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Civil war reconstruction essay

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Reconstruction After the Civil War -- US History Review

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Civil war reconstruction essay

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build essay fire Bound for the Klondike gold fields. Chilkoot Pass, Alaska. The man was a newcomer in the land, a chechaquo , and this was his first winter. Jack London's startling, and even cold, observation of war reconstruction a man's foolish confidence in the face of nature's power forms the story To Build a Fire. As the man and his animal companion take a less-traveled path to their Yukon camp, they step into a tale of wilderness survival and dire circumstances. London's stark, distanced portrayal is an internet security excellent example of American literary naturalism. In this lesson, students will closely read To Build a Fire, understand the use of narrative point of view, and debate the distinction between knowledge and civil war reconstruction essay instinct. Students can then learn about the research, elements of literary naturalism and war reconstruction how they relate to London's work. What is the relationship of man and nature in London's short story To Build a Fire?

In London's story, what is the difference between knowledge and instinct? In this lesson, students will learn how to: Examine critically the essay, relationship of man and nature in To Build a Fire Discuss London's juxtaposition of knowledge and instinct Understand third person, omniscient point of essay view Conduct in-depth character analysis. Essays! Review the lesson plan. Locate and bookmark suggested materials and EDSITEment-reviewed websites. Civil War Reconstruction Essay! If necessary, download and print out a good book report, any documents you will use and duplicate copies as necessary for essay, student viewing. Students can access the story and some of the activity materials via the EDSITEment LaunchPad. Read To Build a Fire, an online version (1908 version) of London's story, a link from the EDSITEment-reviewed University of Virginia's Center for Liberal Arts. Browse the Jack London Collection (UC-Berkeley), a link from the EDSITEment-reviewed University of mla format paper Virginia's Center for Liberal Arts. War Reconstruction Essay! See in particular the interview research, biography of civil Jack London and the study questions for To Build a Fire. You may want to revisit the ap government federalism, EDSITEment lesson Metaphorical Gold: Mining the Gold Rush for Stories for an introduction of Jack London in the Klondike.

Activity 1. Introducing London and Picturing the Scene. Introduce your students to Jack London's biography and place him in literary history, using the war reconstruction essay, biographies and other information available in the Preparing to Teach section. To give visual life to each story, ask students to explore the following images (you might consider breaking students up in groups depending on the number of computers available). Students have likely not read the stories yet, so you might have them read the first few paragraphs out loud to on writing book report set the scene. Images relevant to civil war reconstruction essay London: From Jack London Collection (a link from University of Virginia's Center for Liberal Arts): From Digital Classroom: From Links to the Past (National Park Service) Activity 2. Encountering the Wilderness. Assign students To Build a Fire to read and internet ask them to carefully describe the main character of the story—the man—in a brief character analysis assignment. You might provide some helpful starting questions, such as: How would you describe the man in London's story? How experienced is the civil war reconstruction, man? Is he a novice?

Prepared? What does the man seem to think of his own abilities? How does the man behave in internet security essay relation to his environment? Ask students to share their brief character assessments. After going over the basic characteristics of the man, turn students' focus to his relationship to the environment.

First read the opening of To Build a Fire: Day had broken cold and gray, exceedingly cold and gray, when the man turned aside from the main Yukon trail and climbed the civil war reconstruction, high earth-bank, where a dim and little-travelled trail led eastward through the fat spruce timberland. It was a steep bank, and a good book he paused for civil war reconstruction, breath at ap government federalism questions the top, excusing the act to civil war reconstruction essay himself by looking at his watch. It was nine o'clock. Research Paper! There was no sun nor hint of sun, though there was not a cloud in war reconstruction essay the sky. It was a clear day, and yet there seemed an intangible pall over should have cell phones, the face of things, a subtle gloom that made the day dark, and that was due to the absence of sun. This fact did not worry the man. He was used to war reconstruction essay the lack of sun. Research! It had been days since he had seen the sun, and he knew that a few more days must pass before that cheerful orb, due south, would just peep above the sky-line and dip immediately from view. Ask students to point out some of the adjectives in civil essay this opening scene and a drugstore essay write them down: Then discuss this opening scene with students, using the following guiding questions: How would you describe the setting in this opening paragraph?

What is the mood of essay this opening paragraph? How does this opening make you feel as a reader? What is the man's reaction to the landscape? Students may have noticed by now that the man is cheerfully unaware of the problems essay, situation that he is in during the first section of the story. Ask students to point to civil war reconstruction specific passages that allow them to know this information. Students might point out, for example, that the animal was depressed by the tremendous cold. They might also point out the man's recollection of how he laughed at the that man from Sulphur Creek [who] had spoken the research, truth when telling how cold it sometimes got in the country.

For an extended exercise, ask students to cut and paste the online version of the story in a word processing document. War Reconstruction Essay! Using a highlighting tool, students can color code the narration as they are reading the story. [Note: students can conduct this activity with print copy of the story using one or two highlighter colors.] Ask students to mark each time the narrator. has knowledge unknown to the characters themselves provides his own commentary. Ask students to refer to their color coding as you lead a class discussion, or have students spend ten minutes in group work finding appropriate passages in the text, considering the following questions: Identify passages in the story where the narrator either has knowledge unknown to national security the characters themselves or where the war reconstruction, narrator provides his own commentary. How would you describe the tone of the narrator? Does the cell phones essay, narration foreshadow subsequent events? How? How does the narrator feel about the character(s) at war reconstruction essay this point in the story?

Ask students what point-of-view the narrator is adopting in this story—first or third person? Students should be able to note that the narration is from a third-person perspective, since the narrator is not using I to describe him- or herself. As a follow-up question, you might ask students to consider: How would this passage be different if it were narrated via first person point of view? Would the story change? During the course of this discussion, introduce students to the different kinds of third-person narration: limited and omniscient. Point out to students that limited third-person narration usually focuses on the thoughts of a single character in the story.

Omniscient third-person narrative, on the other hand, has total access to the thoughts of all characters in should children have phones essay the story, such as the civil war reconstruction, case in To Build a Fire (where we know the thoughts of security problems both the man and the dog). Civil! You might refer students to the LitWeb glossary entry for omniscient point of view, available via the a drugstore, EDSITEment-reviewed Academy of American Poets. Ask students to discuss what effect having this omniscient knowledge has on civil war reconstruction essay, the story. What would be different if the story's narrator only related the man's point-of-view? This question is a good way to segue into the next activity. Activity 4. Knowledge and Instinct. Ask students to consider what it means to build a fire. While initial responses may focus on notions of survival, students might recall the national essays, legend of Prometheus, or suggest the relationship of fire to knowledge.

Ask students to revisit London's story and use the following chart to note passages that discuss knowledge and instinct. The shared space is available for those passages where the situation is unclear. For example, London writes: Empty as the man's mind was of thoughts, he was keenly observant, and he noticed the changes in the creek … This passage suggests a certain assumed kind of knowledge that, we discover later, did not prevent him from surviving his fall into the ice. Students should also pay attention to the dog's instincts. After students have had some time to look for civil war reconstruction, instances of knowledge and instinct, ask them to first compare the main character to the Sulphur Creek old-timer who gave advice. Should Children Cell Essay! What are some key differences in their attitudes towards nature and their knowledge of nature? Next ask students to compare the man and the dog: How is the relationship between the man and the dog discussed at first? What did the dog instinctively understand that the man did not? How does the man and dog's relationship symbolize the man's relationship to his environment?

Students will likely point out that the man was initially established as the master of the dog. The narrator discussed the whip lash and the harsh and menacing throat sounds the man used towards the dog, which even convinced the dog to risk its life for the man. Students should be able to point out several passages that establish what the dog knew about the weather and landscape that was not obvious to the man. They should highlight a key passage: On the other hand, there was no keen intimacy between the dog and civil essay the man… so the dog made no effort to communicate its apprehension to the man. Students might note that the dog in children have phones essay many respects symbolizes the natural landscape that surrounds them. Just as the man did not respect the war reconstruction essay, dog, so too does the man fail to respect the world around him.

Ask students to consider this suggestion as they reread the passage of the story that describes the struggle between the man and the dog. The man, freezing, attempts to kill the dog in order to steal its warmth, a futile struggle that is an apt symbol for the life and death struggle he is experiencing in the wilderness. As students draw to the close of the story, ask them to consider the following questions: What does the national essays, man's failure to civil build a fire symbolize? Does the man have either knowledge or instinct? Did the man finally gain knowledge at the end of the story? What is the a drugstore in winter, significance of the dog's final movement towards civilization at the end of the story? What does this suggest about the dog's relationship to nature? Is instinct driving this movement?

Ask students to consider in a brief essay how the third-person omniscient narrator enabled the author of the essay, story to relate the struggle between man and nature, knowledge and instinct. 1-2 class periods. Children Have Cell Phones Essay! Subject Areas Literature and Language Arts Place American Literature and Language Arts Genre Short Stories Skills Compare and contrast Critical analysis Critical thinking Discussion Interpretation Literary analysis Making inferences and drawing conclusions Representing ideas and information orally, graphically and in writing Using primary sources Writing skills Authors Kellie Tabor-Hann (AL) Bound for the Klondike gold fields. Chilkoot Pass, Alaska. A blog for and about the humanities in the classroom: literature, social studies, language, art and culture, and more. Get updates on new lesson plans and other resources.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Time travel is commonly defined with David Lewis’ definition: An object time travels if and only if the difference between its departure and arrival times as measured in war reconstruction the surrounding world does not equal the duration of the journey undergone by the object. For example, Jane is a time traveler if she travels away from home in her spaceship for one hour as measured by her own clock on the ship but travels two hours as measured by the clock back home, assuming both clocks are functioning properly. Before the twentieth century, scientists and research paper philosophers rarely investigated time travel, but now it is an exciting and deeply studied topic. There are investigations into travel to civil, the future and travel to a drugstore essay, the past, although travel to the past is more problematical and receives more attention. There are also investigations of the logical possibility of time travel, the physical possibility of time travel, and the technological practicality of time travel.

The most attention is paid to time travel that is consistent with current physical theory such as Einstein's general theory of civil war reconstruction essay relativity. In science, different models of the cosmos and the laws of nature governing the universe imply different possibilities for time travel. So, theories about time travel have changed radically as the dominant cosmological theories have evolved from classical, Newtonian conceptions to modern, relativistic and quantum mechanical conceptions. Philosophers were quick to note some of the implications of the new physics for venerable issues in metaphysics: the nature of time, causation and a drugstore in winter personal identity, to name just a few. The subject continues to produce a fruitful cross-fertilization of ideas between scientists and philosophers as theorists in both fields struggle to resolve confounding paradoxes that emerge when time travel is pondered seriously. This article discusses both the scientific and philosophical issues relevant to civil war reconstruction, time travel. Time travel stories have been a staple of the science fiction genre for the past century. Good science fiction stories often pay homage to the fundamentals of scientific knowledge of the time. Thus, we see time travel stories of the variety typified by H. G. Wells as set within the context of a Newtonian universe: a three-dimensional Euclidean spatial manifold that changes along an inexorable arrow of time. By the early to mid-twentieth century, time travel stories evolved to take into account the features of an national security, Einsteinian universe: a four-dimensional spacetime continuum that curves and in which time has the character of a spatial dimension (that is, there can be local variations or warps).

More recently, time travel stories have incorporated features of quantum theory: phenomena such as superposition and entanglement suggest the possibility of parallel or many universes, many minds, or many histories. Indeed, the sometimes counter-intuitive principles and civil effects of quantum theory have invigorated time travel stories. National Security? Bizarre phenomena like negative energy density (the Casimir effect) lend their strangeness to the already odd character of civil essay time travel stories. In this article, we make a distinction between time travel stories that might be possible within the questions, canon of known physical laws and those stories that contravene or go beyond known laws. The former type of stories, which we shall call natural time travel, exploit the features or natural topology of spacetime regions. Natural time travel tends to war reconstruction essay, severely constrain the activities of a time traveler and entails immense technological challenges. The latter type of stories, which we shall call Wellsian time travel, enable the time traveler more freedom and simplify the technological challenges, but at the expense of the physics. For example, in H. G. Wells' story, the narrator is a time traveler who constructs a machine that transports him through time. The time traveler’s journey, as he experiences it, occurs over some nonzero duration of time.

Also, the federalism essay questions, journey is through some different nonzero duration of time in the world. It is the civil, latter condition that distinguishes the natural time travel story from the Wellsian time travel story. Our laws of physics do not allow travel through a nonzero duration of time in the world (in a sense that will be made clearer below). Wellsian time travel stories are mortgaged on our hope or presumption that more fundamental laws of nature are yet to essay, be discovered beyond the current horizon of scientific knowledge. Natural time travel stories can be analyzed for consistency with known physics while Wellsian time travel stories can be analyzed for consistency with logic. Finally, time travel stories implicate themselves in essay a constellation of common philosophical problems.

Among these philosophically related issues we will address in this article are the a good, metaphysics of time, causality, and personal identity. What is civil war reconstruction essay time travel? One standard definition is that of David Lewis’s: an tips a good, object time travels iff the difference between its departure and civil war reconstruction arrival times in the surrounding world does not equal the duration of the in winter, journey undergone by the object. This definition applies to both natural and war reconstruction Wellsian time travel. For example, Jane might be a time traveler if she travels for one hour but arrives two hours later in the future (or two hours earlier in should have the past). Civil? In both types of time travel, the times experienced by national security, a time traveler are different from the time undergone by their surrounding world. But what do we mean by the time in time travel?

And what do we mean by travel in time travel? As the definition for time travel presently stands, we need to clarify what we mean by the word time (see the next section). While philosophical analysis of time travel has attended mostly to war reconstruction, the difficult issue of time, might there also be vagueness in the word travel? Our use of the word travel implies two places: an origin and a good a destination. I’m going to Morocco, means “I’m departing from my origination point here and I plan to civil war reconstruction essay, arrive eventually in Morocco.” But when we are speaking of time travel, where exactly does a time traveler go? The time of origin is plain enough: the time of the time traveler and the time traveler’s surrounding world coincide at the beginning of the journey. But “where” does the mla format interview research paper, time traveler arrive? Are we equivocating in our use of the word ‘travel’ by civil, simply substituting a when for a where? In truth, how do we conceive of a when—as a place, a locale, or a region? Different scientific ontologies result in different ideas of what travel through time might be like.

Also, different metaphysical concepts of time result in different ideas of what kinds of time travel are possible. Essay? It is to the issue of time in philosophy that we now turn. How is time related to war reconstruction, existence? Philosophy offers three primary answers to this metaphysical question: eternalism, possibilism, and presentism. The names of these views indicate the ontological status given to should cell, time. Civil War Reconstruction? The eternalist thinks that time, correctly understood, is research a fourth dimension essentially constitutive of reality together with space. All times, past, present and future, are actual times just like all points distributed in civil essay space are actual points in mla format interview paper space. One cannot privilege any one moment in the dimension of war reconstruction time as more real than any other moment just like one cannot privilege any point in space as “more” real than any other point.

The universe is thus a spacetime “block,” a view that has philosophical roots at least as far back as Parmenides. Everything is one; the appearance of things coming to be and essays ceasing to be, of time passing or flowing, is simply phenomenal, not real. Objects from the past and future have equal ontological status with present objects. Thus, a presently extinct individual dodo bird exists as equably as a presently existing individual house finch, and the dodo bird and the house finch exist as equably as an war reconstruction essay, individual baby sparrow hatched next Saturday. A Drugstore Essay? Whether or not the dodo bird and the baby sparrow are present is irrelevant ontologically; they simply aren't in our spacetime region right now. The physicist typically views the relation of time to existence in the way that the eternalist does.

The life of an civil essay, object in the universe can be properly shown as: This diagram shows the spatial movement (in one dimension) of an ap government federalism essay, object through time. The standard depiction of an object's spacetime worldline in Special Relativity, the Minkowski diagram (see below), privileges this block view of the universe. Many Wellsian time travel stories assume the essay, standpoint of eternalism. For example, in Wells’ The Time Machine, the in winter, narrator (the time traveler) explains: “There is no difference between Time and any of the three dimensions of civil war reconstruction essay Space except that our consciousness moves along it.” Eternalism fits easily into the metaphysics of time travel. The second view is possibilism, also known as the growing block or “growing universe” view. The possibilist thinks that the eternalist's picture of the universe is correct except for the status of the future. The past and the present are fixed and actual; the future is essays only possible. Or more precisely, the future of an object holds the possibility of civil war reconstruction many different worldlines, only one of which will become actual for the object. If eternalism seems overly deterministic, eliminating indeterminacies and human free choice, then possibilism seems to retain some indeterminacy and tips book free choice, at least as far as the civil essay, future is concerned. For the possibilist, the problems, present takes on a special significance that it does not have for war reconstruction essay, the eternalist.

The life of an should children have cell, object according to possibilism might be shown as: This diagram shows that the object's worldline is not yet fixed or complete. (It should be pointed out that the necessity of illustrating the time axis with a beginning and end should not be construed as an implicit claim that time itself has a beginning and end.) Some Wellsian time travel stories make use of possibilism. Stories like Back to the Future and Terminator suggest that we can change the outcome of historical events in our world, including our own personal future, through time travel. The many different possible histories of an object introduce other philosophical problems of civil war reconstruction causation and personal identity, issues that we will consider in greater depth in later sections of the article. The third view is presentism. The presentist thinks that only temporally present objects are real. A Drugstore In Winter Essay? Whatever is, exists now. War Reconstruction Essay? The past was, but exists no longer; the future will be, but does not exist yet. Objects are scattered throughout space but they are not scattered throughout time.

Presentists do not think that time is ap government federalism essay questions a dimension in the same sense as the three spatial dimensions; they say the civil war reconstruction essay, block universe view of the eternalists (and the intermediate view of the possibilists) gets the metaphysics of time wrong. If eternalism has its philosophical roots in Parmenides, then presentism can be understood as having its philosophical roots in Heraclitus. Ap Government Essay? Presently existing things are the civil war reconstruction, only actuality and only what is now is real. Each now is unique: “You cannot step twice into the same river; for fresh waters are ever flowing in upon you.” The life of an object according to mla format paper, presentism might be shown as: Many presentists account for the continuity of war reconstruction time, the should essay, timelike connection of one moment to the next moment, by civil war reconstruction essay, appealing to have essay, the present intrinsic properties of the world (Bigelow). To fully describe some of war reconstruction these present intrinsic properties of the world, you need past- and future-tensed truths to supervene on those properties. For example, in ordinary language we might make the claim that George Washington camped at Valley Forge. This sentence has an implicit claim to a timeless truth, that is, it was true 500 years ago, it was true when it was happening, it is true now, and it will be true next month. But, according to presentism, only presently existing things are real. Thus, the proper way to understand the truth of this sentence is to translate it into essay, a more primitive form, where the civil, tense is captured by an operator. So in our example, the mla format, truth of the sentence supervenes on the present according to the formulation “WAS(George Washington camps at Valley Forge).” In this way, presentists can describe events in the past and future as truths that supervene on war reconstruction essay, the present.

It is the basis for their account of persistence through time in issues like causality and personal identity. Since the use of the term 'time' in our definition of security problems essay time travel remains ambiguous, we may further distinguish external, or physical time from personal, or inner time (again, following Lewis). In the civil war reconstruction, ordinary world, external time and one’s personal time coincide with one another. In the world of the time traveler, they do not. So, with these two senses of internet security essay time, we may further clarify time travel to civil, occur when the duration of the journey according to the personal time of the security problems essay, time traveler does not equal the civil war reconstruction, duration of the journey in external time. Most (but not all) philosophy of time concerns external time (see the a good book report, encyclopedia entry Time).

For the purpose of natural time travel, we need to examine the scientific understanding of essay external time and how it has changed. Newton argued that space, time and tips book motion were absolute, that is, that the entire universe was a single, uniform inertial frame and that time passed equably throughout it according to an eternally fixed, immutable and inexorable rate, without relation to anything external. Natural time travel in the Newtonian universe is impossible; there are no attributes or topography of space or time that can be exploited for natural time travel stories. Only time travel stories that exceed the bounds of Newtonian physics are possible and scenarios described by civil war reconstruction, some Wellsian time travel stories (most notably like the one Wells himself wrote) are examples of such unscientific time travel. Several philosophers and scientists objected to the notion of absolute space, time and motion, most notably Leibniz, Berkeley and Mach. In Winter Essay? Mach rejected Newton's implication that there was anything substantive about time: It is utterly beyond our power to civil, measure the changes of essay things by war reconstruction essay, time.

Quite the contrary, time is an on writing book report, abstraction, at which we arrive by means of the war reconstruction, changes of things (The Science of Mechanics, 1883). For Mach, change was more fundamental than the tips on writing a good, concept of time. We talk about civil war reconstruction time “passing” but what we’re really noticing is should have phones that things move and change around us. We find it convenient to talk as if there were some underlying flowing substance like the water of a river that carries these changes along with it. We abstract time to war reconstruction, have a standard measuring tool by which we can quantify change.

These views of Mach’s were influential for the young Albert Einstein. In 1905, Einstein published his famous paper on Special Relativity. This theory began the transformation of research paper our understanding of space, time and civil war reconstruction essay motion. The theory of Special Relativity has two defining principles: the principle of relativity and tips on writing the invariance of the speed of essay light. Briefly, the principle of relativity states that the laws of physics are the same for any inertial observer.

An observer is an inertial observer if the observer's trajectory has a constant velocity and therefore is not under the influence of any force. The second principle is the invariance of the speed of light. All inertial observers measure the speed c of light in a vacuum as 3 x 10 8 m/s, regardless of their velocities relative to one another. This principle was implied in Maxwell’s equations of problems essay electromagnetism (1873) and the constancy of c was verified by the Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment (1887). This second principle profoundly affected the model of the cosmos: the civil war reconstruction essay, constancy of c was inconsistent with Newtonian physics. Tips On Writing A Good Report? The invariance of the speed of light according to war reconstruction, Special Relativity replaces the invariance of mla format time and war reconstruction distance in the Newtonian universe. Security Essays? Intervals of space, like length, and intervals of time (and hence, motion) are no longer absolute quantities. Instead of speaking of an object in a particular position independently of civil a particular time, we now speak of an event in which position and time are inseparable. We can relate two events with a new quantity, the spacetime interval.

For any pair of events, the spacetime interval is an tips on writing report, absolute quantity (that is, has the same value) for all inertial observers. To visualize this new quantity, one constructs spacetime diagrams (Minkowski diagrams) in which an event is defined by its spatial position (usually restricted to war reconstruction essay, one dimension, x) and its time (ct). Thus, a spacetime interval might be null (parallel to the trajectory of light, which, because of the mla format, y-axis units, is shown at a 45° angle), spacelike (little or no variation in time), or timelike (little or no variation in spatial position). The following figure shows a Minkowski diagram depicting the flat spacetime of Special Relativity and three different spacetime intervals, or worldlines . What are the consequences of Special Relativity for time travel? First, we lose the common sense meaning of simultaneity. For example, the same event happens at two different times if one observer's inertial frame is stationary relative to civil essay, another observer’s inertial frame moving at national some velocity. Furthermore, an observer in the stationary inertial frame may determine two events to have happened simultaneously, but an observer in the second moving inertial frame would see the same two events happening at different times. Thus, there is essay no universal or absolute external time; we can only should children cell speak of external time within one’s own frame of reference. The lack of simultaneity across frames of reference means that we might experience the phenomenon of time dilation. If your frame of reference is moving at civil war reconstruction essay some fraction of the federalism questions, speed of light, your external time passes more slowly than the external time in a frame of reference that is civil essay stationary relative to yours. If we imagine that someone in the stationary frame of reference could peek at a clock in mla format interview paper your frame of reference, they would see your clock run very slowly.

So in Special Relativity, we can find a kind of natural time travel. An example of civil war reconstruction essay Special Relativity time travel is of an astronaut who travels some distance in the universe at a velocity near the speed of light. The astronaut’s personal time elapses at the same rate it always has. He travels to his destination and then returns home to find that external time has passed there quite differently. National? Everyone he knew has aged more than he, or perhaps has even been dead for hundreds or thousands of war reconstruction years. Such stories are physically consistent with the Einsteinian universe of Special Relativity, but of course they remain technologically beyond our present capability. Nevertheless, they are an tips a good report, example of a natural time travel story—adhering to the known laws of civil war reconstruction physics—which do not require exceptions to fundamental scientific principles (for example, the in winter, invariant and inviolable speed of light). But as a time travel story, they require that the time traveler also be an ordinary traveler, too, that is, that he travel some distance through space at extraordinary speeds. Furthermore, this sort of natural time traveler can only time travel into civil war reconstruction essay, the future. (Conversely, from the perspective of those in the originating frame of reference, when the astronaut returns, they witness the tips a good report, effects of civil war reconstruction essay time travel to the past perhaps because they have a person present among them who was alive in their distant past.) So natural time travel according to Special Relativity is perhaps too limited for what we normally mean by time travel since it requires (considerable) spatial travel in order to work. In addition, there are other limitations, not least of which is mass-energy equivalence. This principle was published by Einstein in his second paper of 1905, entitled Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?

Mass-energy equivalence was implied by certain consequences of Special Relativity (other theorists later discovered that it was suggested by Maxwell's electromagnetism theory). Mass-energy equivalence is expressed by the famous formula, E = mc 2 . It means that there is an energy equivalent to interview paper, the mass of a particle at rest. When we harmonize mass-energy equivalence with the conservation law of energy, we find that if a mass ceases to exist, its equivalent amount of energy must appear in some form. Mass is interchangeable with energy. Now only mass-less objects, like photons, can actually move at the speed of light. They have kinetic energy but no mass energy. Indeed, all objects with mass at essay rest, like people and on writing book spaceships cannot, in principle, attain the civil, speed of mla format interview light. They would require an infinite amount of civil war reconstruction energy. In Special Relativity, all inertial frames are equivalent, and while this is a useful approximation, it does not yet suggest how inertial frames are to be explained.

Mach had stated that the distribution of matter determines space and a drugstore time. But how? This was the civil war reconstruction essay, question answered by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity (1916). Special Relativity is actually a subset of General Relativity. General Relativity takes into on writing a good report, account accelerating frames of reference (that is, non-inertial frames) and thus, the phenomenon of gravity. The topography of spacetime is created by the distribution of mass. Spacetime is dynamic, it curves, and matter tells a region of spacetime how to curve. Likewise, the resultant geometry of war reconstruction essay a spacetime region determines the should, motion of matter in it. The fundamental principle in essay General Relativity is the equivalence principle, which states that gravity and acceleration are two names designating the same phenomenon. If you are accelerating upwards at a rate g in an elevator located in a region of spacetime without a gravitational field, the force you would feel and the motion of objects in the elevator with you would be indistinguishable from an elevator that is stationary within a downward uniform gravitational field of magnitude g. To be more precise, there is no force of gravity.

When we observe astronauts who are in internet security problems orbit over the Earth, it is not true to say that they are in civil essay an environment with no gravity. Rather, they are in free fall within the Earth's gravitational field. They are in a local inertial frame and thus do not feel the weight of their own mass. One curious effect of ap government federalism essay questions General Relativity is that light bends when it travels near objects. This may seem strange when we remember that light has no mass. How can light be affected by civil war reconstruction, gravity? Light always travels in straight lines. In Winter? Light bends because the geometry of spacetime is war reconstruction essay non-Euclidean in the vicinity of national essays any mass. The curved path of light around a massive body is war reconstruction essay only apparent; it is national security simply traveling a geodesic straight line. Civil Essay? If we draw the federalism questions, path of an airplane traveling the shortest international route in civil war reconstruction essay only two dimensions (like on a flat map), the path appears curved; however, because the earth itself is curved and should cell phones not flat, the shortest distance, a straight line, must always follow a geodesic path. Light travels along the straight path through the various contours of spacetime.

Another curious effect of General Relativity is civil that gravity affects time. Imagine a uniformly accelerating frame, like a rocket during an engine burn. General Relativity predicts that, depending on one's location in ap government essay questions the rocket, one will measure time differently. To an observer at the bottom or back of the rocket (depending on how you want to visualize its motion), a clock at the top or front of the rocket will appear to run faster. According to the principle of equivalence, then, a clock at war reconstruction essay sea level on security, the Earth runs a little slower than a clock at the top of Mount Everest because the strength of the field is weaker the further you are from the center of mass.

Are natural time travel stories possible in General Relativity? Yes, they are, and some of them are quite curious. While most of spacetime seems to war reconstruction, be flat or gently rolling contours, physicists are aware of spacetime regions with unusual and severe topologies such as rotating black holes. Black holes are entities that remain from the complete collapse of stars. Tips On Writing Report? Black holes are the war reconstruction, triumph of gravity over all other forces and are predicted by a solution to Einstein's General Relativity equations (Kerr, 1963). When they rotate, the in winter essay, singularity of the black hole creates a ring or torus, which might be traversable (unlike the civil war reconstruction, static black hole, whose singularity would be an children have essay, impenetrable point). If an intrepid astronaut were to position herself near the horizon of the rapidly spinning center of a black hole (without falling into its center and possibly being annihilated), she would be treated to a most remarkable form of civil war reconstruction time travel. In a brief period of her personal time she would witness an immensely long time span in the universe beyond the black hole horizon; her spacetime region would be so far removed from the external time of the surrounding cosmos that she conceivably could witness thousands, millions, or billions of a good report years elapse.

This is a kind of natural time travel; however, it severely restricts the activity of the astronaut/time traveler and she is limited to travel into the future. Are there solutions to General Relativity that allow natural time travel into the past? Yes, but unlike rotating black holes, they remain only theoretical possibilities. Einstein's neighbor in Princeton, Kurt Godel, developed one such solution. Civil Essay? In 1949, Godel discovered that some worldlines in closed spacetime could curve so severely that they curved back onto themselves, forming a loop in federalism essay spacetime. These loops are known as closed timelike curves (CTCs). War Reconstruction Essay? If you were an object on a CTC worldline, you would eventually arrive at the same spacetime position from which you started, that is, your older self would appear at one of ap government essay questions its own earlier spacetime points. Godel’s CTC spacetime describes a rotating universe; thus, it is an war reconstruction, extreme case for a CTC because it is globally intrinsic to the structure of the universe. It is not considered a realistic solution since current cosmological theory states that the universe is expanding, not rotating. One type of spacetime region that a natural time traveler might exploit is a wormhole : two black holes whose throats are linked by a tunnel.

Wormholes would connect two regions of space and two regions of time as well. Physicist Kip Thorne speculated that if one could trap one of the black holes that comprise the mouths of the wormhole it would be conceivable to children have cell, transport it, preferably at speeds near the speed of light. The moving black hole would age more slowly than the stationary black hole at the other end of the wormhole because of time dilation. Eventually, the two black holes would become unsynchronized and exist in war reconstruction different external times. The natural time traveler could then enter the stationary black hole and emerge from the wormhole some years earlier than when he departed.

Unfortunately for our time traveler, if wormholes exist naturally many scientists think that they are probably quite unstable (particularly if quantum effects are taken into account). So, any natural wormhole would require augmentation from exotic phenomena like negative energy in order to be useful as a time machine. Another type of questions CTC suggested by Gott (1991) employs two infinitely long and very fast moving cosmic strings of war reconstruction essay extremely dense material. The atom-width strings would have to travel parallel to one another in opposite directions. As they rush past one another, they would create severely curved spacetime such that spacetime curved back on itself. National Security Essays? The natural time traveler would be prepared to exploit these conditions at just the civil war reconstruction, right moment and fly her spaceship around the a drugstore, two strings. If executed properly, she would return to her starting point in space but at an earlier time. One common feature of all CTCs, whether it is the global Godelian rotating universe or the local regions of rolled-up spacetime around a wormhole or cosmic strings, is that they are solutions to General Relativity that would describe CTCs as already built into the universe. Civil War Reconstruction? The natural time traveler would have to seek out these structures through ordinary travel and then exploit them.

So far, we are not aware of mla format interview any solution to civil war reconstruction, General Relativity that describes the evolution of a CTC in a spacetime region where time travel had not been possible previously; however, it is usually assumed that there are such solutions to the equations. These solutions would entail particular physical constraints. One constraint would be the creation of a singularity in security problems essay a finite region of spacetime. To enter the essay, region where time travel might be possible, one would have to cross the Cauchy horizon, the should phones essay, hourglass-shaped (for two crossing cosmic strings) boundary of the singularity in which the civil war reconstruction, laws of physics are unknown. Were such a CTC constructed, a second constraint would limit the external time that would be accessible to the time traveler. You could not travel to a time prior to the inception date of the a drugstore essay, CTC. (For more on this sort of time travel, see Earman, Smeenk, and Wuthrich, 2002.) Natural time travel according to General Relativity faces daunting technological challenges especially if you want to civil essay, have some control over a good, the trajectory of war reconstruction essay your worldline. One problem already mentioned is that of stability. But equally imposing is the interview research, problem of energy. Fantastic amounts of exotic matter (or structures and conditions similar to the early moments of the Big Bang, like membranes with negative tension boundary layers, or gravitational vacuum polarization) would be needed to construct and manage a usable wormhole; infinitely long tubes of hyperdense matter would be needed for cosmic strings.

Despite these technological challenges, it should be pointed out that the possibility of natural time travel into the past is consistent with General Relativity. But Hawking and other physicists recognize another problem with actual time travel into the past along CTCs: maintaining a physically consistent history within causal loops (see Causation below). One advantage of some interpretations of relativistic quantum theory is that the civil, logical requirement for a consistent history in a time travel story is seemingly avoided by postulating alternative histories (or worlds) instead of one history of the universe. Certain aspects of quantum theory are relevant to time travel, in particular the field of should cell phones quantum gravity. The fundamental forces of nature (strong nuclear force, electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force, and gravitation) have relativistic quantum descriptions; however, attempts to incorporate gravity in quantum theory have been unsuccessful to date. On the current standard model of the atom, all forces are carried by virtual particles called gauge bosons (corresponding to civil, the order given above for the forces: mesons and gluons, photons, massive W and Z particles, and the hypothetical graviton). A physicist might say that the photon “carries” electromagnetic force between “real” particles.

The graviton, which has eluded attempts to detect it, “carries” gravity. This particle-characterization of tips book gravity in quantum theory is very different from Einstein’s geometrical characterization in General Relativity. Reconciling these two descriptions is a robust area of research and many hope that gravity can be understood in the same way as the other fundamental forces. This might eventually lead to the formulation of a “theory of everything.” Scientists have proposed several interpretations of quantum theory. The central issue in interpretations of quantum theory is entanglement. When two quantum systems enter into temporary physical interaction, mutually influencing one another through known forces, and then separate, the two systems cannot be described again in civil war reconstruction essay the same way as when they were first brought together.

Microstate and macrostate entanglement occurs when an observer measures some physical property, like spin, with some instrumentation. The rule, according to the orthodox (or Copenhagen) interpretation, is that when observed the state vector (the equation describing the entangled system) reduces or jumps from a state of superposition to one of the actually observed states. But what happens when an entangled state collapses? The orthodox interpretation states that we don't know; all we can say about it is to describe the internet essay, observed effects, which is essay what the wave equation or state vector does. Other interpretations claim that that the state vector does not collapse at all. Instead, some no-collapse interpretations claim that all possible outcomes of the superposition of states become real outcomes in national security essays one way or another. In the civil war reconstruction essay, many-worlds version of this interpretation (Everett, 1957), at mla format research each such event the universe that involves the entangled state exfoliates into identical copies of the universe, save for the values of the properties included in the formerly entangled state vector. Thus, at any given moment of “collapse” there exist two or more nearly identical universes, mutually unobservable yet equally real, that then each divide further as more and more entangled events evolve. On this view, it is conceivable that you were both born and not born, depending on war reconstruction essay, which world we're referring to; indeed, the meaning of 'world’ becomes problematic.

The many universes are collectively designated as the multiverse. There are other variations on the many-worlds interpretation, including the many minds version (Albert and Loewer, 1988) and the many histories version (Gell-Mann and Hartle, 1989); however, they all share the national security essays, central claim that the state vector does not “collapse.” Many natural time travel stories make use of these many-worlds conceptions. Some scientists and storytellers speculate that if we were able to travel through a wormhole that we would not be traversing a spacetime interval in our own universe, but instead we would be hopping from civil essay, our universe to an alternative universe. A natural time traveler in in winter essay a many-worlds universe would, upon their return trip, enter a different world history. This possibility has become quite common in civil war reconstruction Wellsian time travel stories, for example, in Back to the Future and Terminator. These types of stories suggest that through time travel we can change the national security essays, outcome of historical events in our world. The idea that the history of the universe can be changed is essay why many of the inconsistencies with causation and personal identity arise. We now turn to these topics to examine the philosophical implications of time travel stories.

Inconsistencies and incoherence in time travel stories often result from spurious applications of causation. National Security Essays? Causation describes the connected continuity of events that change. The nature of civil this relation between events, for example, whether it is objective or subjective, is a subject of debate in philosophy. But for tips on writing a good book report, our purposes, we need only notice that events generally appear to war reconstruction, have causes. The distinction made between external and personal time is crucial now for the difficulties of causation in some time travel stories. Imagine Heloise is a time traveler who travels 80 years in the past to visit Harold. They have a fight and Heloise knocks out one of Harold's teeth.

If we follow the progression of Heloise’s personal time (or of Harold’s), the story is consistent; indeed, time travel seems to have little effect upon the events described. The difficulty arises when we test the consistency of the federalism, story in external time, because it involves an earlier event being affected by a later event. The ordinary forward progress of events related to Harold 80 years ago requires a schism in essay the connectivity and continuity of those events to allow the entry of a later event, namely, Heloise’s time travel journey. The activity of tips book Heloise is causally continuous with respect to her personal time but not with respect to war reconstruction essay, external time (assuming that the continuity of her personal identity is not in question, as we shall discuss in the next section). With respect to external time, this story describes reversed causation, for later events produce changes in earlier events.

How does the should children have essay, story change if Heloise is homicidal and encounters her own grandfather 80 years ago? This is a scenario many think show that time travel into the past is inconsistent and thus impossible. Heloise despises her paternal grandfather. Heloise is civil war reconstruction homicidal and has been trained in various lethal combat techniques. Despite her relish at the thought of murdering her grandfather, time has conspired against her, for her grandfather has been dead for 30 years. As a crime investigator might say, she has motive and means, but lacks the opportunity; that is, until she fortuitously comes into the possession of ap government essay a time machine.

Now Heloise has the opportunity to fulfill her desire. She makes the necessary settings on the machine and plunges back into civil, time 80 years. She emerges from the machine and begins to national security essays, stalk her grandfather. He suspects nothing. She waits for the perfect moment and place to strike so that she can enjoy the full satisfaction of her hatred. Civil War Reconstruction? At this point, we might pause to observe: If Heloise murders her grandfather, she will have prevented him from fathering any children. That means that Heloise's own father will not be born. And that means that Heloise will not be born. But if she never comes into existence, then how is she able to return.

And so we have the infamous grandfather paradox. Before we examine what happens next, let’s consider the children essay, possible outcomes of her impending action. First, let's assume that the many-worlds hypothesis correctly describes the universe. If so, then we avoid the paradox. If Heloise succeeds in killing her grandfather before her father is conceived, then the state of the world includes quantum entanglement of the events involved in Heloise’s mind, body, surrounding objects, etc., such that when she succeeds in killing her grandfather (or willing his death just prior to the physical accomplishment of it), the universe at that moment divides into one universe in which she succeeded and a second universe in civil war reconstruction which she did not. So the paradox of causal continuity in external time does not arise; causation presumably connects events in national essays the different universes without any inconsistency. But as we shall see in the next section this quantum interpretation trades-off a causation paradox for a personal identity paradox.

Next, let's assume that we do not have the civil, many-worlds quantum interpretation available to us, nor for that matter, any theory of different worlds. Can Heloise murder her grandfather? As David Lewis famously remarked, in one sense she can, and in another sense she can’t. The sense in which she can murder her grandfather refers to her ability, her willingness, and her opportunity to do so. Security Essays? But the sense in which she cannot murder her grandfather trumps the sense in which she can. In fact, she does not murder her grandfather because the moments of civil war reconstruction external time that have already passed are no longer separable.

Assuming that events 80 years ago did not include Heloise murdering her grandfather, she cannot create another moment 80 years ago that does. A set of facts is arranged such that it is perfectly appropriate to say that, in one sense, Heloise can murder her grandfather. Ap Government? However, this set of civil war reconstruction essay facts is enclosed by the larger set of facts that include the survival of internet security problems her grandfather. Were Heloise to actually succeed in carrying out her murderous desire, this larger set of civil war reconstruction facts would contain a contradiction (that her grandfather both is murdered and cell is not murdered 80 years ago), which is essay impossible. A Drugstore Essay? History remains consistent. This is also related to civil war reconstruction essay, Stephen Hawking's view (1992). According to his so-called Chronology Protection Conjecture, he claims that the laws of in winter physics conspire to civil war reconstruction essay, prevent macroscopic inconsistencies like the grandfather paradox. A Chronology Protection Agency works through events like vacuum fluctuations or virtual particles to prevent closed trajectories of tips on writing a good book report spacetime curvature in the negative direction (CTCs). Essay? If Hawking is right and many-worlds quantum interpretations are not available, then is time travel to the past still possible? Hawking’s view about consistent history then takes us to the special case of should children have phones essay causation paradoxes: the civil war reconstruction, causal loop. A causal loop is a chain of causes that closes back on itself.

A causes B, which causes C,…which causes X, which causes A, which causes B…and so on ad infinitum. This sequence of events is exploited in some natural and Wellsian time travel stories. Security Essays? It is a point of debate whether all time travel stories involving travel to the past include causal loops. Civil War Reconstruction? As we have seen, causal loops can occur when extraordinary cosmic structures curve spacetime in a negative direction. Wellsian time travel stories with causal loops describe scenarios like the following one by Keller and essay questions Nelson (2001). Jennifer, a young teenager, is visited by an old woman who materializes in her bedroom. The old woman describes intimate details that only Jennifer would know and thus convinces Jennifer to pursue a professional tennis career. Jennifer does exactly as the civil essay, old woman suggested and eventually retires, successful and happy. One day she comes into the possession of a time machine and decides to use it to travel back in time so that she might try to make her teenage years happier. Jennifer travels back into the past and stands before a person she recognizes as her younger self. Jennifer begins to security problems, talk to the teenager about her hidden talents and the bright future before her as a tennis professional.

At the end of civil their conversation, Jennifer activates the time machine and returns to her original time. We can describe the causal loop in Keller and Nelson's story as follows. The story contained within in the causal loop is presented on the left side. At event C, the story splits, with the a drugstore in winter essay, causal loop continuing along C1, and the exit from the loop beginning at C2. At C2, the worldline of war reconstruction Jennifer continues outside the causal loop events. Tips On Writing A Good Book? Thus: The events of Jennifer's life include a causal loop: some of those events have no beginning and no end. What is the problem with the story? Each moment of the causal sequence is explicable in war reconstruction terms of the prior events. But where (or when) did the crucial information that Jennifer would have a successful tennis career come from internet security, originally? While each part of the causal sequence makes sense, the causal loop as a whole is surprising because it includes information ex nihilo . It is controversial whether such uncaused causes are possible.

Some philosophers (for example, Mellor, 1998) think that causal loop time travel stories are impossible because causal loops are themselves impossible. They argue that time and causality must progress in the same direction. Other philosophers (for example, Horwich, 1987) argue that while causal loops are not impossible, they are highly implausible, and thus spacetime does not permit time travel into the local past (like one’s own life) because fantastic amounts of civil energy would be required. Still other philosophers (for example, Lewis) think that causal loops are possible because at least some events, like the Big Bang, appear to be events without causes, introducing information ex nihilo . According to Hawking, causal loop stories that employ CTCs are like grandfather paradox stories. While backwards causation might be logically possible, it is not physically possible.

The Chronology Protection Agency actively prevents them from occurring. The laws of physics conspire such that natural time travel into the past thwarts backwards or reverse causation. In closed spacetime, the internet, Cauchy horizon of a CTC acts as an impenetrable barrier to war reconstruction, a timelike worldline for objects. If a time traveler could travel to the past, whether or not that past included their younger self, they are prevented from interacting with the events of the past. If causal loops are possible, then the paper, objects may interact with the events of the past, but only in war reconstruction a consistent way, that is, only in a way that preserves the already established events of the past. Perhaps we could call it the CTC prime directive (see Ray Bradbury's short story A Sound of book report Thunder).

Causal loops, like any other aporia of uncaused causes, occupy the inexplicable perimeter of philosophical thought about civil causation. Children Have Phones? Nevertheless, causal loop stories like that of Jennifer raise another issue: personal identity . The old Jennifer travels back in time to talk with her younger self. Are there two Jennifers or just one Jennifer at event A? At the same moment in war reconstruction essay external time, a young Jennifer and an old Jennifer are separated by a distance of a few feet. At that moment, is there one person or two? Identity theory involves the on writing book report, relationships between the mind and the body that attempts to show the connection between mental states and physical states (see the entry Personal Identity). It tries, for example, to describe and civil war reconstruction explain the connection (if any) between mind and essay questions the brain. For Lewis, the mental/physical distinction is crucial for civil war reconstruction, explaining how a time traveler like Jennifer is one person, even when she travels back to talk with her younger self. Our cognitions change according to the requirement of causal continuity. These mental states occur in personal time. For everyday purposes, we can ignore the distinction between personal time and external time; personal time and external time coincide. Problems? But for a time traveler like Jennifer, identity is maintained only by virtue of the traveler's personal time; their mental states continue like anyone else’s and at any given point in personal time, later mental states do not cause earlier ones.

In the case of Jennifer, it is therefore proper to say that at event A in civil essay her life, there is only one person, even though it is should children have phones essay also true to say from an civil essay, external perspective, that she has two different bodies present at federalism event A. Lewis's distinction between the sense in war reconstruction which you can and the sense in which you can’t has its coda in the subject of personal identity. In the federalism essay, sense of war reconstruction personal time, Jennifer is should have essay one person who is perceiving another person (from either Jennifer’s perspective). The older Jennifer’s materialization into the presence of the younger Jennifer is strange, to be sure, but in a time travel story, it is explicable. Regardless, in her personal time, the causal continuity of her perception (and thus mental states) is consistent. Civil War Reconstruction Essay? In the sense of external time, from the perspective of their surrounding world, there are two Jennifers at event A. The mental state of the younger Jennifer is not identical to ap government questions, the mental state of the older Jennifer.

But these mental states, these stages of Jennifer’s life are not duplicates of the same stage; rather, two moments of personal time overlap at one moment of external time. So is it still proper to say that there are two of her? Lewis argues no, it is not. Civil War Reconstruction Essay? In the strange case of in winter a time traveler like Jennifer, her stages are scattered in such a way that they do not connect in civil essay a continuously forward direction through external time, but they do connect continuously forward through her personal time. The time traveler who meets up with her younger self gives the appearance to an outside observer that she is two different people, but in reality, there is ap government only one person. The question of civil how objects persist through time is the subject of the endurance and perdurance debate in a drugstore philosophy. An endurantist is war reconstruction someone who thinks that objects are wholly present at each moment of an interval of time. A perdurantist is someone who thinks that objects only have a temporal part present at each moment of an interval of time. Federalism Questions? The perdurantist claims that the identity of the whole object is identified as the sum of these temporal parts over the lifetime of the object. It seems that it is impossible for an endurantist to believe the story about Jennifer because she would have to be wholly present in two different spatial locations at the same time.

The endurantist can avoid this problem by appealing to the distinction between personal time and external time. Civil War Reconstruction? If Jennifer is wholly present at security essays different locations at civil war reconstruction essay the same time, which kind of problems essay time do we mean? We mean external time. War Reconstruction Essay? The endurantist can claim that two different temporal stages in her personal time just so happen to coincide because she is internet security problems a time traveler at different locations at a single moment of external time. For those of us who are not time travelers, our different temporal stages are also distinct moments in external time. But in either case, whether time traveler or not, a person is wholly present at any moment of their personal time. The perdurantist seems to have an civil essay, easier way with the problem of personal identity in time travel stories. Since a person is only partially present at each moment of security external time, it is readily conceivable that different temporal parts might coincide, but we still need to appeal to the distinction between personal time and external time. Essay? The two temporal parts of Jennifer's life that occur when the young and old Jennifer meet and have a conversation are each elements among many others that in toto form the whole person. Personal identity is especially problematic in a many-worlds hypothesis. Consider the case of Heloise and her desire to murder her grandfather.

According to the many-worlds hypothesis, she travels back in essay time but by war reconstruction, doing so also skips into ap government essay questions, another universe. Heloise is free to kill her grandfather because she would not be killing her grandfather, that is, the same grandfather that she knew about before her time travel journey. Indeed, Heloise herself may have split into two different persons. Whatever she does after she travels into the past would be consistent with the history of the alternative universe. But the question of who exactly Heloise or her grandfather is becomes problematic, especially if we assume that her actions in the different universes are physically distinct. Is Heloise the sum of her appearances in the many worlds?

Or is civil essay each appearance of Heloise a unique person? Also, see the essay, related article Time in this Encyclopedia.

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If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an essay associate’s degree, you can list it in the same way as above. It is also perfectly acceptable to mla format, list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. In the absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Then, make sure to emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. Civil Essay. More Articles about How to Write Your First Resume. A Drugstore In Winter Essay. 3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on civil war reconstruction essay Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. Mla Format. How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience.

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Reconstruction Essay essays

Checklist: What Your Retrenchment Letter Must Include. Whether you’re retrenching one employee or many, you must have a good reason to retrench and do it properly. Otherwise you’ll end up defending yourself in court, which will cost you time and money. You could end up even worse-off than you were before you retrenched! When you are considering retrenchments you first need to conduct consultations with the potential retrenchees or their representatives on the proposed retrenchments. Checklist: What your Section 189(3) notice must contain. ? The reasons for the proposed retrenchments. ? The alternatives you considered before proposing retrenchment and the reasons for rejecting each of essay those alternatives. ? The number of employees likely to security essay be affected and the job categories in civil war reconstruction essay which they are employed. ? The selection criteria you propose using to tips a good book select which employees to retrench.

? When retrenchments are likely to take effect (a specific date or a period of civil war reconstruction essay time). ? The severance pay you propose for retrenched employees. ? Any assistance that you can offer to employees likely to be retrenched. ? The possibility of future re-employment of should have cell retrenched employees. ? The number of employees you employ. ? The number of employees you have retrenched in the last 12 months. Warning! Don’t take a rigid checklist approach, but think carefully about essay all the information you could give that would assist the other consulting party to engage with you meaningfully. A Drugstore Essay. Anything relevant to the proposals you are making should be included.

The checklist should be your guide as to war reconstruction essay the minimum required. Many retrenchment exercises are complicated and critical to the ongoing success of a business. Which of a drugstore essay these questions do you need answered? When can I retrench staff? What must I think about before I start retrenching? What must I include in my Section 189(3) notice? What must I include in my retrenchment letter? How do I calculate severance pay? We have a solution for you.

The Labour Law for Managers gives you checklists, sample letters and actual advice in war reconstruction the Retrenchment section to make sure you do everything 100% correctly. You’ll also receive three Bonus Reports, Regular updates, Weekly Bulletin, Online access to past Labour Updates and a Labour Helpdesk. How do you start consulting? The reasons for mla format interview research the proposed retrenchments The alternatives you considered before proposing retrenchment and the reasons for civil essay rejecting each alternative. The number of essay employees likely to be affected and job categories in which they’re employed. The selection criteria you propose using to select which employees to retrench. When the retrenchments are likely to take effect (a specific date or period if time). There are 6 additional items to civil war reconstruction include in mla format research paper your notice. Civil. They’re vital to know and you can find them in section R03 of problems your Labour Law for Managers Loose Leaf . Severance pay what are your obligations? If you pay more than the civil essay statutory minimum must you calculate the payment on full remuneration, or can you use a different formula?

What if the employee worked for national essays you previously how does this affect length of service and civil essay, severance pay? And all other aspects of retrenchment. The CCMA has processed over internet problems essay one million disputes and civil essay, employees have won more than 50%! Are you prepared? What the law says you must do Do you know how to legally dismiss your employee? Do your employees abuse their leave? Do you know one day’s absence can cost you 3 days’ salary? Start proactively dealing with absenteeism today!

Make sure you resolve employee grievances before they turn into major CCMA or Labour Court disputes! How to make the law work for you when it comes to overtime 10 essential steps to security essay dismissing for poor performance - have you covered all your bases? Strikes can cripple your business find out how to civil war reconstruction essay prevent them 14 ways to comply with employment equity. For more information on what you'll find in phones essay the Labour Law for Managers Loose Leaf , read on. The Labour Law for Managers Loose Leaf Service. How do you actually write “Mr was lazy and unreliable” in civil a legally correct way when giving a reference? And in a drugstore such a way that the employee cannot sue you later! Believe it or not: Even a “!” in the wrong place may be the essay reason that you lose a case at the CCMA.

The frustrating thing is, it’s exactly such petty errors and similar loopholes in the labour law that mean employers lose 51% of all CCMA cases. These technicalities don't apply to security problems essay references only, but also to written warnings and dismissals. But how do you dismiss correctly? How do you make a dismissal stick, even if it goes to the CCMA? Simply read on, for your own benefit, to civil see how you can successfully effect dismissals that are 100% legally watertight and will hold up at the CCMA. You’ll find a selection of the most important issues surrounding dismissals, taken from the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service. On Writing Report. We show you how you can justify your dismissals and protect your business completely. 29 experienced labour law consultants give you hands-on advice on civil the right strategy for making your dismissals stick. This will give you a glimpse of how a business owner/manager should handle dismissals and write references. The comprehensive Labour Law for national Managers Loose Leaf Service gives you all the details you need for maximum protection in labour-related problems.

You will find, for essay example: Information on the problem areas managers have to handle in the workplace daily, and essays, appropriate solutions Valuable advice for employers, based on civil war reconstruction essay the ever-changing legislation Sample contracts, dismissals and warning letters, etc. Numerous practical checklists. How can you benefit from this practical handbook? FREE: See for yourself how valuable this product is to you as an employer. It’s clearly different from other jargon filled, technical products on the market. Order it today and I'll give you a 90-day money-back guarantee.

You will definitely find it worthwhile, even if you have a labour lawyer. It’s simpler, faster and much cheaper to look up something than to wait until your lawyer calls you back. We wish you all the a drugstore in winter best in your investigation of these new labour strategies. Lizle Louw, Editor-in-Chief. PS: If you reply quickly, you will also receive an invaluable copy of Say You're Fired and Make it Stick! In this groundbreaking booklet, you'll find out why you shouldn't insert long notice periods into employment contracts; the legally justified reasons you can use for dismissing an employee; all bargaining council contact numbers; and civil war reconstruction, much more. Employment contracts: what the law says you must do. You must give your employees, in paper writing, the terms and conditions of their employment. This document can take the form of civil war reconstruction essay a letter of appointment, or you can create a more formal contract of ap government questions employment the form doesn’t matter it’s the war reconstruction content that’s important.

Getting your employee to sign the document avoids disputes about whether or not it was given and what it contains. You must do this when the employee starts employment and children phones essay, you must retain the document for at least three years after termination of the civil war reconstruction employment relationship (Section 29 of the BCEA). You must also update this employment document and provide the employee with a new copy when: the law changes you and your employee agree to changes in the terms and conditions you increase the employee’s pay or benefits (this you could do in a supplementary letter). TIP: Better late than never! Check all your personnel records and draw up the employment documents now, even if your employees have been working for essay you for years.

Even part-time staff must have a contract. This law applies to you if your employees are temporary or part-time, even if they: have a fixed employment period, or only work one day a week, or only work every weekend, or only work half day. In other words, anyone who qualifies as an ‘employee’ should receive this document from you (refer to chapter E03 in Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service). 3 Easy steps to civil protect yourself from legal comebacks. The South African labour laws offer your employees protection, but they also allow you a degree of flexibility in what you agree with your employee so you need to essay be proactive and protect yourself.

Do this by civil essay, taking these three steps today: Design an employment agreement (whether it’s in the form of a contract or a letter) that complies with the law, but fits with your business requirements. Make it a requirement for ap government essay the selected job applicant to sign the contract BEFORE commencing employment. Explain (with the aid of an interpreter if necessary) the contents of the contract to the employee/applicant in civil war reconstruction a language he understands. This is required by law. By doing so, you will avoid the following situation: You hire Nathan as your editor. He starts work on Monday without signing his employment contract. Security Essays. You ask him on Thursday to sign the document, but he refuses because he doesn’t agree with the restraint of trade clause. You threaten to cancel the contract. He threatens to go to civil war reconstruction the CCMA because, having started work, he has automatically become your employee.

In this situation Nathan is right you can’t cancel his contract. If you want him to essays sign, you will have to civil essay take out the restraint clause. Rather ensure Nathan signs the contract including the restraint of trade clause before you appoint him or he commences employment. If he refuses to accept the terms of employment, you don’t have to employ him, because he has neither signed the contract, nor begun work. As South African labour laws offer your employees more protection than they offer you, you need to be proactive and protect yourself! By law, there are 17 elements that must be contained in the employment contract. Children. Protect your business by essay, including another 9 vital points in the contracts. Essay. Labour Law for Managers loose-leaf service tells you exactly what they are. You have to dismiss an civil war reconstruction essay employee, but do you know how? By Ivan Israelstam , CEO of Labour Law Management Consulting, and DerekJackson , labour law consultant. Legally, dismissals are either 'fair' or 'unfair' According to security problems the Labour Relations Act, there are only three reasons for dismissal that are 'fair'.

And even if you dismiss with due cause, if you don't follow the correct procedure, you'll end up at the CCMA for sure! 3 Grounds for fair dismissal. Conduct of the employee. Capacity of the employee (his ability to do his job) Operational requirements of your business (retrenchment) The above three reasons for dismissal form the basis of 'substantive fairness'. However, if you dismiss someone for civil war reconstruction fair reason, but fail to internet essay follow procedure, the civil war reconstruction dismissal will still be found to be unfair. Don't get done on technicalities! In a case brought before the essay CCMA, the employee was a manager for essay a security firm.

He testified he had been held up by armed robbers at the Qwa-Qwa branch of his employer's company, where he was robbed of money and a company vehicle. He subsequently opened a criminal case at the local police station. Tips On Writing A Good. Five days later, he phoned the police station to essay enquire about the a drugstore in winter progress of the case. The police told him to wait where he was, at the premises of the employer. The police arrived a short while later and arrested the employee, presumably in connection with the alleged robbery. Civil War Reconstruction Essay. The employer then dismissed the employee on the spot. In the internet essay criminal case, the employee was found not guilty, and civil, he then returned to work but his employer confirmed his dismissal. The law favours the employee! The CCMA Commissioner held that the dismissal was unfair, because the employer didn’t dispute the employee's testimony at the CCMA arbitration hearing, and in addition, dismissed the employee without a disciplinary hearing. In other words, the employer couldn't show good cause (substantive fairness) and a drugstore in winter essay, hadn't followed the correct procedure. The Commission awarded the employee 12 months' salary as compensation.

This is civil, a classic case of national security essays what happens when an employer ignores the very basic requirements in any disciplinary procedure. He dismissed his employee without even affording him a disciplinary hearing. 5 Vital elements of substantive fairness. Warning: The dismissal should pass (and you must prove) all of the following tests to ensure substantive fairness: The accused employee did commit the misconduct. The employee knew or should have known that the conduct was an infringement of your rules. The rule or standard was valid or reasonable. The rule was consistently applied. Essay. The misconduct was serious enough to merit the interview research paper harsh penalty of civil essay dismissal.

Checklist: Disciplinary hearing. 6 Key elements of an effective and legally compliant disciplinary hearing. Investigate and security essay, prepare your case thoroughly before the hearing Choose an unbiased and skilled chairperson Ensure the accused is given every chance to prepare and defend his case Base the civil outcome on ap government federalism essay facts Ensure the penalty is appropriate to the offence Record the civil essay hearing so you can prove you complied with the law. Procedural fairness is where it gets tricky Refer to children cell the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service for more details on civil essay when to give warnings, and should children have essay, when they're not needed; how to present evidence at a disciplinary hearing; finding a verdict based on war reconstruction essay the 'balance of probabilities'; aggravating and mitigating circumstances; dealing with the appeal; and so much more. Including important amendments to the law and new case law. You receive unlimited usage rights for all sample contracts and additional agreements! Labour Law for tips a good book report Managers loose leaf service. Important reasons why you may need to dismiss.

You want to civil war reconstruction essay reduce costs. So you decide to retrench. When a Labour Court judge presides over a retrenchment case brought by your employee (or a trade union on behalf of your employee), he must look at a number of factors when deciding whether you retrenched the employee fairly: 4 Factors that determine fair retrenchment. Whether you had a sufficient reason for the retrenchment. Whether you used a fair criterion when choosing the employee to be retrenched. Whether you consulted fully and in good faith with the employee or his trade union before making the retrenchment decision. Whether you disclosed to the employee or union all the internet security information to be used for purposes of civil war reconstruction consulting on retrenchment. The ugly consequences of unfair dismissal: In a case brought before the problems Labour Court, it found that the retrenchment was unfair. The employee, Mr Manyaka, had been a computer operator.

Before he was retrenched the employer hired another employee into a new computer operator post, but at a higher level. Sick leave when do you NOT have to pay? An employee is entitled to 30 days’ paid sick leave if he works five days a week, and 36 days’ paid sick leave if he works six days a week. You don’t have to pay an employee for sick leave if the civil essay period of absence is longer than two consecutive days, or if he has been absent on more than two occasions during an eight-week period, unless he gives you a valid medical certificate from essay questions, a registered medical practitioner. The Court found that the employer, instead of retrenching Mr Manyaka, could have trained him for war reconstruction essay the higher level computer operator post. The Court therefore reinstated the report employee with back pay and granted costs against the employer (Manyaka vs Van de Wetering Engineering 1997 11 BLLR 1458). Refusal to obey an instruction versus “just plain bad attitude” It’s easy to confuse the two, because in practice, they frequently occur simultaneously.

Insolence is disrespectful behaviour towards the employer. Insubordination is the civil war reconstruction essay refusal by an employee to a drugstore essay obey a lawful and war reconstruction, reasonable instruction from his superior. Tip: If an employee is both insubordinate and insolent, the allegations forming the basis of his disciplinary hearing to be convened must include two charges, i.e. insubordination and insolence. This will strengthen your case, should you wish to dismiss the employee. Not all cases of insubordination justify dismissal! If the employee’s refusal doesn’t have serious or significant negative consequences for the employer, a written or final written warning would be more appropriate. The Code of Good Practice: Dismissals, stresses that only gross insubordination warrants dismissal on a first offence. One scenario where you may be able to dismiss (and there are at least six other scenarios outlined in the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service) is in ap government essay questions circumstances where the employee makes it clear that he has no intention of civil war reconstruction ever complying with future instructions. If you follow the security problems correct procedure, you can win your case! Case example: The employer charged and dismissed the employee for gross insubordination in that she failed to comply with the company clocking-in procedure, which obliged employees to clock in and out when taking tea breaks.

The employee conceded that she was aware of the company rule requiring employees to do so. She had received a prior final written warning for civil war reconstruction essay the same offence. The dismissal was held to have been fair ( SACCAWU obo Ngobese vs Pick‘n Pay KN20877-02 ). Desertion occurs when an employee doesn’t come to work without taking leave and without the intention of returning to book report work OR without informing you of the reason for civil his absence and without the intention of mla format interview research returning to work. However, the problem is you don’t always know whether he intends to return. For this reason you must implement a desertion procedure designed to protect your business (see sample policy in civil essay the Labour Law for phones essay Managers ).

Abuse of email/Internet facilities. Your communication systems are central to the effectiveness of your business, but the use of the war reconstruction essay Internet has become a huge problem, with many employees abusing this business tool. A Drugstore. The potential consequences for you, the employer, are dire! This could cost you thousands of war reconstruction essay rands in lost working time, legal expenses and damaged electronic systems. ‘Privacy’ can be a thorn in your side! Because of the legal protection of an employee’s right to privacy, you need to tread very warily when designing effective management tools of a drugstore in winter essay your e-communications system. However, there are actions you can take, which we cover in chapter E02 in war reconstruction essay Labour Law for a drugstore in winter Managers:

Permit you to inspect emails sent or received through your computer facilities Reduce the abuse of civil war reconstruction essay email and Internet facilities Reduce your legal risk when employees send out should cell phones essay, offensive emails, or emails that could bind your company legally Reduce the risk of computer viruses invading your computer system. The following reasons for dismissal are described in detail in Labour Law for Managers Practical Handbook : Absenteeism Alcohol addiction abuse Breach of war reconstruction restraint of trade agreement Desertion Disability Email/Internet abuse Failure to observe security and safety regulations Gross incompetence Gross negligence Illegal striking Incapacity Insubordination Moonlighting Poor performance Refusal to work Retrenchment Sexual harassment Sleeping on duty Theft Time keeping. Strikes can cripple your business find out mla format interview, how to prevent them. By Ivan Israelstam , CEO of civil essay Labour Law Management Consulting. Strikes can result in on writing a good book loss of productivity, angry customers, financial losses, injury, damage to war reconstruction property and should phones essay, soured employee relations. Find out how to minimise and deal with strikes at your workplace. Who has the right to strike? All employees have the war reconstruction right to go on strike. This right springs from the constitutional right to protest and tips on writing, engage in trade union activity (Chapter 4 of the LRA 66 of 1995 , and S ection 23 of the Constitution of South Africa No. War Reconstruction. 109 of should have cell phones essay 1996 ).

Warning: Employees do not have to be part of civil war reconstruction essay a trade union to go on strike. Previously, for a strike to essay be legal, 50% + 1 of your employees first had to vote in favour of it. But this requirement for a majority ballot has been scrapped. Also, the concepts of legal and illegal strikes have been scrapped. Instead, we now have the civil war reconstruction essay concepts of protected and unprotected strikes. Warning: You can never dismiss employees for going on a protected strike because the employees are ‘protected’ by law from interview research paper, dismissal (Section 67(4) of the civil war reconstruction essay LRA) . Have Cell Essay. In fact, such a dismissal will be regarded as automatically unfair (Section 187 (1) (a) and (b) of the LRA).

Make 100% sure you know whether your employees’ strike is war reconstruction, protected or unprotected! If you incorrectly assume that the strike is unprotected and you dismiss the strikers, the cost to essay questions your business could be huge. If the Labour Court finds the strike to have been a protected one, not only essay, will you have unfairly dismissed your workforce, but the dismissal may be found to be automatically unfair. This means you may have to: Pay each dismissed employee up to essay two years’ remuneration in compensation, or Reinstate them with full back pay calculated from the date of the dismissal. 12 Steps on how to deal with protected strikes. Step #1: Make absolutely sure the strike is war reconstruction, a protected one. Tips On Writing Report. This is because you cannot use court interdicts or dismissals to deal with protected strikes. Step #2: Make sure the civil war reconstruction employees understand why you are sticking to your position. Meet with them or issue notices explaining the rationale of paper your decision on the matter. Clear up any misconceptions created by rumour or malicious instigators.

Step #3: Negotiate: Compromise on those demands that are fair and war reconstruction essay, you can afford to have cell essay compromise on. Step #4: One option is to sit it out. In other words, let the employees strike and continue with your business. You can only war reconstruction essay, consider doing this if you: a) are definitely not in a position to give into any of the strikers’ demands; b) have been unable to settle the dispute through negotiation as per steps 1 and mla format interview research, 2 above; c) are sure you have made reasonable counter proposals, which the strikers have rejected. That is, even if you’ve tried to negotiate, you should relook at essay, whether your proposals are reasonable or could be improved; d) are in a strong financial position and can keep production going. Step #5: You have the right to take industrial action known as a 'lock-out'. Where you prevent employees from coming to work by barring them from entering your premises. Lock-out the strikers only federalism essay questions, if this is really necessary to prevent damage, violence or obstruction of operations. An employer has the right to civil war reconstruction essay lock-out its employees only tips a good book, after it has followed the above procedures required for a protected strike.

Only then will it be a protected lock-out. You can also lock them out to compel them to accept a demand. Step #6: Bring in essay replacement labour where this is practical. However, you should use this approach with great caution as it can provoke violence. You'll need to provide in advance for protective security to prevent attacks on the replacement workers. Step #7: Temporarily evacuate non-strikers if they are in danger. Note: You'll probably have to pay the security essay non-strikers if you evacuate them. Step #8: Pay special attention to war reconstruction protecting lives and potentially dangerous or strategic installations such as fuel depots or electrical generators. Step #9: Do not discipline or dismiss any employees for having gone on mla format interview research paper a protected strike. Step #10: Avoid provoking the strikers unnecessarily, e.g. do not taunt them by calling them names or doing a mock toyi-toyi. Step #11: Deal with sabotage, blockades, picketing or other disruptive or prohibited conduct during strikes in war reconstruction a firm but restrained manner.

You may need to bring in police or security personnel. National Security Essays. Try to essay do so in such a way that their presence is preventive. Give instructions that no excessive force is to tips on writing a good be used. Step #12: Never pay employees for the period they were on essay strike! The employees are allowed to mla format interview research strike for as long as they want, but will be unable to war reconstruction essay hold out forever because of the should children have cell loss of income. Order the Labour Law for essay Managers loose leaf service today, and use all the expert advice! 9 Golden rules of Performance Appraisals. By Len Segal , Director, Executive Placements. It's your direct responsibility to a drugstore see that performance appraisals happen it's something that may not be delegated. Only you can adequately assess your employee’s performance.

It focuses on the individual’s performance, which is measured against the standards set out in the job description. It focuses on proven performance, not potential. A performance appraisal is civil war reconstruction essay, never a psychological appraisal, nor should psychologists be allowed to federalism questions draw up the appraisal document. War Reconstruction. It's based solely on the job description. NEVER reward poor performance. If it can’t be measured, then it can’t be managed. If the performance can't be measured, then the job is worthless make it redundant. A person whose performance is consistently below standard should be removed via a disciplinary process.

Appraisals should be viewed retrospectively, because emphasis is placed on what has occurred in interview paper the past. It’s pointless trying to appraise what might not have been done. Discussion of performance is separate from a salary review. The appraisal should occur at war reconstruction, least three months before the salary review. This gives the tips employee time to get back on track, should it be necessary. Forget the paperwork it isn’t necessary! Avoid these two traps: You don’t want reams of complicated questions that need to be filled in which is ultimately a waste of time. You undoubtedly have little time to waste.

When appraisals become complicated, managers lose interest and shy away from them. Essay. When assessing performance, you shouldn’t worry about future potential, which becomes evident anyway when a person performs well. Assessing potential is another exercise to be examined under different situations. 18 Discriminatory selection practices avoid them! If you're not careful, you could be found guilty of on writing report unfair discrimination on any one of the 18 grounds listed below: Race Gender Political opinion Trade union affiliation Religion Pregnancy Marital status Family responsibility Ethnic or social origin Sexual orientation Age Disability HIV status Conscience Belief Culture Language Birth. The burden of health and safety provisions rests on you!

By Cynthia Hayward , Labour Relations lecturer, Peninsular Technikon. The law stipulates that the employer must provide first aid equipment and services to employees who are injured at war reconstruction essay, work. Federalism Essay Questions. You have to provide a first aid box containing suitable first aid equipment. Employees should be informed that the contents of the box should only be used for emergencies and not as a general medicine chest. Civil War Reconstruction Essay. You must display a sign that indicates where the box is kept. MINIMUM contents of the in winter first aid box: Antiseptic, such as TCP (100ml) Swabs for cleaning wounds.

Clean cotton wool (100 g) 10 Squares of essay sterile gauze. 1 Pair of tweezers (for splinters) 1 Pair of scissors (minimum size 100 mm) 1 Set of safety pins. 4 Triangular bandages. 4 Roller bandages (75mm x 5m) 4 Roller bandages (100mm x 5m) 1 Roll of should have essay elastic adhesive (24mm x 3m)

1 Non-allergenic adhesive strip (25mm X 3m) 1 Packet of adhesive dressing strips, 10 assorted sizes. 4 First aid dressings (75 x 100mm) 4 First aid dressings (150 x 200mm) 2 Pairs of disposable splints. 2 Pairs of large disposable latex gloves. 2 Pairs of medium disposable latex gloves. 2 CPR mouthpieces.

What information will you find in the Labour Law for Managers Practical Handbook? Here are just SOME of the topics and war reconstruction, issues covered in the Handbook: 10 Clauses you must include in your employment contracts How to reduce absenteeism and deal with deserters All your questions answered about leave How to deal with probation effectively and legally The A-Z of disciplinary hearings: Investigation, notification, preparation, suspension, evidence, legal representation and more How to implement a disciplinary process that increases performance and not litigation: Sample warnings, codes of conduct, levels of offence, types of discipline, sample policy and security, more What you can and can’t ask in an interview The legal dos and civil, don’ts when advertising for a position Your 6-step employment equity plan What to do when a grievance is reported How to deal with trade unions How to interview research paper prevent and prepare for strikes, and war reconstruction essay, deal with a strike misconduct Bargaining council, CCMA, SETA and problems, Department of Labour contact details. All tips, recommendations and information in the Labour Law for civil Managers loose leaf service are 100% legal, and checked by 2 independent consultants. Practical advice explained in simple English; Step-by-step instructions; Checklists; Proven sample contracts and letters; Real life case studies; and Each and every item referenced and justified.

With the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf you will find: What the pros and cons are of belonging to a bargaining c ouncil; How to reduce absenteeism; Step-by-step instructions on how to conduct yourself at conciliation and arbitration hearings to ap government questions emerge successful; Which disputes are arbitrable and which are not; What your rights are as a manager with regards to employee privacy; All the civil essay amendments to tips a good book report the LRA and how they affect you; The difference between fair and unfair dismissals; How to civil essay implement a disciplinary process that increases performance and NOT litigation; Whether sexual harassment is security, a form of discrimination; What truthfully constitutes Affirmative Action and how to implement it to civil war reconstruction essay achieve your company's Employment Equity objective; The impact of HIV/Aids on should children have phones your business; What you can and can't ask in an interview; Skills development- how to avoid paying hefty penalties; And much more. Editor-in-Chief. Lizle is an civil war reconstruction essay admitted attorney and conveyancer. She is a director at Edward Nathan Sonnenbergs in the employment law department.

Lizle specialises in employment law, occupational safety and mine health and safety. She acts for a diverse range of clients in the mining and retail industries. Lizle’s general practice includes litigation in the CCMA, Bargaining Councils, Labour Court and Labour Appeal Court, drafting of employment and safety related policies and training of line managers on all employment related matters. Security Essay. Lizle holds the essay following qualifications: BComm Law (University of Johannesburg) LLB (University of Johannesburg) Certificate in should children have essay International Criminal Law (University of Antwerp) Ivan Israelstam (BA Hons., Adv Dip (IPM)) Alan Rycroft (BA, LLB, LLM (London)) Barney Jordaan (BA LLB (cum laude) and Doctorate in Law (LLD)) Des Squire Anton Steenkamp (BA, LLM, LLM(Pret), LLM (summa cum laude) (Notre Dame, USA) Penny Bosman (BA, LLB (cum laude)) Liezl-Mari Mouton Lee-Ann Randall (BSc Occ Ther, MA, Cert Health Ec, Adv Dip Voc Rehab) Ebrahiem Abrahams Dale Hutchison (BCom, LLB (magnacum Laude), PhD (Cambridge) Helen Wilsenach Nicky van der Westhuizen (BCom, LLB) Matthews Dikane Gill Loveday (BA, B.Iuris, LLB, LLM in Labour Law (cum laude)) Michelle Thompson Edwin Ellis (BCom, LLB) Imraan Mohamed Alex Ferreira (BA, LLB, LLM) Itayi Gwaunza (BA, LLB) Zahida Ebrahim (LLB (UWC),Certificate in International Business Transactions (Howard University, USA)) Deidre Venter Bradley Conradie (BA, LLB, LLM) Michael Maeso Nichola Wainwright (BProc, LLB) Annie Erwin (B MUS TLD LLB) Alec Wainwright (D.Litt et Phil) By ordering your copy of Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service today:

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