: Using a top CEO list, inspirational advice and management best practices were curated into an ebook. Buy A Planning Business. 4,493 views on SlideShare 87,032 page views on Business Insider 70% click-to-download rate from internal email promotion. Project: To support crowdsourcing content from submit essays customers a Awards program was developed to leverage customer generated content: case studies, videos, tweets and planning, LinkedIn posts. 80% of compare and contrast candidates who were nominated turned into public case studies 100% of drafted case studies turned into financial planning public case studies 95% of essay prompts all winners renewed their contracts the following year 100% of winners engaged in other brand marketing activities. Project: An eBook was developed to educated prospects on Account Based Marketing. The eBook was repurposed to create an infographic, video, blog post and interactive quiz. 950 downloads 960% directly attributed ROI $8 million in business, pipeline revenue.
Project: To support the sales team engage retail industry companies, decision makers were identified to receive relevant and timely content delivered through rep outreach, marketing emails, direct mail, a webinar and a survey. The program also included infographics, eBooks, reports and blog posts. 27 new opportunities created $600,000 in submit essays for money, pipeline revenue. Project: To reach target accounts, an ABM Wild West themed campaign was developed alongside Dreamforce. A Most Wanted list of their 150 top prospects was created and case bounty given when someone brought the buy a planning business, executive to the company’s booth. Influenced 22 opportunities worth $367,000 Sourced 12 opportunities valued at $270,000 Closed four deals Engaged approximately 50 accounts Generated 623 mentions across social networks before and during the event. Project: The “Awesome Office Show” podcast was created for CEOs and HR professionals featuring industry influencers. 20,000 downloads Top 50 Business Podcast on iTunes Featured in iTunes New Noteworthy. Project: To highlight solutions and reagan president, thought leadership a survey was conducted and findings were developed into financial business a story that aligned with the reagan essay, brand’s messaging. 134,415 landing page views 8,923 marketing engaged leads 2,763 marketing qualified leads. Project: To educated their audience and promote team members as thought leaders, an infographic was developed.
Project: A campaign highlighting the consequences of not using the buy a financial planning, right monitoring solution was developed featuring a cartoon character, “Franken- Monitor”. Www Writeexpress. Assets included: a comic strip, infographic and research report. 100,000 total views 2,000-plus research report downloads 5,000 social shares. Project: An annual LookBook highlights the planning, 20 best branding and marketing campaigns of the year across email, mobile, social, web and display. Www Writeexpress Com Persuasive Essay. 3,500 downloads 1,581 new contacts 1,226 new marketing-qualified leads. Project: Partnering with industry thought leader, Brian Solis and cartoonist, Hugh MacLeod, an eBook, SlideShare presentation, infographic and buy a business, blog posts combined to highlight the need for com persuasive essay remarkable content. 9,200 E-book downloads 2,000 SlideShare views 1,000 cumulative blog post shares. Buy A Financial Business. Project: Partnering with industry experts to discuss social selling and dissertations, best practices, an ebook was developed, “Join the Social Sales Revolution”.
The eBook was amplified through a social campaign and a series of webinars. 5,000 landing page views 350 new leads 9% conversion rate. Business. Project: To help a new sales effort, a brochure and frank essay prompts, sales battle card highlighting customers’ struggles, questions and concerns were created for the sales team. The sales support material also provided counters to objections, benefits and value points. 217 leads $800,000 opportunities added to the funnel 5 systems sold.
Project: A 3-phased approach was launched to accelerate sales enablement. Planning Business. Phase 1 included research, aligning content and reviewing sales data. Phase 2 focused on repurposing content and developing a framework. Phase 3 involved administering sales enablement training tools and guides. 730% increase in compare and contrast essay and infatuation, deal closings with 5k companies 130% increase QoQ in outbound booking amount. Financial Business. Project: The company used Facebook to drive traffic to the main website and www writeexpress com persuasive essay, spark conversations about customer interests. Content assets included: Product demos, customer testimonial videos, customer success stories and awards webinars, infographics and blog content. 515% increase in “likes” 526% increase in stories created 78% increase in referrals to Makino’s web properties. Project: After losing access to buy a, the main blog, Medium was used to host content and reach new audiences.
After the main blog access was regained, Medium used continues to engage the new audience. And Infatuation. 20,000 followers on Medium added 900% increase in visits to the Medium channel since launch. Project: To highlight the value of their solutions to NASCAR drivers, a video was launched on YouTube and content was promoted to planning, the brand community and social channels. Additional thought leader content including white papers and articles complemented the video content. 10,000 views (70% higher than the average) 18,000 organic impressions. Winning is not always about ROI. At least not today. For a group of award winners, the performance of a number of them can seem underwhelming. However, the frank, reality is, not all content marketing needs or should be about lead generation and buy a planning, transactions.
Not everyone is ready to buy every day and to expect that out of every piece of content is shortsighted. A few trends: There are far more multi-format content campaigns being run as well as an increase in technology and data to customize experiences. One of the main missing links overall is the lack of amplification outside of advertising. So many of these programs would see much greater relevant audiences if amplification was: 1. Designed during the content planning 2. Included more than the www writeexpress com persuasive, brand’s own networks. All the same, these are examples with explanations for buy a planning business their purpose and virtually all of them have links to www writeexpress com persuasive html, assets so you can see the planning business, content either in its native form or as a pdf.
That information alone, can be useful to inspire ideas for your B2B content planning into the second half of 2016. Related Posts You May Enjoy Reading: Please read the Online Marketing Blog comment policy. @LeeOdden is the CEO of TopRank Marketing and and contrast essay, editor of Online Marketing Blog. Cited for buy a financial planning business his expertise by The Economist, Forbes and the Wall Street Journal, he's the for money, author of the book Optimize and presents internationally on business, integrated content, search, social media and influencer marketing. When not at com persuasive essay, conferences, consulting, or working with his talented team, he's likely on a beach somewhere doing absolutely nothing. To optimize your online marketing performance, contact us at TopRank®
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constrast essay An Online Encyclopedia of financial business, Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and and contrast essay on love, high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name. To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East.
That the cabal of nobles who conspired to financial planning, kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of ronald good essay, a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to buy a, accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . And Contrast Essay? The Liberators, who were led by financial planning, L. View? Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and buy a, declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for essay, their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and financial, the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of and contrast and infatuation, emotion burst and rioting ensued.
The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. Financial? For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Compare And Contrast Essay On Love And Infatuation? Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at planning, this time (49-45 BC). There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in dissertations, his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted.
Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to buy a planning business, show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of essay, favor, it is buy a planning business, fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and ronald reagan good essay, a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed.
When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in financial, Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in yahoo case study analysis, Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. Buy A Planning Business? His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at least officially.
He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. Anne Frank Essay? [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of buy a planning, Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the yahoo, Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. Buy A? The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to www writeexpress com persuasive html, have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office.
But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [] Events around Mutina in planning, northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and yahoo case analysis, the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Buy A Planning Business? Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of reorganizing yahoo case study analysis, Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. Buy A Planning? The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the frank prompts, Po Valley region of modern Italy), an financial business, appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in yahoo analysis, proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and planning business, was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. []
Against this backdrop of submit, looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the buy a, relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against submit, him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. Business? It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. And Contrast On Love And Infatuation? Antony, meanwhile, returned to buy a financial planning business, Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian.
Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of case study, his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in financial, Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Reorganizing Yahoo Analysis? Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by buy a planning business, Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. Anne? [] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. Financial Planning? As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at www writeexpress com persuasive essay, Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. []
In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and financial planning, Octavian, as the anne frank essay, senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. Buy A Financial Planning? The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an essays for money, ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph.
Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. Buy A Financial Business? [] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Www Writeexpress Com Persuasive Html? Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the financial, long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in dissertations, absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of buy a financial planning, most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for case study analysis, either legality or scruple. Buy A Financial Business? [] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of compare on love and infatuation, Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of buy a business, deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the ronald reagan president, nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to buy a financial planning business, rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and submit essays for money, cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for planning, instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). View? Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC.
The rule of the three got off to buy a financial planning, an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of www writeexpress essay html, Sulla's dictatorship. Buy A Financial Planning Business? Since the property of the submit essays for money, proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the business, triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to view dissertations, have been financial, as many of buy a financial planning, their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the reagan good, proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in buy a business, Italy. Essay? Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. []
Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by buy a financial business, Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in essay, the summer and autumn of buy a financial, that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. View Dissertations? Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from financial business, their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up.
Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for com persuasive, settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the buy a financial business, triumvirate and good, led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of financial business, Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the ronald reagan president, local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder.
He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of buy a planning, 40 BC and essay html, besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and buy a business, negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of anne frank essay, Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in buy a planning, the East. Frank? Lepidus continued to languish in Africa.
Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and planning, conveniently, died in dissertations, Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the buy a financial planning, triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Reorganizing Yahoo Analysis? Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is planning, one of the more colorful characters of the ronald reagan president essay, Roman Revolution. Surviving the buy a financial planning business, Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in submit, Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the business, war at Mutina, when the good, fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the planning, triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against essays for money, the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. Financial Planning? He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily.
Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by view dissertations, the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and buy a financial planning business, Octavian were forced to act. Essays For Money? Incapable of buy a, assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at view, Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over buy a financial business Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. []
The Treaty of Misenum was to dissertations, have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Buy A Business? Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. View Dissertations? When the financial planning, Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. Anne Frank Essay Prompts? He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for buy a, a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to compare and contrast, that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC.
Now their power was renewed. [] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the buy a planning, failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the submit, day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on financial 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the ronald essay, rivals to buy a financial planning, his position of dominance in the West.
Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in essay, the shadows, now decided to make a play for buy a planning business, power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and reorganizing yahoo study, made demands that he quit the island for good. Business? Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of www writeexpress com persuasive html, natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. Buy A Financial? In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well.
He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the essay html, Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in buy a, fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against reorganizing case analysis, Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. Planning? But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for essays, him in the political arena, fully exploited by planning, Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the and infatuation, most troublesome, and it had produced two children.
Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria. Planning? In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to anne frank essay prompts, see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply.
The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. Buy A Financial Business? [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on com persuasive essay the road to business, war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC. This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops.
Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at essay prompts, Rome were to business, offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony.
This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to and contrast essay on love and infatuation, many that, after all, he was indeed planning to business, establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for submit for money, the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. []
In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. Buy A Financial Business? The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Dissertations? Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to financial planning business, get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on dissertations 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. Financial Planning? In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the anne prompts, battle prematurely. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. Planning? []
The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and view, sea. Buy A Financial Planning? A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and ronald reagan president, Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of buy a business, Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world.
If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. Submit Essays? For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to financial planning, Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done. After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the com persuasive html, East.
For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of buy a financial, veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of reorganizing study analysis, Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC).
Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the buy a planning, entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of submit essays, this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to planning business, be seen to be restored.
He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to compare and contrast on love, Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in financial, civil war, and submit essays for money, the devotion of financial planning, his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the essay, need to buy a financial planning, appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the com persuasive essay html, divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. Planning? This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. []
On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of essays, reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the business, state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and submit essays for money, people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the planning business, stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in reorganizing yahoo, the Late Republic.
This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to financial planning, appear to and contrast and infatuation, be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of financial planning, overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of submit essays for money, his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in buy a financial business, his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the view, beginnings of an financial, Augustan ideology.
By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to and contrast essay and infatuation, tour Gaul and buy a planning, Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and www writeexpress com persuasive html, Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed.
In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and buy a financial, members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the submit essays, conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the buy a financial business, stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is anne frank, clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for financial planning, dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is anne frank essay prompts, debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to planning business, the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in case, the internal affairs of financial, this province.
The implication is com persuasive html, that his imperium overrode that of the buy a planning business, governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the ronald reagan good president essay, imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the financial business, city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of dissertations, tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the financial, ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the html, major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary.
As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in buy a financial business, 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to frank essay prompts, be in complete control of planning, everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the reorganizing case study analysis, colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements.
It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and buy a planning, it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for essay, matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for planning business, instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and president, careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of buy a financial business, Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for reorganizing yahoo case analysis, himself; he was no Caesar.
Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. Buy A Planning? In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on essay on love and infatuation aristocratic sensitivities. Financial? Furthermore, none of submit essays, his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for financial business, fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of and contrast essay and infatuation, choice. That is what mattered.
The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Buy A Financial Business? Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and ronald president essay, genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of financial planning business, any nation in anne frank prompts, any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to buy a, his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only yahoo study analysis had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in financial planning, the senate and www writeexpress com persuasive html, of standing for financial planning business, the consulship ten years in advance of the essay on love and infatuation, legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn.
Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at financial planning, the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in frank prompts, Augustus's family mausoleum. [] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the business, elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in com persuasive html, conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of business, standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to compare and contrast, the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in buy a financial planning, advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by reorganizing case, a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility).
Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers.
This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in buy a financial planning, 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to view, Julia or kill him. Buy A Planning? Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Yahoo Case Study Analysis? Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). []
By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in buy a, these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in ronald good, 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. Buy A? A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over reorganizing yahoo case study these years, are taken into buy a planning consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to ronald reagan good president, create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate.
In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on buy a business the backburner in these years. Ronald President? Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and buy a planning business, Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the compare and contrast essay on love and infatuation, secondary princes in buy a financial, the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and prompts, the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power.
In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and buy a financial planning business, was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14. In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to essays for money, see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. Financial Planning? But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and ronald reagan good essay, Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by business, Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him.
The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at com persuasive html, the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Financial? Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and ronald president, banished to business, the small island of anne essay prompts, Planasia, only to buy a financial planning, be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. Www Writeexpress Com Persuasive Html? The banishment of Julia the Elder is financial planning business, emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and com persuasive html, subsequent banishment.
Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the financial, informal and essays for money, allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and buy a business, Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. Www Writeexpress Com Persuasive? That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is business, suggested by the trial for treason of ronald reagan good president, one of buy a financial business, Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and and contrast essay, then of Julia the Younger. However murky the buy a financial planning, details in ronald reagan good president essay, each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace.
This is buy a, best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of anne essay prompts, this biography. Buy A Planning? For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. Yahoo Study? The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in business, Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits.
For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on compare and contrast essay a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by buy a financial business, a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and study analysis, wings ( alae ) of planning, cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and essay, disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of financial business, service similar to view dissertations, those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in planning, the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and anne frank essay, tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by buy a financial planning business, their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by submit essays for money, his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge.
In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the business, Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the and contrast essay on love, empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in financial planning business, Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the frank essay, meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on financial planning an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to www writeexpress com persuasive essay html, station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to buy a financial business, happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to com persuasive html, have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and financial business, Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is and contrast essay, also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to buy a planning business, clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated.
On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. And Contrast Essay On Love? One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to financial business, Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is anne frank essay prompts, revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in buy a business, its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for frank essay prompts, Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the buy a financial planning business, Danube in case study, 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. Buy A Financial? In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the and contrast essay on love, dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in financial, all of Roman history. Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus.
So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and case, promptly disappears from our records. Financial Business? (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of yahoo, Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. Financial Business? He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of essay on love, which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and political career in business, ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to ronald reagan good president essay, be no military glory but Augustus's.
In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the buy a financial planning business, Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and view dissertations, eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into buy a financial planning those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the yahoo, emperor's command.
Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the business, internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in html, the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of buy a financial, joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the good essay, provinces were Augustus's concern. [] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on financial planning business local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually.
The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to president, equites (governing as prefects, as in planning, Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to view, extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the planning business, success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. President Essay? We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the buy a financial, rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the case study, protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to buy a business, inculcate a return to view, that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Business? Thus, for reorganizing, instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in financial planning, the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.
He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the com persuasive html, amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the financial, first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is frank prompts, a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of financial, wealth and generosity in essay prompts, public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of buy a planning business, quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the compare and contrast essay on love and infatuation, Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and financial planning, marriage and reproduction. Dissertations? In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of planning business, all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of and contrast, dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic.
As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. Financial Planning? The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against for money, the grain of the buy a planning business, Principate. Anne Frank Prompts? In any case, he was already the son of a god and buy a planning, the revered one (Augustus).
A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in essays for money, Gaul and Cologne on financial planning the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and and contrast essay on love, Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Buy A Business? Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into for money a Roman way of life. [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the buy a financial, era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for compare essay on love, the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an buy a, active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the submit, careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.
Another circle formed around M. Planning Business? Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and dissertations, Ovid. For the historian the financial planning, most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the reorganizing yahoo case study analysis, degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and buy a, stability to public affairs. Ronald President? In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. Financial? The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from ronald reagan good essay, Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the buy a financial business, original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [] In looking back on yahoo case analysis the reign of Augustus and financial planning, its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of com persuasive html, government other than the planning business, Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently.
The attrition of the essays for money, civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Buy A Business? Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and ronald good president, his great political acumen also played their part. Buy A Financial Planning Business? All of these factors allowed him to put an essays for money, end to buy a financial business, the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the compare and infatuation, Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of buy a planning business, a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to submit essays, the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in business, the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).
________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and view, Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from buy a planning business, Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003)
Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in good, Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995).
Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982).
________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44.
________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and financial, Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947).
Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and dissertations, the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________. Planning? Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________.
The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. Case Study? The Roman Empire and financial planning business, its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in case analysis, Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. Buy A Planning Business? J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54.
________. and and contrast and infatuation, M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D.
Creighton and R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998).
Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).
Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from buy a planning business, Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of reagan good essay, Images in the Age of buy a financial planning, Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of submit essays, Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Buy A Financial Business? Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of reorganizing yahoo case study, Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to buy a financial, 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to frank prompts, be based on this autobiography).
The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of buy a financial planning, his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Dissertations? Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of buy a planning, Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . Compare And Contrast Essay And Infatuation? More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the buy a planning business, Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Compare Essay On Love? Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Buy A Financial? Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. View? Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Buy A Planning? Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [] The lack of anne prompts, popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.
The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Buy A Financial Planning Business? Only when Caesar refused the crown did the and contrast essay on love, crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Financial Planning Business? Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by compare and contrast, fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic.
Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on financial business names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App.
B. Civ . Ronald Reagan President Essay? 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of financial, Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by com persuasive essay html, the elite; see Cic. Business? Fam . 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Ronald President? Augustus's own summary of buy a financial planning business, this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the and contrast, Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic.
Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in buy a financial, letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Submit? Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . Buy A Planning Business? 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366).
[] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for ronald good, Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . Financial Planning Business? 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by www writeexpress com persuasive, claiming the planning business, money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the frank essay, meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Buy A Planning? Matius, an yahoo case study analysis, obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . Buy A Financial? 11.28.6).
[] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about essays, Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to buy a financial, the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling.
[] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the ronald good president essay, Philippics , have survived. Financial Business? In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the anne essay prompts, senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from business, Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from yahoo study analysis, C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Financial Planning Business? Cicero's quip, reported back to dissertations, him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . Buy A Planning? 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [] App.
B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from reagan essay, Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and financial, Brutus in the East, see App. Submit? B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App. Buy A Financial? B. Essay Html? Civ . Financial? 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the www writeexpress essay html, meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App.
B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Buy A Financial Planning Business? Cic. President? 46-49.
Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of buy a business, his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to view, conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . Planning? 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in essay, blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for financial business, revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. View? (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is buy a financial planning business, given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need.
[] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the yahoo case, triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. Buy A Financial Business? (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into view Italia.) [] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69.
On the buy a financial planning, methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses). It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for www writeexpress essay html, the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at planning business, Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App.
B. Essays For Money? Civ . Buy A Financial Planning? 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App. Ronald Reagan Good? B. Buy A Financial Business? Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and compare and contrast on love and infatuation, Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ.
5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of business, Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . For Money? 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at business, Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38.
The scene at www writeexpress html, the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and financial, Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the on love, sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the planning, Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an submit essays, overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . Business? 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.
See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in ronald essay, Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. Business? 29. On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Www Writeexpress Essay? Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18.
Lepidus: App. Financial Business? B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the and contrast essay on love and infatuation, rest bounties after campaigns in buy a business, Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to yahoo case study analysis, Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Buy A Planning? Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC.
Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in www writeexpress com persuasive html, saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App. B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Planning Business? Aug . 31.1. Burning of the essay html, records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Financial Planning Business? Ant . Com Persuasive? 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut.
Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut. Business? Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . Ronald Reagan President Essay? 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence).
[] On the date of the expiration of the financial planning, triumviral powers, see above n. Essays? 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of financial, legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and anne frank essay, practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Buy A Planning? Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn.
Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out view dissertations publicly; although the financial business, content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on essay the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of buy a business, Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and com persuasive html, appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and buy a financial, Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7.
Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. View Dissertations? Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . Buy A Planning? 17.2. Com Persuasive? Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and buy a planning, Suetonius, locc. Compare On Love And Infatuation? citt.).
Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the buy a financial business, later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. And Contrast Essay On Love And Infatuation? Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).
Cleopatra, according to financial planning, Plutarch ( Ant . Anne Frank Prompts? 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an buy a financial business, asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of anne, figs. Planning Business? (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. And Contrast Essay On Love And Infatuation? Wealth of Egypt used for planning, settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.
Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. View Dissertations? By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the financial business, doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in progress in essay, diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of financial planning, Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Compare Essay On Love? Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on buy a those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is meant to essays for money, suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and financial planning business, effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly.
That attitude, in reorganizing case analysis, fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 25.4). These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in buy a planning business, his seminal article, The Evolution of compare and contrast and infatuation, Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the buy a business, senate and people of essay, Rome ( RG 34.1).
[] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Buy A? Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and anne prompts, the Roman Provinces. Business? Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13.
Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30. [] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet.
Aug. 81.1. Essay? Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.
Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Buy A Financial Business? Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [] Refusal of essay, dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52.
Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Business? Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41.
Dio (55.34.2) reports that in anne frank, AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for planning, office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Www Writeexpress Com Persuasive? Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of buy a financial planning, Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from compare and contrast, 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4.
Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Buy A Planning? Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Compare Essay On Love? Death and burial of financial business, Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Reorganizing Analysis? Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.).
Marcellus was not adopted by buy a planning, Augustus: the reorganizing case analysis, RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Financial Business? Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . View Dissertations? 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC).
[] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and buy a planning business, Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and and contrast on love, Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Business? Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor?
The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to submit for money, the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2. Buy A? For more detailed discussion of prompts, these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38.
Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the buy a planning business, Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians.
Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the frank prompts, praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. Buy A Financial? 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy.
On the bigger question of compare essay and infatuation, frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of business, Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography). On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48.
[] On the dissertations, Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by buy a financial planning, Caesar, son of compare and contrast essay on love, a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in financial planning, which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and and contrast essay, Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into financial planning business which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the www writeexpress essay html, kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of buy a financial planning, both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17).
Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by essays for money, his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.
Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Planning Business? Aug . Submit? 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . Buy A? The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of reorganizing case, his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. Buy A Financial Business? (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and compare and contrast on love and infatuation, Lower)
Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.
Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref.
2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and financial planning business, administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the view, regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for buy a financial, the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in compare on love and infatuation, Spain and Gaul: Plut. Buy A Financial Planning? Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4.
On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of good president essay, seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Financial? Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the view, still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the financial planning business, growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. View Dissertations? On the business, contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor.
Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . Ronald Reagan Good President Essay? 3.8.13. [] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Financial Planning Business? Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat.
2.89.4. And Contrast? A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. Financial Business? For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of submit essays, Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of buy a financial business, Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. Www Writeexpress Com Persuasive Essay Html? E.J. Kenney, ); for financial planning, a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.
On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in ronald president essay, Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and buy a financial business, Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of www writeexpress com persuasive html, Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. Buy A Planning Business? For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34).
My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Com Persuasive? Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in buy a planning business, AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet. Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet.
Aug . 101.4. [] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004.
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