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Research Proposal English Language


A Research Proposal is a research project which is used by the researcher to convince others that it is plausible and worth the

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English research proposal example

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biography of people April 23, 1564-April 23, 1616. Nationality: British; English. English Proposal Example? Birth Date: April 23, 1564. Thesis Coupon? Death Date: April 23, 1616. About This Essay Jump to Additional DLB Essay(s) on This Author: Henry VI, part 1, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1589-1592.

Henry VI, part 2, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1590-1592. Henry VI, part 3, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1590-1592. Richard III, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1591-1592. The Comedy of Errors, London, unknown theater (probably by Lord Strange's Men), circa 1592-1594; London, Gray's Inn, 28 December 1594. Titus Andronicus, London, Rose or Newington Butts theater, 24 January 1594. The Taming of the Shrew, London, Newington Butts theater, 11 June 1594. The Two Gentlemen of Verona, London, Newington Butts theater or the Theatre, 1594. Love's Labor's Lost, perhaps at the country house of a great lord, such as the Earl of Southampton, circa 1594-1595; London, at Court, Christmas 1597.

Sir Thomas More, probably by Anthony Munday, revised by Thomas Dekker, Henry Chettle, Shakespeare, and possibly Thomas Heywood, evidently never produced, circa 1594-1595. King John, London, the english proposal, Theatre, circa 1594-1596. Richard II, London, the za coursework, Theatre, circa 1595. Romeo and Juliet, London, the Theatre, circa 1595-1596. Research Proposal Example? A Midsummer Night's Dream, London, the Theatre, circa 1595-1596. The Merchant of mla format research paper, Venice, London, the Theatre, circa 1596-1597. English Research Example? Henry IV, part 1, London, the Theatre, circa 1596-1597. Chain - Research? Henry IV, part 2, London, the Theatre, circa 1597.

The Merry Wives of Windsor, Windsor, Windsor Castle, 23 April 1597. Much Ado About Nothing, London, the research proposal, Theatre, circa 1598-1599. Henry V, London, Globe theater(?), between March and September 1599(?). Julius Caesar, London, Globe theater, 21 September 1599. As You Like It, London, Globe theater, circa 1599-1600. Hamlet, London, Globe theater, circa 1600-1601. Twelfth Night, London, at Court(?), no earlier than 6 January 1601(?); London, Globe theater(?), circa 1601-1602(?); London, Middle Temple, 2 February 1602. Troilus and Cressida, London, Globe theater(?), circa 1601-1602(?). All's Well That Ends Well, London, Globe theater, circa 1602-1603.

Measure for Measure, London, Globe theater(?), 1604(?); London, at supply chain Court, 26 December 1604. Othello, London, Globe theater(?), 1604(?); Westminster, Whitehall, 1 November 1604. King Lear, London, Globe theater(?), by late 1605 or early 1606; London, at Court, 26 December 1606. Timon of Athens (possibly unperformed during Shakespeare's lifetime); possibly London, Globe theater, circa 1605-1608. Macbeth, London, Globe theater(?), 1606(?); London, at Court, probably 7 August 1606. Antony and research example, Cleopatra, London, Globe theater, circa 1606-1607. Pericles, possibly by Shakespeare and thesis coupon, George Wilkins, London, at Court, between January 1606 and November 1608; London, Globe theater, probably circa 1607-1608. Coriolanus, London, Globe theater, circa 1607-1608. Cymbeline, London, Blackfriars theater or Globe theater, 1609. English Example? The Winter's Tale, London, Globe theater, 15 May 1611. The Tempest, London, at Court, 1 November 1611.

Cardenio, probably by Shakespeare and you exist essay, Fletcher, London, Globe theater(?), circa 1612-1613. Henry VIII, possibly by Shakespeare and proposal example, John Fletcher, London, Globe theater, 29 June 1613. The Two Noble Kinsmen, by Shakespeare and Fletcher, London, probably Blackfriars theater (possibly Globe theater), 1613. Venus and Adonis (London: Printed by Richard Field, sold by J. Harrison I, 1593). The First Part of the Contention betwixt the supply chain optimization - research, two famous Houses of proposal, Yorke and Lancaster [abridged and corrupt text of Henry VI, part 2] (London: Printed by helping victims Thomas Creede for Thomas Millington, 1594). Lucrece (London: Printed by Richard Field for John Harrison, 1594); republished as The Rape of research, Lucrece. Newly Revised (London: Printed by T. Snodham for R. Jackson, 1616). The Most Lamentable Romaine Tragedie of Titus Andronicus (London: Printed by John Danter, sold by Edward White Thomas Middleton, 1594). A Pleasant Conceited Historie, Called The Taming of interview research, a Shrew [corrupt text] (London: Printed by Peter Short, sold by Cuthbert Burbie, 1594).

The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of english research proposal example, Yorke, and the death of good King Henrie the Sixt [abridged and corrupt text of Henry VI, part 3] (London: Printed by Peter Short for prove Thomas Millington, 1595). The Tragedy of King Richard the Third (London: Printed by english Valentine Simmes Peter Short for Andrew Wise, 1597). The Tragedie of King Richard the second (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise, 1597). An Excellent conceited Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet [corrupt text] (London: Printed by John Danter [ E. Allde?], 1597); The Most Excellent and of television, lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet. Newly Corrected, Augmented, and Amended (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for research proposal Cuthbert Burby, 1599). You Exist Essay? A Pleasant Conceited Comedie Called, Loues Labors Lost (London: Printed by William White for Cuthbert Burby, 1598). The History of Henrie the Fourth [part 1] (London: Printed by Peter Short for Andrew Wise, 1598). A midsommer nights dreame (London: Printed by R. Bradock for Thomas Fisher, 1600). The most excellent Historie of the Merchant of Venice (London: Printed by James Roberts for Thomas Heyes, 1600). The Second part of english research example, Henrie the fourth, continuing to mla format paper his death, and coronation of research, Henrie the fift (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise William Aspley, 1600). Much adoe about prove you exist Nothing (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise William Aspley, 1600).

The Cronicle History of Henry the english research proposal, fift [corrupt text] (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for Thomas Mullington John Busby, 1600). The Phoenix and helping essay, Turtle, appended to Loves Martyr: or, Rosalins Complaint, by Robert Chester (London: Printed by Richard Field for E. English Research Proposal Example? Blount, 1601). A Most pleasaunt and excellent conceited Comedie, of Syr John Falstaffe, and the merrie Wives of Windsor [corrupt text] (London: Printed by supply chain - research paper Thomas Creede for Arthur Johnson, 1602). The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet Prince of Denmark [abridged and corrupt text] (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Nicholas Ling John Trundell, 1603); The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke. Newly Imprinted and proposal, Enlarged to Almost as Much Againe as It Was, According to chain - research paper the True and english proposal example, Perfect Coppie (London: Printed by mla format interview research paper James Roberts for Nicholas Ling, 1604). M. English Research Proposal? William Shak-speare: His True Chronicle Historie of the life and death of King Lear and his three daughters (London: Printed by N. Chain Optimization Paper? Okes for english research proposal Nathaniel Butter, 1608). The Historie of Troylus and Cresseida (London: Printed by G. Flood? Eld for R. Bonian H. Walley, 1609).

Shake-speares Sonnets (London: Printed by G. Eld for Thomas Thorpe, sold by W. Aspley, 1609). The Late, and Much Admired Play, Called Pericles, Prince of Tyre (London: Printed by W. White for Henry Gosson, 1609). The Tragady of Othello, The Moore of Venice (London: Printed by english proposal example Nicholas Okes for Thomas Walkley, 1622). Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, Tragedies. Published according to the True Originall Copies (London: Printed by interview Isaac Jaggard Edward Blount, 1623)--comprises The Tempest; The Two Gentlemen of Verona; The Merry Wives of Windsor; Measure for Measure; The Comedy of Errors; Much Ado About Nothing; Love's Labor's Lost; A Midsummer Night's Dream; The Merchant of research proposal, Venice; As You Like It; The Taming of the Shrew; All's Well That Ends Well; Twelfth Night; The Winter's Tale; King John; Richard II; Henry IV, parts 1 and 2; Henry V; Henry VI, parts 1-3; Richard III; Henry VIII; Troilus and Cressida; Coriolanus; Titus Andronicus; Romeo and Juliet; Timon of Athens; Julius Caesar; Macbeth; Hamlet; King Lear; Othello; Antony and essays, Cleopatra; Cymbeline; The Two Noble Kinsmen, by Shakespeare and John Fletcher (London: Printed by english research example Thomas Cotes for John Waterson, 1634). Prove? A New Variorum Edition of english research, Shakespeare, 29 volumes to date, volumes 1-15, 18, edited by optimization - research Horace Howard Furness; volumes 16-17, 19-20, edited by Horace Howard Furness, Jr. (Philadelphia London: Lippincott, 1871-1928); volumes 1-25, general editor Joseph Quincey Adams; volumes 26-27, general editor Hyder Edward Rollins (Philadelphia London: Lippincott for the Modern Language Association of America, 1936-1955); volumes 28- , general editors Robert K. Turner, Jr., and Richard Knowles (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1977- ). The Works of Shakespeare, The New Cambridge Shakespeare, edited by J. Dover Wilson, Arthur Quiller-Couch, and others, 39 volumes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1921-1967). The Complete Works of Shakespeare, edited by proposal George Lyman Kittredge (Boston: Ginn, 1936); revised by Irving Ribner (Waltham, Mass.: Ginn, 1971). Shakespeare Quarto Facsimiles, edited by W. W. Greg and unp ac, Charlton Hinman, 14 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939-1966). William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, edited by Peter Alexander (London Glasgow: Collins, 1951; New York: Random House, 1952).

The Arden Shakespeare, general editors Harold F. Brooks and Harold Jenkins, 38 volumes to date (London: Methuen, 1951- ). The Complete Works of Shakespeare, edited by Hardin Craig (Chicago: Scott Foresman, 1961); revised by Craig and David Bevington (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1973); revised again by Bevington (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1980). The New Penguin Shakespeare, general editor T. J. B. Spencer, 33 volumes to english research proposal example date (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967- ). The Norton Facsimile: The First Folio of of television, Shakespeare, edited by Charlton Hinman (New York: Norton, 1968). William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, The Complete Pelican Shakespeare, general editor Alfred Harbage (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969). The Complete Signet Classic Shakespeare, general editor Sylvan Barnet (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972). The Riverside Shakespeare, general editor G. Blakemore Evans (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974).

Shakespeare's Sonnets, edited, with analytic commentary, by Stephen Booth (New Haven London: Yale University Press, 1977). Proposal? Shakespeare's Plays in Quarto: A Facsimile Edition of Copies Primarily from the Henry E. Maths? Huntington Library, edited by Michael J. B. Allen and english research proposal example, Kenneth Muir (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982). The Complete Works, general editors Stanley Wells and unp ac za coursework, Gary Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986). The Complete Works: Original-Spelling Edition, general editors Wells and Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986). Shakespeare's words and phrases have become so familiar to us that it is sometimes with a start that we realize we have been speaking Shakespeare when we utter a cliché such as one fell swoop or not a mouse stirring. Never mind that many of the expressions we hear most often--to the manner born, or (from the same speech in english example, Hamlet ) more honored in the breach than the observance--are misapplied at least as frequently as they are employed with any awareness of their original context and implication. The fact remains that Shakespeare's vocabulary and Shakespeare's cadences are even more pervasive in our ordinary discourse today than the idiom of the King James Bible, which Bartlett lists as only the second most plentiful source of Familiar Quotations . And much the thesis coupon, same could be said of those mirrors of english research proposal example, our nature, Shakespeare's characters. From small delights like Juliet's Nurse, or Bottom the Weaver, or the Gravedigger, to such incomparable creations as Falstaff, King Lear, and Lady Macbeth, Shakespeare has enlarged our world by imitating it. It should not surprise us, therefore, that personalities as vivid as these have gone on, as it were, to lives of their own outside the dramatic settings in which they first thought and spoke and moved.

In opera alone there are enough different renderings of characters and scenes from Shakespeare's plays to assure that the devotee of Charles-François Gounod or Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner or Benjamin Britten, could attend a different performance every evening for six months and never see the same work twice. On Violence? Which is not to suggest, of course, that the composers of other musical forms have been remiss: Franz Schubert, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Hector Berlioz, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Claude Debussy, Jean Sibelius, Sergey Prokofiev, and Aaron Copland are but a few of the major figures who have given us songs, tone poems, ballets, symphonic scores, or other compositions based on Shakespeare. Cole Porter might well have been addressing his fellow composers when he punctuated Kiss Me Kate with the advice to Brush Up Your Shakespeare. Certainly the painters have never needed such reminders. Artists of the stature of George Romney, William Blake, Henry Fuseli, Eugene Delacroix, John Constable, J. M. W. Turner, and research example, Dante Gabriel Rossetti have drawn inspiration from Shakespeare's dramatis personae; and, thanks to mla format research such impresarios as the eighteenth-century dealer John Boydell, the rendering of scenes from research, Shakespeare has long been a significant subgenre of pictorial art. Illustrators of on violence of television, Shakespeare editions have often been notable figures in their own right: George Cruikshank, Arthur Rackham, Rockwell Kent, and Salvador Dali. Meanwhile, the decorative arts have had their Wedgwood platters with pictures from the plays, their Shakespeare portraits carved on scrimshaw, their Anne Hathaway's Cottage tea cozies, their mulberry-wood jewelry boxes, and their Superbard T-shirts. Every nation that has a theatrical tradition is indebted to Shakespeare, and in language after language Shakespeare remains the greatest living playwright. Not merely in terms of the english proposal example, hundreds of productions of Shakespeare's own plays to thesis coupon be blazoned on the marquees in any given year, either: no, one must also bear in mind the english proposal example, dozens of supply - research, film and television versions of the example, plays, and the countless adaptations, parodies, and spinoffs that accent the essays of television, repertory--from musicals such as The Boys from Syracuse (based on The Comedy of Errors ) and english proposal example, West Side Story (Leonard Bernstein's New York ghetto version of the gang wars in Romeo and Juliet ), to political lampoons like Macbird (contra LBJ) and Dick Deterred (the doubly punning anti-Nixon polemic), not to mention more reflective dramatic treatments such as Edward Bond's Bingo (a biographical drama about Shakespeare the man) and Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (an absurdist re-enactment of maths unp ac za coursework, Hamlet from the perspective of two innocents as bewildered by research proposal the court of Renaissance Elsinore as their twentieth-century counterparts would be in of television, a play such as Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot ). When we broaden our survey to include the hundreds of novels, short stories, poems, critical appreciations, and other works of serious literature that derive in one way or another from Shakespeare, we partake of an even grander view of the playwright's literary and english proposal, cultural primacy. Here in America, for chain example, we can recall Ralph Waldo Emerson's awestruck response to english proposal example the Stratford seer, his exclamation that Shakespeare was inconcievably wise, all other great writers only conceivably. On the other side of the on violence of television, coin, we can indulge in the speculation that Shakespeare may have constituted an aspect of the behemoth that obsessed Herman Melville's imagination, thus accounting for some of the echoes of Shakespearean tragedy in the form and research proposal example, rhetoric of Moby-Dick . In a lighter vein, we can chuckle at the frontier Bardolatry so hilariously exploited by flood the Duke and the King in Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn . English Proposal? Or, moving to our own century, we can contemplate William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury as an extended allusion to Macbeth's tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow soliloquy.

Should we be disposed to look elsewhere, we can puzzle over the riddle of Shakespeare in the meditations of the Argentine novelist and essayist Jorge Luis Borges. Or smile (with perhaps but an incomplete suspension of disbelief) as the Nobel Prize-winning African poet and dramatist Wole Soyinka quips that Sheikh Zpeir must have had some Arabic blood in him, so faithfully did he capture the local color of Egypt in paper, Antony and Cleopatra . Implicit in all of these manifestations of Shakespeare worship is a perception best summed up, perhaps, in James Joyce's rendering of the research proposal, charismatic name: Shapesphere. For in showing the very age and body of the time his form and maths unp ac za coursework, pressure (as Hamlet would put it), Shakespeare proved himself to be both the soul of the example, age his works reflected and adorned and the consummate symbol of the artist whose poetic visions transcend their local habitation and become, in some mysterious way, contemporaneous with all time (to return once more to Jonson's eulogy). If Jan Kott, a twentieth-century existentialist from eastern Europe, can marvel that Shakespeare is our contemporary, then, his testimony is but one more instance of the tendency of every age to claim Shakespeare as its own. Whatever else we say about Shakespeare, in other words, we are impelled to acknowledge the incontrovertible fact that, preeminent above all others, he has long stood and will no doubt long remain atop a pedestal (to recall a recent New Yorker cartoon) as a very very very very very very important writer. So important, indeed, that some of his most zealous admirers have paid him the thesis coupon, backhand compliment of doubting that works of such surpassing genius could have been written by the same William Shakespeare who lies buried and memorialized in Stratford-upon-Avon. Plays such as the English histories would suggest in the writer an easy familiarity with the ways of kings, queens, and courtiers; hence their author must have been a member of the nobility, someone like Edward de Vere, the seventeenth Earl of Oxford. Plays such as Julius Caesar , with their impressive display of classical learning, would indicate an author with more than the small Latin and less Greek that Ben Jonson attributes to Shakespeare; hence the need to seek for their true begetter in the form of a university-trained scholar such as Francis Bacon. English Proposal Example? Or so would urge those skeptics (whose numbers have included such redoubtable personages as Henry James and thesis coupon, Sigmund Freud) who find themselves in sympathy with the anti-Stratfordians.

Their ranks have never been particularly numerous or disciplined, since they have often quarreled among themselves about english example which of the various claimants--the Earl of Derby, Christopher Marlowe, even Queen Elizabeth herself--should be upheld as the true Shakespeare. And because many of their arguments are methodologically unsophisticated, they have never attracted adherents from scholars with academic credentials in the study of English Renaissance history and you exist essay, dramatic literature. Example? But, whatever their limitations, the anti-Stratfordians have at mla format least helped keep us mindful of how frustratingly little we can say for certain about the life of the research example, man whose works have so enriched the lives of research, succeeding generations. Research Example? One thing we do know is that if Shakespeare was a man for all time, he was also very much a man of his own age. Christened at essays Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon on 26 April 1564, he grew up as the eldest of five children reared by John Shakespeare, a tradesman who played an increasingly active role in the town's civic affairs as his business prospered, and Mary Arden Shakespeare, the daughter of a gentleman farmer from nearby Wilmcote. Whether Shakespeare was born on 23 April, as tradition holds, is not known; but a birth date only english research proposal, a few days prior to maths unp ac za coursework the recorded baptism seems eminently probable, particularly in view of the fear his parents must have had that William, like two sisters who had preceded him and proposal example, one who followed, might die in infancy. By the time young William was old enough to begin attending school, he had a younger brother (Gilbert, born in 1566) and a baby sister (Joan, born in 1569). As he attained his youth, he found himself with two more brothers to help look after (Richard, born in 1574, and Edmund, born in 1580), the younger of whom eventually followed his by-then-prominent eldest brother to London and the theater, where he had a brief career as an actor before his untimely death at twenty-seven. The house where Shakespeare spent his childhood stood adjacent to he wool shop in which his father plied a successful trade as a glover and dealer in leather goods and other commodities. Before moving to Stratford sometime prior to 1552 (when the records show that he was fined for mla format research paper failing to remove a dunghill from outside his house to the location where refuse was normally to english research proposal be deposited), John Shakespeare had been a farmer in the neighboring village of Snitterfield. Whether he was able to read and write is uncertain.

He executed official documents, not with his name, but with a cross signifying his glover's compasses. Some scholars interpret this as a signature that might have been considered more authentic than a full autograph; others have taken it to be an indication of illiteracy. But even if John Shakespeare was not one of the paper, learned, he was certainly a man of english, what a later age would call upward mobility. By marrying Mary Arden, the paper, daughter of his father's landlord, he acquired the research proposal example, benefits of a better social standing and za coursework, a lucrative inheritance, much of which he invested in property (he bought several houses). And by involving himself in public service, he rose by sure degrees to the highest municipal positions Stratford had to offer: chamberlain (1561), alderman (1565), and bailiff (or mayor) and justice of the peace (1568). A few years after his elevation to the office of english research proposal example, bailiff, probably around 1576, John Shakespeare approached the College of essays on violence, Heralds for armorial bearings and the right to call himself a gentleman. Before his application was acted upon, however, his fortunes took a sudden turn for the worse, and english, it was not until 1596, when his eldest son had attained some status and supply optimization paper, renewed the petition, that a Shakespeare coat of english example, arms was finally granted. This must have been a comfort to John Shakespeare in his declining years (he died in on violence of television, 1601), because by then he had borrowed money, disposed of property out of proposal, necessity, ceased to attend meetings of the paper, town council, become involved in example, litigation and been assessed fines, and essays of television, even stopped attending church services, for research example fear, it was said, of prove you exist, process for debt. Just what happened to alter John Shakespeare's financial and social position after the mid 1570s is not clear.

Some have seen his nonattendance at church as a sign that he had become a recusant, unwilling to conform to the practices of the newly established Church of England (his wife's family had remained loyal to Roman Catholicism despite the fact that the old faith was under vigorous attack in english proposal example, Warwickshire after 1577), but the scant surviving evidence is anything but definitive. The records we do have suggest that during young William's formative years he enjoyed the advantages that would have accrued to him as the prove essay, son of one of the most influential citizens of a bustling market town in the fertile Midlands. When he was taken to services at Holy Trinity Church, he would have sat with his family in the front pew, in accordance with his father's civic rank. English Research Proposal? There he would have heard and felt the words and rhythms of the Bible, the sonorous phrases of the 1559 Book of supply paper, Common Prayer, the exhortations of the Homilies. In all likelihood, after spending a year or two at a petty school to learn the rudiments of reading and writing, he would have proceeded, at the age of seven, to grammar school. Research Proposal? Given his father's social position, young William would have been eligible to attend the King's New School, located above the Guild Hall and adjacent to the Guild Chapel (institutions that would both have been quite familiar to a man with the elder Shakespeare's municipal duties), no more than a five-minute walk from the Shakespeare house on Henley Street. Mla Format Paper? Though no records survive to tell us who attended the research, Stratford grammar school during this period, we do know that it had well-qualified and - research paper, comparatively well-paid masters; and, through the painstaking research of proposal, such scholars as T. W. Baldwin, we now recognize that a curriculum such as the one offered at the King's New School would have equipped its pupils with what by modern standards would be a rather formidable classical education. During his many long school days there, young Shakespeare would have become thoroughly grounded in prove, Latin, acquired some background in Greek, and developed enough linguistic facility to pick up whatever he may have wanted later from such modern languages as Italian and French. Along the way he would have become familiar with such authors as Aesop, Caesar, Cicero, Sallust, Livy, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Seneca. He would have studied logic and rhetoric as well as grammar, and he would have been taught the principles of composition and oratory from the writings of such masters as Quintilian and english research example, Erasmus. In all probability, he would even have received some training in speech and drama through the performance of plays by prove you exist essay Plautus and Terence.

If Shakespeare's references to english research schooling and schoolmasters in the plays are a reliable index of how he viewed his own years as a student, we must conclude that the experience was more tedious than pleasurable. But it is difficult to prove you exist imagine a more suitable mode of instruction for the formation of a Renaissance poet's intellectual and artistic sensibility. Meanwhile, of course, young Shakespeare would have learned a great deal from english research proposal example, merely being alert to all that went on around him. He would have paid attention to the plant and animal life in the local woods that he would later immortalize, in As You Like It , as the Forest of Arden. You Exist Essay? He may have hunted from time to time; one legend, almost certainly apocryphal, has it that he eventually left Stratford because he had been caught poaching deer from the estate of english, a powerful squire, Sir Thomas Lucy, four miles up-stream.

He probably learned to swim as a youth, skinny-dipping in the river Avon. He may have participated in some of the athletic pursuits that were the basis of competition in the Elizabethan equivalent of the Olympics, the nearby Cotswold Games. He would undoubtedly have been adept at indoor recreations such as hazard (a popular dice game), or chess, or any of a number of card games. As he grew older, he would have become accustomed to such vocations as farming, sheep-herding, tailoring, and shopkeeping. He would have acquired skills such as fishing, gardening, and supply optimization paper, cooking. And he would have gathered information about the various professions: law, medicine, religion, and teaching. Judging from the astonishing range of daily life and human endeavor reflected in his poems and plays, we can only infer that Shakespeare was both a voracious reader and a keen observer, the sort of polymath Henry James might have been describing when he referred to a character in one of his novels as a man on whom nothing was lost. Once his school years ended, Shakespeare married, at eighteen, a woman who was eight years his senior. We know that Anne Hathaway was pregnant when the marriage license was issued by the Bishop of Worcester on 27 November 1582, because a daughter, Susanna, was baptized in Holy Trinity six months later on 26 May 1583.

We have good reason to believe that the marriage was hastily arranged: there was only one reading of the banns (a church announcement preceding a wedding that allowed time for any legal impediments against english research proposal it to be brought forward before the ceremony took place), an indication of unusual haste. But whether the marriage was in any way forced is impossible to determine. Some biographers (most notably Anthony Burgess) have made much of an apparent clerical error whereby the bride's name was entered as Anne Whateley of Temple Grafton in essay, the Worcester court records; these writers speculate that Shakespeare was originally planning to marry another Anne until Anne Hathaway of Shottery (a village a mile or so from Shakespeare's home in Stratford) produced her embarrassing evidence of english research, a prior claim. To most scholars, including our foremost authority on Shakespeare's life, S. Schoenbaum, this explanation of the Anne Whateley court entry seems farfetched. Such hypotheses are inevitable, however, in the absence of optimization, fuller information about the married life of William and Anne Hathaway Shakespeare. What we do have to go on is certainly compatible with the suspicion that William and Anne were somewhat less than ardent lovers. Research Example? They had only two more children--the twins, Hamnet and on violence, Judith, baptized on english 2 February 1585--and they lived more than a hundred miles apart, so far as we can tell, for the better part of the twenty-year period during which Shakespeare was employed in the London theater. If we can give any credence to an amusing anecdote recorded in the 1602-1603 diary of a law student named John Manningham, there was at least one occasion during those years when Shakespeare, overhearing the actor Richard Burbage make an assignation, went before, was entertained, and at his game before Burbage came; then, message being brought that Richard the prove, Third was at research example the door, Shakespeare caused return to essays be made that William the english research example, Conqueror was before Richard the Third.

If we read the flood victims essay, sonnets as in english example, any way autobiographical, moreover, we are shown a poet with at least one other significant liaison: a Dark Lady to prove essay whom Will's lust impels him despite the self-disgust the english research proposal example, affair arouses in him (and despite her infidelity with the fair Young Man to whom many of the poems are addressed and for whom the poet reserves his deepest feelings). Essays? But even if there is reason to speculate that Shakespeare may not have always been faithful to the marriage bed, there is much to suggest that he remained attached to Anne as a husband. In 1597 he purchased one of the most imposing houses in example, Stratford--New Place, across the street from the Guild Chapel--presumably settling his wife and children there as soon as the title to unp ac the property was clear. He himself retired to that Stratford home, so far as we can determine, sometime between 1611 and 1613. And of english research proposal, course he remembered Anne in his will, bequeathing her the notorious second-best bed--which most modern biographers regard as a generous afterthought (since a third of his estate would have gone to the wife by law even if her name never occurred in the document) rather than the slight that earlier interpreters had read into the phrasing.

Naturally we would like to paper know more about what Shakespeare was like as a husband and english research example, family man. Supply Chain? But most of us would give just as much to know what took place in english research, his life between 1585 (when the essays, parish register shows him to have become the father of twins) and 1592 (when we find the earliest surviving reference to him as a rising star in the London theater). What did he do during these so-called dark years? Did he study law, as some have suspected? Did he travel on example the Continent? Did he become an apprentice to a butcher, as one late-seventeenth-century account had it? Or--most plausibly, in thesis coupon, the view of english proposal example, many modern biographers--did he teach school for thesis coupon a while?

All we can say for certain is that by the time his children were making their own way to school in rural Stratford, William Shakespeare had become an actor and writer in what was already the largest city in research, Europe. Shakespeare probably traveled the hundred miles to London by way of the spires of Oxford, as do most visitors returning from Stratford to interview research London today. But why he went, or when, history does not tell us. English Proposal Example? It has been plausibly suggested that he joined an supply chain acting troupe (the Queen's Men) that was one player short when it toured Stratford in english, 1587. If so, he may have migrated by way of one or two intermediary companies to a position with the troupe that became the Lord Chamberlain's Men in 1594.

The only thing we can assert with any assurance is that by 1592 Shakespeare had established himself as an actor and had written at least three plays. Thesis Coupon? One of these--the third part of Henry VI --was alluded to in that year in a posthumously published testament by a once-prominent poet and english research, playwright named Robert Greene, one of the University Wits who had dominated the London theater in the late 1580s. Dissipated and on his deathbed, Greene warned his fellow playwrights to beware of an upstart crow who, not content with being a mere player, was aspiring to a share of the livelihood that had previously been the exclusive province of professional writers such as himself. Victims Essay? Whether Greene's Groatsworth of Wit accuses Shakespeare of plagiarism when it describes him as beautified with our feathers is not clear; some scholars have interpreted the phrase as a complaint that Shakespeare has borrowed freely from the english example, scripts of others (or has merely revised existing plays, a practice quite common in flood victims, the Elizabethan theater). But there can be no doubt that Greene's anxieties signal the research example, end of one era and the beginning of maths unp ac za coursework, another: a golden age, spanning two full decades, during which the dominant force on the London stage would be, not Greene or Kyd or Marlowe or even (in the later years of that period) Jonson, but Shakespeare. If we look at what Shakespeare had written by the early 1590s, we see that he had already become thoroughly familiar with the english proposal, daily round of one of the great capitals of Europe.

Shakespeare knew St. Supply - Research? Paul's Cathedral, famous not only as a house of english research proposal, worship but also as the marketplace where books were bought and sold. He knew the Inns of Court, where aspiring young lawyers studied for the bar. He knew the prove, river Thames, spanned by the ever-busy, ever-fascinating London Bridge. He knew the Tower, where so many of the characters he would depict in his history plays had met their deaths, and where in his own lifetime such prominent noblemen as the Earl of Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh would be imprisoned prior to their executions. He knew Westminster, where Parliament met when summoned by the Queen, and example, where the mla format interview, Queen herself held court at Whitehall Palace. He knew the english research proposal example, harbor, where English ships, having won control of the seas by defeating the invincible Spanish Armada in prove essay, 1588, had begun in earnest to explore the New World. In Shakespeare's day London was a vigorous city of somewhere between 150,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. If in its more majestic aspects it was dominated by research example the court of thesis coupon, Queen Elizabeth, in its everyday affairs it was accented by english the hustle and bustle of getting and spending. Its Royal Exchange was one of the forerunners of maths, today's stock exchanges.

Its many market-places offered a variety of goods for a variety of tastes. Its crowded streets presented a colorful pageant of english proposal, Elizabethan modes of transport and dress, ranging from countrywomen in homespun to elegant ladies in supply chain optimization - research paper, apparel as decorative as their husbands' wealth--and the Queen's edicts on clothing--would allow. Its inns and taverns afforded a rich diversity of vivid personalities--eating, tippling, chatting, and enjoying games and pleasures of proposal example, all kinds. It was, in short, an immensely stimulating social and cultural environment, and we can be sure that Shakespeare took full advantage of the opportunity it gave him to prove observe humanity in all its facets. Like Prince Hal, he must have learned to drink with any tinker in his own language, and it was this as much as anything he was taught at proposal school (or might have acquired by supply chain optimization paper attendance at university) that equipped him to create such vibrant characters as Mistress Quickly, proud Hotspur, and the imperturbable Bottom. Not that all was always well. Like any major city, London also had its problems. Preachers and moralists were constantly denouncing the excessive use of cosmetics. Thus, when Hamlet speaks out against english research proposal example your paintings, telling Ophelia that God hath given you one face, and essay, you make yourselves another, he would have been sounding a note familiar to everyone in Shakespeare's audience.

So also with the furred gowns so roundly cursed by Lear: courtiers and their ladies were accustomed to lavishing as much pride on a single article of bejeweled finery as a modern man or woman might pay for a very expensive automobile. But luxury was only one of the evils of the age. London's Puritan authorities, regarding the theaters as dens of proposal, iniquity, closed them down on any available pretext, particularly when the plague was rampant. Meanwhile, even without the plague or the theaters to concern them (and one gathers that some of the authorities were anything but sure about essay which was the greater peril), the city fathers had to contend with gambling, drunkenness, prostitution, and other vices, especially in english research proposal example, the Bankside district south of the Thames and in the other liberties outside the city walls to the west, east, and north (such as Shoreditch, where James Burbage had erected the first permanent commercial play-house, the Theatre, when Shakespeare was only twelve, and where many of Shakespeare's plays prior to 1599 were first performed). Here most blatantly, but elsewhere as well, pickpockets, vagabonds, and essays of television, other members of the fraternity of urban lowlife lay in wait for conies, as they called their unsuspecting victims. Given so many notorious villainies for spokesmen like Thomas Dekker's Belman of London to bring to light, it is hardly surprising that among the example, most prolific literary genres of the period were the scores of books and tracts that spewed forth from reformers incensed by on violence the decadence of the Renaissance metropolis. In such a setting did Shakespeare write and help perform the greatest theatrical works the world has ever experienced. And he did so in suburbs known primarily for entertainments that we would regard as totally alien from the sweet Swan of Avon's poetic grace.

For if Shoreditch and, later, Bankside were to blossom into the finest theatrical centers of that or any other age, they were also, for better or worse, the research proposal, seedbeds for such brutal spectator sports as bearbaiting, bullbaiting, and cockfighting. Helping? This may help account for the blood and violence so frequently displayed on the Elizabethan stage, most notably in such early Shakespearean experiments as the Henry VI trilogy and Titus Andronicus, but also in mature works such as Julius Caesar and english, King Lear . But of course there was a good deal more than murder and mayhem in the wooden O that served as amphitheatre for most of Shakespeare's dramatic productions. On a stage largely devoid of scenery but by no means lacking in spectacle, the playwright and his actors made efficient use of language, properties, and gesture to establish time, locale, situation, and atmosphere. Maths Unp Ac? In the process, through all the proposal, resources of rhetoric, symbolism, and what Hamlet in his advice to prove the players calls action, the artificial persons of the english proposal example, drama (its dramatis personae) imitated humanity in such a way as to convey whatever matter an author and his company envisaged for maths a scene, an act, or a full dramatic sequence. By twentieth-century standards, the means they used were relatively primitive--no spotlights, too few furnishings to achieve verisimilitude through setting and dress, only the crudest of special effects, no curtains to raise and lower as a way of english, signaling the beginning and end of a scene or act--but by any standards, the results they achieved were brilliant. It has taken us nearly four centuries to rediscover what they seem to have understood intuitively: that in some things theatrical, less is more. Our best estimate is that approximately 3,000 spectators could be crammed into a ninety-nine-foot-wide, polygonal structure such as the Theatre (which opened in 1576 and was dismantled in 1598, after the - research, owner of the land on research proposal example which it stood refused to negotiate a lease acceptable to research paper Shakespeare's acting company) or its successor the english research proposal example, Globe (which opened in prove essay, 1599, after the english research, company transported the essay, lumber from the english, Theatre across the Thames and used it as the mla format paper, scaffolding for an even more handsome playhouse on the Bankside).

More than half of the audience stood in the yard (which measured about fifty-five feet in diameter); the remainder sat in the three galleries that encircled the yard and rose to a thatched roof some thirty-six feet above the english, ground. The stage was probably about maths unp ac forty-three feet wide, and it thrust some twenty-seven feet into the yard from the tiring house at the rear of the building. It was covered by a pillar-supported superstructure--the heavens--that protected that actors and their costumes from the elements and housed the equipment Elizabethan companies used for ascents, descents, and other flying effects. In the floor of the stage platform (about five feet above the surrounding yard) was a trapdoor that could be opened for visitations from below or for access into what, depending on the context, might represent a grave or a pit or even hell itself. At the back of the stage in all likelihood, concealing the example, tiring house where the actors effected their costume changes and awaited their cues to prove enter, were three doors. The two at the corners were probably used for most of the entrances and exits of the actors; the english proposal, large middle one was capable of flood essay, being employed as a shallow, draped discovery space that might be drawn open for tableaux (as when Ferdinand and Miranda are disclosed playing chess in The Tempest ) or adapted to represent small enclosures such as closets, studies, bedrooms, or shops like the proposal, Apothecary's cell in Romeo and Juliet . On the level above the tiring house, probably divided into five bays, was a balcony that accommodated a select number of the theater's highest-paying customers and functioned in many of the plays as the upper stage where brief scenes requiring a higher vantage point could be enacted. Thesis Coupon? Sentinels on watch, lovers at a second-story bedroom window, seamen crying out from a ship's crow's nest: these and other situations called for the use of one or more of the upper-level bays (probably the english research example, central one in most instances) for characters to speak their lines and render the movements called for in the script. Because the mla format research paper, main playing area was surrounded on all four sides by spectators, the english research proposal example, poet and the performer benefited from a more intimate relationship with the prove you exist, audience than is customary in present-day theaters fitted with a curtain and a proscenium arch. For Shakespeare, this meant that he could allow a character to confide in a nearby playgoer through asides, as does Iago in research example, Othello , or to be overheard while he meditates in solitude, as does Brutus in the soliloquy in which he talks himself into joining the plot to assassinate Caesar. Such devices may strike a modern viewer as less sophisticated than, say, the cinematic voice-over, but they proved eminently acceptable to an audience that was willing to piece out a performance's imperfections with [its] thoughts. And it says a great deal about the intelligence and sensitivity of Elizabethan theatergoers that they attended and prove essay, were capable of appreciating dramatic works which, in many respects, were both responses to and sublimations of the coarser activities that competed for attention (and people's entertainment budgets) only a short distance away from the magic circle defined by the walls of a Theatre or a Globe.

Just who composed the audiences of these public playhouses is still a matter of debate, but recent research by Ann Jennalie Cook and Andrew Gurr suggest that they were a more affluent cross-section of english research proposal example, Elizabethan society than earlier writings by such scholars as Alfred Harbage would have led us to believe. Supply Chain? An examination of wages and prices during the period indicates, for example, that those who attended performances on research weekday afternoons would have had to have more leisure, and helping flood victims essay, more disposable income, than seems compatible with the view that even the proposal, groundlings (who paid the lowest admission, a penny to optimization paper stand in the yard and english research example, risk getting soaked in the event of rain) were predominantly working-class people and illiterate apprentices. Supply - Research Paper? Because their position in the yard put their eyes on proposal a level with the feet of the players, the groundlings were sometimes derided as understanders; it now begins to appear that a substantial percentage of these theatergoers were understanders in a more favorable sense. To be sure, some of them may at times have been a bit obstreperous, and their number may well have included an assortment of men and helping victims essay, women (including prostitutes) preoccupied with extra-theatrical pursuits. It may be, too, that the groundlings were more susceptible than other members of the proposal example, audience (if merely because of their greater proximity to the stage) to manipulation by what we now call naughty actors, the overweening clowns whom Hamlet rebukes for their tendency to helping victims essay ply the crowd for english research inappropriate laughter, interrupting the essays on violence, flow of the example, action and causing spectators to miss some necessary question of the paper, play. English Research Proposal? But even if the groundlings were not quite as cultivated, on the average, as those members of the audience who could afford to sit while they watched a play, it is difficult to reconcile the subtlety and indirection of Shakespeare's plotting and characterization, not to mention the complexity of his language and helping victims essay, the incomparable music of his verse, with the assumption that the majority of an average house at the public theaters was unable to research example respond to anything more elevated than the broad humor of victims, a Launce or a Dogberry. Even if we still find it valuable, then, to preserve something of the traditional distinction between the groundlings and the more privileged spectators who sat in english proposal example, the three-tiered galleries encircling the yard, we should now open our minds to the possibility that there were more of what Hamlet would call judicious viewers in every segment of the Elizabethan audience, including those who stood in the yard, than we have tended to assume until very recently in our analyses of Shakespearean drama. Which is not to optimization paper say, of course, that Shakespeare and his fellow dramatists were completely satisfied with any of english research example, their audiences (but then what writer ever is?). Hamlet bestows high praise on a play that he says was never acted, or if it was, not above once, for it pleased not the million, 'twas caviary to the general. He then exhorts the prove you exist essay, players to disregard a whole theatre of others, if necessary, in order to please those with judgments in such matters.

Whether Hamlet's creator would himself have endorsed such extreme elitism is difficult to english research example determine, but such a view is essays on violence, certainly consonant with the epistle to the reader that prefaced the revised 1609 first quarto edition of Troilus and Cressida . Here we are assured that we have a new play, never staled with the stage, never clapper-clawed with the research, palms of the vulgar, and yet passing full of the palm comical; and we are given to believe that it is to the credit rather than the discredit of the work that it has never been sullied with the smoky breath of the multitude. Research Paper? Inasmuch as this preface and the title page preceding it replaced an earlier title page advertising Troilus and proposal example, Cressida as it was acted by the King's Majesty's servants at the Globe, we are probably correct to assume that whoever wrote it had in mind the kind of vulgar multitude who would have seen the play at one of the outdoor public theaters. All of helping, which is to acknowledge that even if the audiences that attended the public theaters were sophisticated enough to support the vast majority of english proposal, Shakespeare's dramatic efforts, they may nevertheless have proven deficient in their response to some of the extraordinary challenges he placed before them after he arrived at his artistic maturity. This should not surprise us, given Shakespeare's continual experimentation with inherited generic forms and his ever-more-complex approaches to traditional material. Nor should we assume that by terms such as the maths za coursework, million and the general he and his fellow playwrights referred only to the groundlings.

Writers of the period were equally acidulous in their criticism of the gallants who attended the theater to english proposal be the observed of prove you exist essay, all observers--the ostentatiously attired young men who sat not only in the galleries near the english research proposal example, stage (where the prove essay, admission price was thrice as much as for the places in the yard) and in the balconies above and english research example, behind the stage (which cost six times as much as the places in the yard), but even on the stage itself at some performances in the indoor private theaters (where the least expensive seat cost six times the price of general admission to the Theatre or the Globe, and prove you exist essay, where some of the seats cost a full thirty times as much). It is difficult to believe that Shakespeare any more than Dekker (who satirized such gallants in english research proposal example, The Gull's Hornbook ) would have considered these foppish Osrics even slightly more judicious than their fellow spectators at the lower end of the economic scale. Thesis Coupon? And one can easily imagine that after 1609, when his company began using the Blackfriars theater as its primary venue during the colder months (the London authorities having finally dropped the english research proposal, restrictions that had prevented James Burbage from operating a commercial adult theater in the old monastery he had purchased and adapted in 1596), Shakespeare felt that he had simply exchanged one kind of less-than-perfect audience for another. One gathers, nevertheless, that, like other playwrights of the period, Shakespeare was careful not to thesis coupon refer too overtly to deficiencies in research proposal, the well-to-do members of his audiences, especially when such members might include the nobility or persons close to them. After all, an acting company's livelihood depended upon its securing and retaining favor at Court--not only because of the extra income and prestige that accrued from periodic Court performances commissioned by the Master of the Revels, but even more fundamentally because a company could perform in on violence of television, or near London only research example, if it were licensed to do so by the Crown and enjoyed the optimization - research paper, protection of a noble or royal patron. A prudent playwright would not wish to jeopardize his company's standing with the monarch. And Shakespeare and his colleagues--the other sharers who owned stock in the company that was known as the research proposal example, Lord Chamberlain's Men from supply chain optimization, 1594 until 1603 (when Queen Elizabeth died and was succeeded by King James I) and the King's Men thereafter (having received a patent as the new monarch's own players)--must have been prudent, because theirs was by far the most prosperous and the most frequently preferred theatrical organization in the land, from its inception in the early 1590s until the triumph of english proposal example, Puritanism finally brought about the closing of the theaters half a century later in essays of television, 1642.

Shakespeare's position with the Lord Chamberlain's Men was a source of professional stability that probably had a great deal to example do with his growth and maturation as a writer. For one thing, it freed him from some of the uncertainties and frustrations that must have been the lot of other playwrights, virtually all of whom operated as free-lancers selling their wares to impresarios such as Philip Henslowe (often for as little as five pounds), and most of thesis coupon, whom thus forfeited any real say about how their plays were to be produced and, in time (if a given acting company so wished or if chance provided), published. From at least 1594 on research example Shakespeare was a stockholder of the theatrical organization for which he wrote his plays. After 1598 (when the sons of the recently deceased James Burbage, Cuthbert and Richard, invited four of the principal actors in essay, the Lord Chamberlain's Men to become their partners and put up half the capital needed to rebuild the research, Theatre across the Thames as the Globe), Shakespeare was also a co-owner of the supply optimization paper, playhouse in which that company performed the plays. As such, he shared in all the profits the Lord Chamberlain's Men took in at english research example the gate, and he was undoubtedly a participant in most, if not all, of the major decisions affecting the company's welfare. Unp Ac Za Coursework? We know from the surviving legal records of the english research proposal example, playwright's various business transactions that he prospered financially by this arrangement: like his father, Shakespeare invested wisely in real estate, purchasing properties in both Stratford and London. Helping Flood? And we can infer from the evidence of research proposal example, his rapidly developing sophistication as a dramatist that Shakespeare's membership in a close-knit group of theatrical entrepreneurs also helped him flourish artistically. Prove? It meant, for proposal example example, that he could envisage and write his plays with particular performers in mind: Richard Burbage for leading roles such as Richard III, Othello, and King Lear; Will Kempe for clowning parts such as Launce or Dogberry in the early years of the company, and za coursework, thereafter (following Kempe's departure from the Lord Chamberlain's Men around 1599) Robert Armin, who seems to have specialized in wise fools such as Touchstone, Feste, and english proposal example, Lear's Fool; Shakespeare himself, perhaps, for interview paper old men such as Adam in As You Like It; hired men (adult actors who, not being shareholders in the company, were simply paid a sum of money for each job of work) for most of the lesser roles; and apprentice boy-actors for the youthful parts and many, if not all, of the female roles (there being no actresses on the English stage until the theaters reopened after the Restoration). Working as the english research, resident playwright for a company in which he was both an thesis coupon actor and english research example, a business partner meant that Shakespeare could revise and rewrite his scripts in rehearsal prior to a given play's first performance, and that he could adapt and further revise them later as differing circumstances required: such as performances commissioned at Court during holiday seasons or on ceremonial occasions, or performances solicited by the great houses of the on violence, nobility, or (during sieges of plague when the London theaters were closed) performances on tour in the provinces, during which, in all likelihood, the troupe was reduced to entertaining with fewer actors and was required to research example make do with provisional playing areas in guild halls, inn yards, and other less-than-ideal theatrical spaces. Thesis Coupon? Because the conditions under which Shakespeare worked required him, above all, to be pragmatic and english research example, flexible, we would probably be correct to infer that as he composed his plays he thought of his scripts, not as fixed literary texts, but as provisional production notes--susceptible of lengthening or shortening or other modes of alteration as determined by you exist the constraints of research example, particular venues and performance situations. He would have had to unp ac za coursework prepare each script with an eye to the number of actors available for speaking parts (one recent scholar has concluded that most of english example, Shakespeare's plays were composed with a cast of thirteen performers in mind), and he probably planned each scene with a view to essays on violence of television the possibilities for doubling (a principle of theatrical economy whereby a given actor would alternate among two or more roles in english proposal, the same play).

It may well be that, in the absence of anyone else in the organization designated to function in that capacity, Shakespeare was the first director his plays had. If so, we can be sure that he approached the task with an awareness that the devising of research paper, a production was a collaborative process and that the playscript, though normative, was never to be revered as a monument carved in stone. Shakespeare was, after all, a play wright (that is, a maker rather than merely a writer of plays), and he would have been the first to recognize that the final purpose of a dramatic text was a fully realized performance rather than a piece of literature to research proposal be read in chain paper, the privacy of english research example, a patron's parlor or pondered in the lamplight of a scholar's study. Flood Victims? If in research, his capacity as theater professional Shakespeare conceived of himself, then, as a maker of plays (by definition ephemeral and insubstantial pageants, as Prospero observes in The Tempest ) rather than as an you exist author of literary works (the term that earned Ben Jonson the derision of his fellow playwrights when he came out with a pretentiously titled folio volume of english research, his collected plays in 1616), it is hardly surprising that he appears to have had little or nothing to do with the publication of any of his own dramatic scripts. Nor is it surprising that several of the unp ac za coursework, texts that were published in Shakespeare's lifetime or shortly thereafter have come down to us in forms that vary from one printing to another. Some of these variations probably result from authorial revisions or from theatrical adaptations of one kind or another. Others undoubtedly derive from the research proposal example, vicissitudes of textual transmission, with the extant state of za coursework, a given text or passage dependent on whether it was printed from the author's own manuscript (either in draft form or in research proposal example, a more finished version) or from a manuscript prepared by someone else (a scribe's fair copy of a manuscript owned by the author or the on violence, company, for example, or a rough compilation by one or more actors relying on faulty memories to pull together an abridged script for a reduced cast touring the provinces)--quite apart from any further complications that may have occurred in the printing house itself (where one copy editor, one compositor, or one proofreader differed from another in the accuracy with which he reproduced the manuscript before him). Whatever their origins, these variations are eloquent testimony to the difficulty--if not indeed the impossibility--of our ever arriving at an absolutely final version of a Shakespearean play. Example? For if the conditions under which plays were written, performed, and preserved make it clear that a definitive playtext was rare, if not unknown, in Shakespeare's own time, we must recognize that any effort to prove essay produce an english research proposal example authoritative edition for our own time can aspire, at best, to maths za coursework reconstitute as accurately as possible the closest surviving approximation to proposal example a given script at some point in its compositional or theatrical history. And even this kind of edition will remain stubbornly incomplete, for the simple reason that a Shakespearean script was originally intended for the use, not of a reading audience, but of thesis coupon, a small company of research, theater professionals who would employ it as a score from essay, which to orchestrate a complex, multidimensional performance.

The texts that do survive are mostly dialogue, and a sensitive analysis of them can tell us a great deal about how the example, words were meant to be spoken, where the emphases were to be placed, and what character motivations were to thesis coupon be indicated at specific points in the action. But because we can no longer recover the context in which these scripts were first realized--a context that would have included a good deal of oral communication about gesture, movement, blocking, and other stage business--we must content ourselves with editions that will always be to english research example some degree indeterminate. Perhaps this is just as well: it teases the critic and the director with enough interpretive liberty to ensure that we will never be faced with a dearth of innovation in Shakespearean commentary and production. We should bear in mind, of course, that a considerable investment of additional work would have been required to transform a production script into a reading text for the public--not altogether unlike what is required nowadays to turn a screenplay into a coherent piece of narrative fiction--and that Shakespeare may never have had the optimization - research, time (even if we assume that he ever had the inclination) to effect such a generic adaptation. Still, those of us who would not object to a little more detail about english proposal example some of the matter of Shakespeare's plays may perhaps be pardoned for wishing that the playwright had been able to spare more thought for thesis coupon the morrow--for the example, afterlife that most (though who is to say all?) of essays of television, his plays were eventually to have as a consequence of publication. Our sentiments are echoed in the 1623 address To the Great Variety of Readers at the beginning of that posthumous edition of Shakespeare's works known as the First Folio: It had been a thing, we confess, worthy to have been wished, that the author himself had lived to have set forth and overseen his own writings.

He did set forth and research proposal, oversee some of his own writings, of course. Supply Optimization Paper? But, significantly, these were not dramatic scripts. Research Example? In 1593 Shakespeare published an 1194-line narrative poem that appears to have been intended as his opening bid for mla format interview research serious attention as an author of literary works. Based on Ovid's Metamorphoses and capitalizing on a fashion for elegant romances that was being catered to by such writers as Thomas Lodge (whose Scilla's Metamorphoses had been published in 1589) and Christopher Marlowe (whose Hero and Leander may well have circulated in manuscript prior to his death in 1593 and certainly before it appeared in print in 1598), Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis was an erotic mythological poem printed by fellow Stratfordian Richard Field and bearing a florid dedication to the Right Honorable Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. English Research Proposal Example? Its six-line stanzas employed an supply paper ababcc rhyming scheme whose authority had been established by such contemporary Renaissance poets as Edmund Spenser, and its ornamented, artificial style solicited a favorable reception from the wiser sort of readers to english be found in prove, the Inns of Courts, at example the universities, and at Court.

Although Shakespeare decorously apologized for the poem as the first heir of my invention, he must have done so in full confidence that Venus and Adonis was an interview paper achievement worthy of his talent. And it proved to be an english proposal immediate and sustained success, with nine reprints by 1616 and six more by 1640. The large number of chain optimization, references to it during the late 1590s and early 1600s suggest that it was the work for english research proposal example which Shakespeare was most widely recognized during his own lifetime. Within a year of the publication of Venus and prove, Adonis , Shakespeare was back to press with another long narrative poem. This time he chose a seven-line stanza rhyming ababbcc (rhyme royal, a verse form whose tradition in English poetry extended all the way back to Chaucer), and once again he drew on Ovid for a work dedicated (this time even more warmly) to the Earl of Southampton. English Research Proposal? If Venus and Adonis is most aptly approached as a quasi-comic treatment of love (depicting the helping flood, frustrations of an insatiate goddess who falls all over herself as she fumbles to seduce an unresponsive youth), despite the fact that it ends with the death of the innocent young mortal, Lucrece is example, more properly described as a tragic complaint, a moving exploration of the personal and social consequences of a noble Roman's surrender to you exist essay lust, against his better nature and at the cost, ultimately, of both his victim's life and his own. English Research? In his foreword to Venus and Adonis , Shakespeare had promised the supply chain optimization, dedicatee a graver labor if his first offering pleased its would-be patron; in all likelihood, then, Lucrece was under way as a companion piece to Venus and Adonis at least a year before its eventual publication in 1594. It may be, as some have suggested, that Shakespeare's narrative of Tarquin's rape of Lucrece and research proposal, her suicide was motivated by a desire to persuade anyone who might have considered the earlier work frivolous that the poet's muse was equally capable of a more serious subject. In any case it is clear that once again he struck a responsive chord: Lucrece went through eight editions prior to prove essay 1640, and it seems to have been exceeded in popularity only by proposal Venus and Adonis . Both poems were printed during what has been called Shakespeare's apprenticeship--the period preceding his emergence as a member of the Lord Chamberlain's Men in 1594--and they share a number of stylistic characteristics with the plays that appear to chain optimization - research paper have been completed during those same early years. English Research Proposal Example? As with such youthful dramatic efforts as the three parts of chain, Henry VI , Titus Andronicus , The Two Gentlemen of Verona , The Comedy of Errors , and The Taming of the Shrew, the writing in Venus and Adonis and english, Lucrece is mla format research paper, generically imitative (closely adhering to received poetic and dramatic forms), structurally and verbally derivative (echoing the poet's sources almost slavishly at times), and rhetorically formal (with a rigidly patterned verse containing far more rhymes, end-stopped lines, syntactic balances, and allusions to english research example the classics than are to be observed in Shakespeare's writing after the mid 1590s).

One feels immediately that Venus and Adonis and Lucrece are artistically of a piece with Shakespeare's first tentative experiments as a dramatist. The two poems were probably written during the two-year period from June 1592 to June 1594 when the London theaters were closed owing to the plague. But whether they indicate an inclination to leave the theater altogether and essay a career as a traditional poet (as Shakespeare's quest for the patronage of the young Earl of Southampton would seem to chain optimization paper imply), or merely demonstrate that Shakespeare was resourceful enough to english research proposal example turn his pen to prove other uses while he waited for the theaters to reopen, is english research example, more than we can say. The only thing that seems beyond doubt is that Shakespeare regarded what he was doing when he wrote Venus and Adonis and chain - research paper, Lucrece as something fundamentally different from what he was doing, prior to that and research proposal, subsequent to prove essay it, in his capacity as a playwright and theater professional. Like his fellow playwrights when they donned personae as men of letters, Shakespeare was addressing his efforts, first of all, to a noble patron and, second, to a cultivated readership. He was therefore concerned that his compositions be published as he had written them, and he took pains to assure that they were accompanied by a graceful appeal for research the approval of an audience presumed to embody the highest standards of literary taste and judgment. It may be that during the thesis coupon, same period when he was seeing Venus and research example, Adonis and Lucrece through the press in carefully proofed editions he was also writing other nondramatic poetry.

Many scholars believe that this was when he composed most if not all of the 154 sonnets that bear his name. And if he was in fact the author of A Lover's Complaint (a narrative poem in rhyme royal that was attributed to Shakespeare when it was published, along with the Sonnets , in an unauthorized edition in 1609), he probably wrote that labored lyric during his years in the workshop too. But we have no evidence that he ever took any steps himself to publish either A Lover's Complaint or the Sonnets . Apart from Venus and Adonis and Lucrece , the only other literary work that Shakespeare may have had anything to optimization - research paper do with publishing on his own behalf was a curious poem called The Phoenix and Turtle , which appeared in 1601 as part of a collection Shadowing the Truth of english research proposal example, Love and appended to Robert Chester's Love's Martyr . The Phoenix and Turtle is a sixty-seven-line lyric, probably allegorical, about one bird (the phoenix) legendary for its rarity and beauty and another (the turtledove) proverbial for its constancy. Its scholastic imagery--reminiscent in some ways of the highly technical language to be found in on violence, writing of the english, same literary climate by such metaphysical poets as John Donne--suggests that, if indeed it is by Shakespeare (which many have questioned), it was probably written expressly for you exist essay the Chester volume at about the time that Shakespeare was at work on such philosophical plays as Hamlet and Troilus and Cressida . English Research Proposal? If we except The Phoenix and Turtle, then, and assume that the maths, Sonnets and A Lover's Complaint were published without Shakespeare's active participation, we are left with the conclusion that Shakespeare's literary career, narrowly defined, was more or less limited to the two-year interruption in english, his activities as a theater professional when the London playhouses were closed because of the plague. This does not require us to you exist essay presume, of course, that he ceased to have literary aspirations after 1594. He may have allowed his sugared sonnets to circulate in manuscript among his private friends (as Francis Meres asserted in Palladis Tamia in 1598, a year prior to William Jaggard's surreptitious printing of two of the sonnets in a volume called The Passionate Pilgrim ) while he continued to revise and augment them in the expectation that he would publish an anthology at a later time. And it is not inconceivable that he would have published a collected edition of english, his plays had he lived (Jonson having braved the critical tempest that such audacity was bound to generate when he came out with his works in mla format paper, 1616, the year of Shakespeare's death).

But the fact is that Shakespeare did not himself publish any of the compositions we now value the most, and we can only infer that doing so was of less importance to him than what he did choose to devote his professional life to: the wrighting of plays. If so, he must at example times have had his doubts about the choice he made. In Sonnet 110 (if we may be permitted to assume that the poet was either speaking in his own voice or echoing sentiments that he himself had felt), he allows that he has made himself a motley to mla format interview paper the view and sold cheap what is most dear. He then goes on english example in Sonnet 111 to lament that he did not better for [his] life provide/Than public means which public manners breeds. Wordsworth believed the Sonnets to be the key whereby Shakespeare unlocked his heart, and it may be that these intriguing poems are to some degree a spiritual testament--imitating, as was traditional with lyric verse, the thought processes and shifts in sensibility of a person responding to the vicissitudes of private life. That granted, we may be correct to interpret Sonnets 110 and za coursework, 111 as expressions of Shakespeare's own dissatisfaction with the lot of an actor and playwright. But it is risky to inquire too curiously into the supposedly confessional aspects of the Sonnets . Like Shakespeare's other writings, they employ the artifice of research proposal, fictions, and they may have been but another form of story telling--different in kind from the you exist, plays and narrative poems, to be sure, but similar to them in being about something quite other than (or in addition to) the proposal, poet's own experience. Thesis Coupon? If we examine them in the context of research proposal example, earlier sonnet sequences--Petrarch's lyrics of Laura in fifteenth-century Italy, for instance, or such late-sixteenth-century English sequences as those by Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Samuel Daniel, and Michael Drayton--we discover that they are quite conventional in many respects. They display the speaker's wit and attest to unp ac za coursework his originality; they imply a deeply felt personal situation and hint at a coherent narrative, but they usually stop short of connecting their emotional peaks and valleys into research, a fully textured autobiographical landscape; they assert the unp ac za coursework, immortality of verse and claim its sovereignty over the ravages of time and change; and english example, usually they deal with themes of truth and mla format research paper, beauty in the context of love and friendship and all the circumstances that life arrays in opposition to such values. Research Proposal Example? To a far greater degree than with most sonnet sequences, Shakespeare's Sonnets have the ring of maths, truth.

This is english research proposal, partly because, like all his works (from his earliest plays onward), they portray humanity so convincingly. But it is also a consequence of the extent to mla format which they seem to go beyond, or even to disregard, convention. Thus, instead of praising a lady by cataloging all the attributes that make her lovely, Shakespeare turns Petrarchan tradition on its head by english proposal denying his dark lady any of the expected beauties and helping victims, virtues. My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun, he says in Sonnet 130; and far from being ethereal and inaccessible in her idealized spirituality, the woman described in english research proposal, Shakespeare's Sonnets is sensual, coarse, and promiscuous. Petrarch's Laura may have inspired that earlier poet to Platonic transcendence, but Shakespeare's mistress leaves only the bitter aftertaste of Th' expense of spirit in a waste of maths unp ac za coursework, shame, A bliss in proof, and prov'd, a very woe (Sonnet 129).

And what is more, she alienates the affection of the fair young man to whom most of the english, first 127 sonnets in the sequence are addressed: the friend who occasions some of the deepest verses in English on such themes as fidelity, stewardship (Shakespeare seems to have been preoccupied with the Parable of the supply optimization - research paper, Talents, as rendered in english research proposal example, Matthew 25: 14-30), and man's struggle against never-resting time. As one reads the sonnets directed to the young man, one detects a descent from helping flood victims essay, unquestioned devotion (This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong,/To love that well, which thou must leave ere long--Sonnet 73) to a fear that the older man's love may be unrequited or at least taken for granted by the young friend to research example whom he has given so much of himself (For sweetest things turn sourest by their deeds;/Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds--Sonnet 94) to a courageous but probably quixotic determination to remain true to mla format interview his convictions despite his doubts about the young man's worthiness of such absolute faith (love is not love/Which alters when it alteration finds/Or bends with the remover to remove--Sonnet 116). The intensity of feeling expressed in these sonnets has led many interpreters to infer that they must have been based on a homoerotic passion. But Sonnet 20 suggests that the relationship Shakespeare describes is not sexual. Nature, he says, has given the young man one thing to my purpose nothing. And since she prick'd thee out for women's pleasure,/Mine be thy love, and thy love's use their treasure. Several of the sonnets addressed to english research example the friend refer to a rival poet who is maths unp ac, also bidding for his favors and affection (Sonnets 79, 80, 83, and 86, for example), and others (Sonnets 78, 82, 84, and 85) imply that the young aristocrat is the subject of praise by a great many poetic suitors.

As he reflects upon his own position vis-à-vis his many competitors for research proposal the friend's love, the speaker in Shakespeare's sonnets is subject to a depth of insecurity that sometimes borders on despair: Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,/Featur'd like him, like him with friends possess'd,/Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope (Sonnet 29). And many of the greatest sonnets in the sequence derive their peculiar power from what Robert Frost has termed a sense of difficulty overcome--the poet working through the tensions and conflicts described in the first three quatrains (linked by an abab cdcd efef rhyme scheme) to some kind of essays on violence of television, hard-won (though perhaps not completely convincing) resolution in the concluding couplet (rhymed gg ): For thy sweet love rememb'red such wealth brings,/That then I scorn to change my state with kings (again Sonnet 29). Because the other personalities who figure in english proposal example, the psychodrama of the Sonnets seem so vivid, at prove essay least as they impinge upon the personality of the speaker, interpreters of the sequence have been inexorably drawn toward speculation about english real-life identities for the Dark Lady, the Young Man, and the Rival Poet. Some commentators (such as Oxford historian A. L. Rowse) have persuaded themselves, if not everyone else, that these characters can be positively linked with such contemporaries of Shakespeare as Emilia Lanier, the Earl of Southampton (or, alternatively, the Earl of Pembroke), and Christopher Marlowe (or possibly George Chapman). Unless further information should come to light, however, we are probably best advised to content ourselves with a position of agnosticism on supply chain optimization - research paper such questions.

Until we can be sure about how the Sonnets came to proposal be published, and just what kind of mla format interview, debt the research proposal example, publisher Thomas Thorpe refers to when he dedicates the 1609 quarto to the only begetter of these poems Never before Imprinted--the mysterious Mr. W. Victims? H.--we are unlikely to be able to pin down the proposal example, real names of supply chain optimization paper, any of the persons who inhabit the world of the Sonnets . Until then, indeed, we cannot even be certain that the Sonnets have any autobiographical basis in the first place. Turning from Shakespeare's nondramatic poetry to english example the fruits of his two decades as a playwright, we should probably begin where scholars now think he himself began: as the principal practitioner, if not in many ways the originator, of a new kind of thesis coupon, drama that sprang from research proposal example, native patriotism. The most immediate source of the English history play appears to have been the heightened sense of on violence of television, national destiny that came in the wake of the english research proposal, royal navy's seemingly providential victory over the Spanish Armada in essays on violence of television, 1588. Proud of the new eminence their nation had achieved, and immensely relieved that the threat of english research example, invasion by essays of television a Catholic power had been averted, many of Shakespeare's contemporaries were disposed to view England's deliverance as a sign of heaven's favor. As such, it seemed to be a vindication of the reign of Queen Elizabeth and a substantiation of the Tudor order's claim to divine sanction--a claim that had been asserted by a succession of Renaissance chroniclers from Polydore Vergil (circa 1470-1555) through Edward Hall (circa 1498-1547) to Raphael Holinshed (circa 1529-1580), and a claim that was implicit in such government documents as the Exhortation concerning Good Order and Obedience to research example Rulers and Magistrates, a 1547 homily read in churches throughout England. Given this context, it must have seemed entirely fitting that sometime in the late 1580s or early 1590s an enterprising young playwright began dramatizing a sequence of historical developments that were almost universally regarded as the roots of England's current greatness. Most of the material for the four history plays with which Shakespeare began his career as playwright he drew from Edward Hall's Union of the Two Noble and prove essay, Illustre Families of Lancaster and York (1548) and Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of research proposal example, England, Scotland, and Ireland (1587 edition). Essays Of Television? Here he found narratives of proposal example, late-medieval English history that began with the maths, reign of King Richard II (1377-1399), focused on Richard's deposition and execution by Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV), described the Wars of the english, Roses (1455-1485) that were the eventual consequence of Bolingbroke's usurpation, and concluded with the restoration of right rule when Henry Richmond defeated the tyrannical Richard III (1483-1485) and acceded to essays the crown as Henry VII, inaugurating a Tudor dynasty that was to research last until the chain - research paper, death of Queen Elizabeth in example, 1603. Here he also found a theological reading of political history that treated England as a collective Everyman--falling into helping, sin, undergoing a terrifyingly bloody punishment for english research example its disobedience, and eventually finding its way back to redemption through the emergence of Henry VII.

The chances are that as Shakespeare matured in his craft he came to view the prove you exist essay, Tudor myth (as E. M. W. Tillyard has termed this official dogma) with a degree of skeptical detachment; but even so, he seems to have found in its clear, broad sweep a pattern that served quite well as a way of organizing the disparate materials he chose to dramatize. It gave him a theme of epic proportions, not altogether unlike the matter of Greece and Rome that had inspired such classical authors as Homer and Virgil in narrative genres and Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Seneca in dramatic genres. It accorded with the biblical treatment of human destiny that Shakespeare's age had inherited from earlier generations, an approach to historical interpretation that had been embedded in such didactic entertainments as the Morality Play (allegorizing the sin, suffering, repentance, and salvation of a typical member of research example, mankind) and the Mystery Play (broadening the cycle to a dramatization of the whole of human history, from man's fall in research paper, the Garden of Eden to man's redemption in the Garden of Gethsemane to english research example man's bliss in the Paradise of the prove essay, New Jerusalem). And it provided a rationale for Shakespeare's use of proposal, such powerful dramatic devices as the riddling prophecy and the curse--projecting retribution for thesis coupon present crimes, as the english example, Old Testament would put it, to the third and fourth generations. When we approach the four plays known as Shakespeare's first tetralogy (the three parts of maths unp ac za coursework, Henry VI and Richard III , all written, so far as we can tell, by 1592) from the proposal example, perspective of his second tetralogy ( Richard II , Henry IV , parts 1 and supply - research paper, 2, and english research example, Henry V , all of which appear to have been written between 1595 and 1597), the earlier plays seem comparatively crude. Like their sources, they place more emphasis on providential design and thesis coupon, less on human agency. Their verse is more declamatory and less supple. And they provide less individuation of character.

Still, they have their virtues, and successful recent productions by english proposal example the Royal Shakespeare Company and on violence of television, the British Broadcasting Corporation have proven that they can be surprisingly effective in performance. Henry VI , part 1 did not achieve print until the 1623 First Folio, but it is now generally thought to have been written prior to parts 2 and 3, which first appeared in bad texts, respectively, in a 1594 quarto edition titled The First Part of the Contention betwixt the two famous Houses of Yorke and Lancaster and in english, a 1595 octavo entitled The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of Yorke. Henry VI, part 1, begins with the funeral of King Henry V (which occurred in 1422), details the dissension at home and prove you exist, the loss of life and territory abroad that result from the accession of a new monarch too young and english example, weak to maths unp ac za coursework rule, and concludes with King Henry VI's foolish decision to marry Margaret of Anjou--a step that places the saintly King in the very unsaintly hands of an ambitious woman and a lustful nobleman (the Earl of proposal example, Suffolk, who plans to enjoy Margaret as his own mistress and thereby rule both her, the King, and realm) and virtually assures the supply chain - research, further degradation of a kingdom that has been in decline since the research proposal example, death of Henry VI's famous warrior-king father. Henry VI , part 2, covers a ten-year span from Margaret of Anjou's arrival in England (1445) to the Duke of York's victory over his Lancastrian enemies at St. Albans in the first major battle of the supply optimization paper, Wars of the Roses (1455). Research Proposal Example? The same kind of internecine strife that has left the noble Talbot exposed to the forces of the strumpet-witch Joan of Arc in Henry VI , part 1, works here to undo Henry VI's protector, Duke Humphrey of Gloucester, topple two of the good Duke's enemies (Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk), unleash the victims, anarchic rebellion of the peasant Jack Cade, and further divide the proposal example, warring factions (the Yorkists, who have chosen the red rose as their symbol in the famous Temple Garden scene, II.iv, of part 1, and the Lancastrians, who have rallied behind the white rose) that seem hell-bent to tear the kingdom asunder. In Henry VI , part 3, the essay, war is at full pitch. As the english research example, feeble Henry VI withdraws into a private realm of pastoral longing, his brutal Queen and her allies exchange outrages with one Yorkist enemy after another, father killing son and research paper, son killing father in a nightmarish world that has degenerated into a spectacle of unmitigated cruelty. English Example? By the time the dust settles, Henry VI and a number of other would-be claimants to the throne are dead or on their way to the grave, and mla format paper, the ominously crookbacked figure of research proposal example, Richard, Duke of unp ac, Gloucester is slouching his rough way to the crown he will don in the blood-drenched final movement of this hitherto unprecedented cycle of historical tragedies. English? Richard III was first published in a 1597 quarto edition that many scholars believe to have been reconstructed from memory by actors plagued out of London theaters between July and October of that year.

The play was evidently quite popular, because it went through at least five more printings before it appeared in the 1623 First Folio edition based largely on thesis coupon the third and sixth quartos. And it has remained popular ever since, with a stage tradition highlighted by Richard Burbage in Shakespeare's own theater, David Garrick in the eighteenth century, Edmund Kean in the nineteenth, and Laurence Olivier in english proposal example, the twentieth. Nor is the interview research paper, reason hard to find. For despite the bold strokes with which he is portrayed, Richard III is english proposal example, a character of sufficient complexity to sustain a great deal of dramatic interest. However much we find ourselves repelled by his ruthless treachery, we cannot help admiring the eloquence, resourcefulness, and virtuosity with which he confides and then proceeds to helping victims essay execute his wicked intentions. Research Example? His wooing of the grieving Lady Anne in the first act is a case in point: having set himself the seemingly impossible task of seducing a woman whose husband and father-in-law he has recently murdered, Richard is just as astonished as we are by the ease with which he accomplishes it. Essays Of Television? In many ways Richard seems, and would have seemed to Shakespeare's first audiences, a conventional, even old-fashioned stage villain: the quick-witted, clever, self-disclosing Vice of the late-medieval Morality Play, the dissimulating Devil familiar from the scriptures. In other, more important, ways he seems, and would have seemed, disturbingly modern: the Machiavellian politician who acknowledges no law, human or divine, in restraint of his foxlike cunning and leonine rapacity; the totalitarian dictator who subverts every social and religious institution in pursuit of his psychopathic grand designs; the existentialist cosmic rebel whose radical alienation is a challenge to every form of order. But if Richard seems in many ways a relentlessly twentieth-century figure, we learn by the end of the play that his vaulting ambition (so proleptic of Macbeth's) is ultimately but an instrument of the same providential scheme that he scorns and seeks to circumvent.

Richard may be a dreadful minister of hell, as Lady Anne calls him, but members of Shakespeare's audience (familiar with the proposal example, story through such earlier renderings of it as the portrait painted by Thomas More) would have seen him simultaneously as a scourge of thesis coupon, God, unleashed to punish England for her sins of the past. Prophetic Margaret reminds us over and over that had there not been strife in the kingdom prior to the advent of Richard, there would have been no ripe occasion for this poisonous bunch-backed toad to ascend the throne in the first instance. And as the play ends, an action that has drawn our attention again and again to the past looks optimistically to the future. By God's fair ordinance, the bloody dog is dead, and Richmond and Elizabeth (the forebears of Shakespeare's sovereign Elizabeth) are ushering in smooth-faced peace,/With smiling plenty, and proposal, fair prosperous days. One other English history play is thesis coupon, now commonly believed to have been written during Shakespeare's apprenticeship, though scholars differ about whether to date it in the early 1590s or (more probably, in english research proposal example, the opinion of most) in the transition years 1594-1595. The earliest surviving text of King John is the version printed in the 1623 First Folio, and it offers a drama about a king of doubtful title whose reign (1199-1216) had been viewed in widely divergent ways. Medieval Catholics, focusing on helping victims King John's presumed complicity in english research, the death of his nephew Arthur (whose claim to essays on violence of television the throne was stronger than John's) and on his feud with Pope Innocent III (which had resulted in the King's excommunication before he finally capitulated five years later and returned his kingdom to the Church), had seen him as a usurper, a murderer, and a heretic. Sixteenth-century Protestants, on research proposal the other hand, had rehabilitated him as a proto-Tudor martyr and victims essay, champion of English nationalism. In many respects, Shakespeare's own portrayal is closer to research proposal example the medieval view of King John: he does away with any ambiguity about John's role in the removal of Arthur, for example, presents the saintlike Arthur and his impassioned mother, Constance, as thoroughly engaging characters, and endows John with few if any sympathetic traits.

At the same time, however, Shakespeare's King John continues to thesis coupon receive the loyalty of characters who are portrayed sympathetically--most notably the bastard son of Richard the Lion-hearted, Philip Faulconbridge--and by the end of the english research proposal, play it seems evident that a higher cause, the good of you exist, England, is to take precedence over such lesser concerns as John's weak title, his execution of a potential rival, and his inadequacies as a leader. The Bastard, a political realist who seems quite Machiavellian at first--particularly in his analysis of the english proposal, all-pervasiveness of commodity (self-interest) in human affairs--eventually becomes a virtual emblem of mla format interview research paper, patriotism. To him is given the concluding speech of King John , and it is frequently cited as Shakespeare's most eloquent summary of the moral implicit in all his early history plays: If Shakespeare's earliest efforts in the dramatization of history derived from his response to the political climate of his day, his first experiments in comedy seem to have evolved from his reading in school and from his familiarity with the plays of research, such predecessors on the English stage as John Lyly, George Peele, Robert Greene, and Thomas Nashe. Shakespeare's apprentice comedies are quite inventive in many respects, particularly in the degree to which they overgo the conventions and essay, devices the young playwright drew upon. But because they have more precedent behind them than the English history plays, they strike us now as less stunningly original--though arguably more successfully executed--than the tetralogy on english research proposal example the Wars of the Roses. Essays On Violence Of Television? Which of them came first we do not know, but most scholars incline toward The Comedy of Errors , a play so openly scaffolded upon proposal Plautus's Menaechmi and Amphitruo (two farces that Shakespeare probably knew in Latin from his days in grammar school) that one modern critic has summed it up as a kind of diploma piece. Set, ostensibly, in the Mediterranean city familiar from unp ac, St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, the play begins with a sentence on english proposal the life of a luckless Syracusan merchant, Aegeon, who has stumbled into Ephesus in search of his son Antipholus. After narrating a tale of woe that wins the sympathy of the essays on violence, Duke of Ephesus, Aegeon is given till five in the afternoon to come up with a seemingly impossible ransom for his breach of an arbitrary law against english research example Syracusans. Meanwhile, unknown to Aegeon, the object of his search is in Ephesus too, having arrived only hours before him; Antipholus had set out some two years earlier to find a twin brother by the same name who was separated from the rest of the supply chain optimization - research, family in a stormy shipwreck more than twenty years in the past. By happy coincidence, the example, other Antipholus has long since settled in interview research, Ephesus, and so (without either's knowledge) has their mother, Aegeon's long-lost wife, Aemilia, who is now an abbess.

To complicate matters further, both Antipholuses have slaves named Dromio, also twins long separated, and of course both sets of twins are indistinguishably appareled. English Example? Into this mix Shakespeare throws a goldsmith, a set of merchants, a courtesan, a wife and a sister-in-law for the Ephesian Antipholus, and a conjuring schoolmaster. The result is a swirling brew of misunderstandings, accusations, and identity crises--all leading, finally, to a series of revelations that reunite a family, save Aegeon's life, and bring order to a city that had begun to seem bewitched by chain paper sorcerers. The Comedy of Errors reached print for proposal example the first time in the 1623 First Folio. Essays On Violence Of Television? We know that it was written prior to 28 December 1594, however, because there is record of a performance on that date at one of the four Inns of Court.

Some scholars believe that the play was written for that holiday Gray's Inn presentation, but most tend to research example the view that it had been performed previously, possibly as early as 1589 but more likely in the years 1592-1594. Most critics now seem agreed, moreover, that for all its farcical elements, the play is a comedy of some sophistication and depth, with a sensitivity to love that anticipates Shakespeare's great comedies later in flood, the decade: when Luciana advises her sister Adriana about how she should treat her husband Antipholus, for example, she echoes Paul's exhortations on research proposal Christian marriage in mla format interview, Ephesians. And with its use of the devices of literary romance (the frame story of Aegeon comes from Apollonius of Tyre), The Comedy of Errors also looks forward to the wanderings, confusions of identity, and miraculous reunions so fundamental to the structure of late plays such as Pericles and The Tempest . What may have been Shakespeare's next comedy has also been deprecated as farce, and it is frequently produced today with staging techniques that link it with the commedia del l'arte popular in proposal example, Renaissance Italy. But for all its knockabout slapstick, The Taming of the Shrew is interview research, too penetrating in its psychology and too subtle in its handling of the english example, nuances of paper, courtship to be dismissed as a play deficient in feeling. Its main event is a battle of the sexes in english, which Petruchio, who has come to wive it wealthily in Padua, takes on a dare no other potential suitor would even consider: to win both dowry and docility from a sharp-tongued shrew avoided as Katherine the curst. Apparently recognizing that Katherine's willfulness is a product of the essays, favoritism her father has long bestowed upon her younger sister, and having the further good sense to realize that the fiery Kate is capable of becoming a much more attractive wife than the much-sought-after but rather devious Bianca, Petruchio mounts a brilliant campaign to gain Kate's love and english research proposal example, make her his. First, he insists that Kate is fair and gentle, notwithstanding all her efforts to disabuse him of prove you exist, that notion. Second, he kills her in example, her own humour, with a display of arbitrary behavior--tantrums, scoldings, peremptory refusals--that both wears her down and shows her how unpleasant shrewishness can be.

At the you exist essay, end of the play Petruchio shocks his skeptical fellow husbands by wagering that his bride will prove more obedient than theirs. When Kate not only heeds his commands but reproaches her sister and the other wives for sullen, sour rebellion against their husbands, it becomes manifest that Petruchio has succeeded in his quest: Kate freely and joyfully acknowledges him to be her loving lord. If we have doubts about whether Kate's transformation can be accepted as a happy ending today--and alterations of the english research proposal example, final scene in many recent productions would suggest that it may be too offensive to current sensibilities to be played straight--we should perhaps ask ourselves whether the Kate who seems to wink conspiratorially at Petruchio as she puts her hands beneath his foot to win a marital wager is any less spirited or fulfilled a woman than the helping essay, Kate who drives all her wouldbe wooers away in the play's opening scene. Whether or not The Taming of the english research proposal, Shrew is the mysterious Love's Labor's Won referred to by Francis Meres in 1598, it seems to have been written in the early 1590s, because what is now generally believed to be a bad quarto of it appeared in 1594. The Taming of a Shrew differs significantly from the version of essays of television, Shakespeare's play that was first published in the 1623 Folio--most notably in the fact that the drunken tinker Christopher Sly, who appears only in the induction to the later printing of the play, remains on stage throughout The Taming of a Shrew , repeatedly interrupting the action of english research example, what is essays on violence, presented as a play for his entertainment and resolving at the end to research example go off and try Petruchio's wife-taming techniques on his own recalcitrant woman. Some directors retain the later Sly scenes, but no one seriously questions that the Folio text is in general the more authoritative of the helping victims, two versions of the research, play. The Folio provides the only surviving text of The Two Gentlemen of Verona , a comedy so tentative in its dramaturgy (for example, its ineptitude in the few scenes where the you exist essay, playwright attempts to manage more than two characters on the stage at once), and so awkward in research proposal, its efforts to pit the claims of love and friendship against you exist essay each other, that many scholars now think it to be the proposal, first play Shakespeare ever wrote. Based largely on a 1542 chivalric romance ( Diana Enamorada ) by Portuguese writer Jorge de Montemayor, The Two Gentlemen of Verona depicts a potential rivalry between two friends--Valentine and Proteus--who fall in love with the same Milanese woman (Silvia) despite the fact that Proteus has vowed his devotion to a woman (Julia) back home in Verona. Maths Unp Ac Za Coursework? Proteus engineers Valentine's banishment from english research proposal, Milan so that he can woo Silvia away from him. But Silvia remains faithful to Valentine, just as Julia (who has followed her loved one disguised as his page) holds true to Proteus, notwithstanding the character he discloses as a man who lives up to his name. Essays On Violence Of Television? In the concluding forest scene Valentine intervenes to save Silvia from being raped by Proteus; but, when Proteus exhibits remorse, Valentine offers him Silvia anyway, as a token of friendship restored.

Fortunately, circumstances conspire to forestall such an unhappy consummation, and the play ends with the two couples properly reunited. Unlike The Comedy of english example, Errors and The Taming of the Shrew , The Two Gentlemen of Verona has never been popular in the theater, even though it offers two resourceful women (whose promise will be fulfilled more amply in helping flood, such later heroines as Rosalind and research proposal, Viola), a pair of amusing clowns (Launce and Speed), and one of the most engaging dogs (Crab) who ever stole a stage. In its mixture of prose and verse, nevertheless, and in its suggestion that the green world of the woods is where pretensions fall and would be evildoers find their truer selves, The Two Gentlemen of Verona looks forward to the first fruits of maths unp ac za coursework, Shakespeare's maturity: the romantic comedies of english, which it proves to be a prototype. Helping Flood Essay? The one remaining play that most critics now locate in the period known as Shakespeare's apprenticeship is research proposal, a Grand Guignol melodrama that seems to have been the young playwright's attempt to outdo Thomas Kyd's Spanish Tragedy (produced circa 1589) in its exploitation of the prove essay, horrors of research proposal example, madness and revenge. The composition of Titus Andronicus is usually dated 1590-1592, and helping essay, it seems to have been drawn from english proposal, a ballad and History of Titus Andronicus that only survives today in an eighteenth-century reprint now deposited in the Folger Shakespeare Library. Helping Victims Essay? (The Folger also holds the sole extant copy of the 1594 first quarto of Shakespeare's play, the authoritative text for all but the one scene, III.ii, that first appeared in the 1623 Folio.) If Shakespeare did take most of his plot from the History of Titus Andronicus , it is clear that he also went to Ovid's Metamorphoses (for the account of Tereus's rape of Philomena, to which the english research example, tongueless Lavinia points to explain what has been done to helping flood her) and to Seneca's Thyestes (for Titus's fiendish revenge on Tamora and her sons at the end of the play). Although Titus Andronicus is english, not a history play, it does make an mla format interview research paper effort to evoke the social and english research, political climate of fourth-century Rome; and in its depiction of a stern general who has just sacrificed more than twenty of you exist essay, his own sons to conquer the Goths, it anticipates certain characteristics of proposal, Shakespeare's later Roman plays: Julius Caesar , Antony and Cleopatra , and Coriolanus . Thesis Coupon? But it is primarily as an antecedent of Hamlet (influenced, perhaps, by the so-called lost Ur-Hamlet ) that Titus holds interest for proposal example us today. Because whatever else it is, Titus Andronicus is Shakespeare's first experiment with revenge tragedy. Its primary focus is the title character, whose political misjudgments and fiery temper put him at the mercy of the Queen of the Goths, Tamora, and her two sons (Demetrius and Chiron). They ravish and optimization paper, mutilate Titus's daughter Lavinia, manipulate the Emperor into executing two of Titus's sons (Martius and Quintus) as perpetrators of the crime, and get Titus's third son (Lucius) banished for trying to rescue his brothers.

Along the way, Tamora's Moorish lover Aaron tricks Titus into having his right hand chopped off in a futile gesture to save Martius and Lucius. Research? After Lavinia writes the names of her assailants in the sand with her grotesque stumps, Titus works out a plan for revenge: he slits the throats of Demetrius and Chiron, invites Tamora to a banquet, and serves her the on violence of television, flesh of her sons baked in a pie. He then kills Tamora and dies at english research the hands of Emperor Saturninus. Thesis Coupon? At this point Lucius returns heading a Gothic army and takes over english proposal as the new Emperor, condemning Aaron to be half-buried and left to starve and throwing Tamora's corpse to the scavenging birds and mla format interview paper, beasts. As Fredson Bowers has pointed out, Titus Andronicus incorporates a number of devices characteristic of other revenge tragedies: the protagonist's feigned madness, his delay in the execution of his purpose, his awareness that in seeking vengeance he is proposal, taking on a judicial function that properly rests in God's hands, and his death at the end in a bloody holocaust that leaves the you exist essay, throne open for seizure by the first opportunist to arrive upon english research the scene. Prove Essay? Revenge is also a significant motif in Shakespeare's other early tragedy, Romeo and Juliet , usually dated around 1595-1596. It is a blood feud between their two Veronan families that forces the lovers to woo and wed in secret, thereby creating the misunderstanding that leads Mercutio to defend Romeo's honor in proposal example, act three when the thesis coupon, just-married protagonist declines his new kinsman Tybalt's challenge to duel. And it is english research, both to avenge Mercutio's death and to flood essay restore his own now-sullied name that Romeo then slays Tybalt and research proposal example, becomes fortune's fool--initiating a falling action that leads eventually to unp ac a pair of suicides and a belated recognition by the Capulets and english research, the Montagues that their children have become poor sacrifices of our enmity.

But it is prove you exist, not for its revenge elements that most of us remember Romeo and Juliet . No, it is for the lyricism with which Shakespeare portrays the beauty and english proposal example, idealism of essays, love at first sight--all the more transcendent for the ways in which the english proposal, playwright sets it off from the calculations of thesis coupon, Juliet's parents (intent on english research arranging their daughter's marriage to advance their own status) or contrasts it with the earthy bawdiness of Juliet's Nurse or the worldly-wise cynicism of Romeo's friend Mercutio. The spontaneous sonnet of Romeo and Juliet's initial meeting at Capulet's ball, their betrothal vows in the balcony scene later that evening, the ominous parting that concludes their one night together and optimization paper, foreshadows their final meeting in the Capulet tomb--these are the research, moments we carry with us from a performance or a reading of what may well be history's most famous love story. Romeo and Juliet may strike us as an mla format early tragedy in its formal versification and in its patterned structure. Research? It has been faulted for its dependence on coincidence and on causes external to the protagonists for the conditions that bring about the tragic outcome--an emphasis implicit in the play's repeated references to Fortune and the stars. And critics have encountered difficulty in their attempts to reconcile the purity of Romeo and Juliet's devotion to each other (for earth too dear) with the play's equal insistence that their relationship is a form of idolatry--ultimately leading both lovers to acts of desperation that audiences in Shakespeare's time would have considered far more consequential than do most modern audiences. But whatever its supposed limitations and interpretive problems, Romeo and Juliet seems likely to hold its position as one of the classics of the dramatic repertory.

Romeo and Juliet first appeared in a 1597 quarto edition that most scholars believe to be a memorial reconstruction, though one with isolated passages (such as Mercutio's celebrated Queen Mab speech) printed in a form that some scholars believe superior to their rendering in the text today's editors accept as the essay, best authority: the 1599 second quarto, newly corrected, augmented, and amended, and apparently derived primarily from english research proposal, Shakespeare's own foul papers. Two more printings appeared before the za coursework, 1623 Folio, whose text--essentially a reprint of the third quarto edition (1609)--has no independent authority. The principal source for the play was a 1562 narrative, The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet , by english proposal example Arthur Brooke, a didactic poem urging children to be obedient to their parents. By telescoping three months into four days and by flood essay dramatizing the story in a manner more sympathetic to the young lovers, Shakespeare transformed a sermon into a tragedy whose urgency must have been just as moving in proposal example, the Elizabethan theater as we know it to thesis coupon be in our own. If Romeo and Juliet is a play that has lost none of its freshness in the four centuries since its first appearance, Love's Labor's Lost now strikes us as so thoroughly Elizabethan in its rhetoric and topicality as to be nearly inaccessible to modern audiences. Evidently another product of the transition years when Shakespeare was working his way back into the theater after a two-year hiatus due to the plague, Love's Labor's Lost appears to have been written in 1594-1595 for private performance and may well have been revised in 1597 for a performance before the Queen during the Christmas revels. Its earliest known printing was a 1598 quarto announcing itself as newly corrected and example, augmented and probably set from victims essay, Shakespeare's foul papers. The Folio text was essentially a reprint of this first quarto, which has the distinction of being the english, first play to bear Shakespeare's name on thesis coupon its title page. Research? Until recently no literary source had been found for the plot of Love's Labor's Lost , but Glynne Wickham has now turned up a 1581 analogue, The Four Foster Children of Desire , that helps account for much of the play's structure and several of its themes. What emerges for a theatergoer or reader of the play today is a highly artificial comedy about flood a company of men whose well-intended but ill-conceived attempt to outwit nature makes them all look foolish and lands them in a pickle. No sooner have King Ferdinand of Navarre and research example, his friends Longaville, Dumaine, and thesis coupon, Berowne--hoping to conquer the frailties of the flesh and find an english antidote to cormorant devouring time--forsworn the company of women and withdrawn to their quasi-monastic Academe than they find their fortress besieged by za coursework four beautiful ladies--the Princess of France and her attendants Maria, Katherine, and Rosaline--who camp in english, the park outside and watch with amusement as each of the scholars falls in love, forsakes his vows, and gets caught by the others.

Eventually the men surrender and propose marriage, but by this time it has become clear that they are so far gone in artifice that they need at maths least a year of penance--and time in real-world settings such as the hospital to which Berowne is proposal example, consigned--before their protestations of devotion can be given any credit. Love's labor is lost, then, in the sense that this is a comedy without the thesis coupon, traditional happy consummation in wedding, feasting, and dancing. Its concluding lyrics move from spring (When daisies pied) to winter (When icicles hang), and english research example, the year of penance to come is one that requires all of the men to supply optimization reevaluate their aspirations with a renewed awareness of the omnipresence of proposal, disease and the inevitability of death. Love's Labor's Lost is one of Shakespeare's most self-conscious plays generically, and it is unp ac za coursework, also one of his most demanding plays linguistically. Much is made of the literary artifice of the example, four men's rhetoric, and it is shown to be detrimental to you exist normal human feeling. English Example? It is victims essay, also shown to be an infection that touches such lesser characters as the proposal, bombastic braggart soldier Don Adriano de Armado, the flood victims essay, pedant schoolmaster Holofernes, and the clown Costard, all of whom, like the poor curate Nathaniel in the Pageant of the Nine Worthies, prove a little o'erparted. It is english research example, one of the ironies of the play that the four major male characters, who laugh so cruelly at the participants in the pageant, also prove o'erparted in the end. Such are the mla format interview research paper, wages of research proposal, affectation. Affectation of another kind is thesis coupon, depicted in a delightful scene from what many regard as Shakespeare's most charming comedy, A Midsummer Night's Dream . As the Athenian courtiers are quick to observe in their critiques of the tragical mirth of Pyramus and Thisby in V.i, the mechanicals who display their dramatic wares at the nuptial feast of Theseus and Hippolyta are even more fundamentally o'erparted than the hapless supernumeraries of Love's Labor's Lost . But there is something deeply affectionate about Shakespeare's portrayal of the english proposal example, affectations of Bottom and his earnest company of research, hempen home-spuns, and the simpleness and duty with which they tender their devotion is the playwright's way of reminding us that out of the mouths of english research proposal example, babes and fools can sometimes issue a loving wisdom that hath no bottom. Like Bottom's Dream, the playlet brings a refreshingly naive perspective to issues addressed more seriously elsewhere.

And, by burlesquing the helping victims, struggles and conflicts through which the lovers in the woods circumvent the english, arbitrariness of prove you exist, their elders, Pyramus and Thisby comments not only upon english research the fortunes of on violence of television, Demetrius and english, Helena, Lysander and interview research, Hermia, but also upon the misfortunes of Romeo and english research proposal, Juliet. After all, both stories derive ultimately from the same source in Ovid's Metamorphoses , and Shakespeare's parallel renderings of the course of true love in Romeo and Juliet and chain paper, A Midsummer Night's Dream are so closely linked in time and proposal, treatment that it is thesis coupon, tempting to regard the two plays as companion pieces--tragic and comic masks, as it were, for research example the same phase (1595-1596) of Shakespearean dramaturgy. Whether or not A Midsummer Night's Dream was commissioned for a wedding ceremony at Whitehall, as some scholars have speculated, the play is in fact a remarkable welding of thesis coupon, disparate materials: the fairy lore of Oberon and english research proposal, Titania and their impish minister Puck, the classical narrative of you exist essay, Theseus's conquest of the Amazons and their queen Hippolyta, the confused comings and goings of the young Athenian lovers who must flee to the woods to english research proposal example evade their tyrannical parents, and the rehearsals for helping flood victims essay a crude craft play by a band of well-meaning peasants. It is in some ways the most original work in the entire Shakespearean canon, and research proposal example, one is anything but surprised that its something of great constancy has inspired the best efforts of such later artists as composer Felix Mendelssohn, painters Henry Fuseli and William Blake, director Peter Brook, and mla format research, filmmakers Max Reinhardt and Woody Allen. A Midsummer Night's Dream is in many respects the epitome of festive comedy, an evocation of the folk rituals associated with such occasions as May Day and Midsummer Eve, and its final mood is one of unalloyed romantic fulfillment. Romance is also a key ingredient in the concluding arias of Shakespeare's next comedy, The Merchant of Venice , where Bassanio and Portia, Lorenzo and Jessica, and Gratiano and Nerissa celebrate the english research proposal example, happy consummation of three love quests and contemplate the music of the spheres from a magical estate known symbolically as Belmont.

But the sweet harmony the lovers have achieved by on violence the end of The Merchant of Venice has been purchased very dearly, and it is hard for a modern audience to accept the proposal, serenity of Belmont without at least a twinge of guilt over what has happened in far-off Venice to bring it about. Whether The Merchant of Venice is best categorized as an interview research anti-Semitic play (capitalizing on prejudices that contemporaries such as Marlowe had catered to in plays like The Jew of Malta ) or as a play about the evils of anti-Semitism (as critical of the Christian society that has persecuted the Jew as it is of the vengeance he vents in example, response), its central trial scene is on violence of television, profoundly disturbing for english proposal example an audience that has difficulty viewing Shylock's forced conversion as a manifestation of mercy. Shylock's hath not a Jew eyes speech impels us to see him as a fellow human being--notwithstanding the rapacious demand for justice that all but yields him Antonio's life before Portia's clever manipulations of the law strip the usurer of his own life's fortune--so that even if we feel that the Jew's punishment is less severe than what strict justice might have meted out to him, his grim exit nevertheless casts a pall over the festivities of the final act in Belmont. By contrast with A Midsummer Night's Dream , a play in which the disparate components of the action are resolved in a brilliantly satisfying synthesis, The Merchant of Venice remains, for many of us, a prototype of essays of television, those later Shakespearean works that twentieth-century critics have labeled problem comedies. Even its fairy-tale elements, such as the casket scenes in which three would-be husbands try to divine the will of Portia's father, seem discordant to a modern audience that is asked to admire a heroine who dismisses one of her suitors with a slur on his Moroccan complexion.

Though it seems to have been written in late 1596 or early 1597 and, like A Midsummer Night's Dream , was first published in a good quarto in 1600, The Merchant of Venice feels closer in mood to english proposal example Measure for Measure --which also pivots on a conflict between justice and za coursework, mercy--than to most of the other romantic comedies of the mid to late 1590s. But if The Merchant of Venice strikes us now as a play that looks forward to a later phase of Shakespearean dramaturgy, the plays he worked on next were a return to his beginnings. Possibly as early as 1595, and certainly no later than 1597, Shakespeare began a fresh exploration of the matter of english research proposal example, English history with a play focusing on the events that precipitated the Wars of the Roses. It is impossible to say whether Shakespeare knew, when he began composing Richard II , that he would go on to write the two parts of thesis coupon, Henry IV and the drama on Henry V that would furnish the link between Richard II and proposal, the Henry VI trilogy with which he had begun his career as a playwright. But complete the cycle he did, and the four English history plays Shakespeare wrote between 1595 and 1599 were even more impressive in their epic sweep than the four plays he had completed prior to the theatrical hiatus of 1593-1594. Richard II was, among other things, a major advance in Shakespeare's development as a poetic dramatist. Not only does the play contain the dying John of thesis coupon, Gaunt's paean to This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, . Research? This other Eden, demi-paradise, it also affords us a telling contrast between the laconic bluntness of on violence, Henry Bolingbroke, a man of action who is not quick to speak, and the self-indulgent lyricism of Richard II, a man of words who is, finally and fatally, not quick to act. At the beginning of the play Richard's security in his presumption that God's deputy is above the research example, law leads him to victims disregard the research, principles of interview research, primogeniture that are the basis of the King's own position as head of state. He disregards the counsel of his elders, seizes the estates of John of Gaunt and other nobles, banishes in Bolingbroke a former ally who has maintained a discreet silence about crimes that would taint the monarch himself, and sets in motion the rebellion that will eventually render his throne untenable. English Proposal Example? By the climax of the play Richard is forced to surrender his crown in a deposition scene that neatly counterpoises the declining King's complicity for essays on violence of television his own downfall with the rising King's usurpation of a throne to proposal which he has no legitimate title. And by the end of the play Richard's pastoral musings in the Tower transform him into a quasi-martyr whose meditations on the death of kings are as deeply moving as anything that Shakespeare had written up to this point in his career.

As Richard prophesies, his murder at the hands of unp ac, Henry IV's henchmen releases a tide of english, bloodshed that will not be stemmed until another legitimate monarch ascends the throne nearly a century in the future. When Richard II was published in a good quarto in 1597 it lacked the supply optimization - research, crucial deposition scene, owing almost certainly to the censor's awareness that it would seem threatening to the aging Queen Elizabeth. That such apprehensions were justified was borne out four years later when the play was performed on the eve of the abortive rebellion of the Earl of Essex. The deposition scene's first appearance in print was in the fourth quarto of english research proposal, 1608. Mla Format Research? As with the earlier English history plays, Richard II and the three Henry plays that followed derived in large measure from the 1587 second edition of Holinshed's Chronicles . But in all probability, they were also influenced by, and possibly even inspired by, the 1595 publication of Samuel Daniel's Civil Wars . In any event, it seems more likely that within a year of the completion of english proposal, Richard II Shakespeare began work on helping victims its sequel, the first part of Henry IV . Taken together, parts 1 and 2 of Henry IV focus our attention on the immediate consequences of Henry Bolingbroke's usurpation of the crown. The first consequence is signaled by research proposal the opening lines of the first part, where the new King, shaken and prove you exist, wan with care, announces his desire to lead a crusade to the Holy Land, both as a means of expiating his guilt and as a means of english proposal example, unifying a giddy-minded nation that is now divided into warring factions. Thesis Coupon? Unfortunately, rest is not to be attained by this tainted monarch. His claim to the throne is english research proposal example, immediately challenged by his former allies, the Percies, and thereafter his reign is disturbed by one threat after another. The King does eventually arrive at essays of television Jerusalem near the end of english proposal, Henry IV , part 2, but ironically this destination turns out to be a room in the castle, and the setting for his deathbed scene, rather than the city he had hoped to maths unp ac za coursework wrest from english research proposal example, pagan occupation at the birthplace of Christendom. The price that Henry IV pays for his usurpation turns out to be a nagging consciousness that uneasy lies the head that wears the crown.

And as significant as any other cause of the King's uneasiness is his fear that God has chosen to punish him with a wayward son whose loose behavior will forfeit the throne his father has expended so much anguish to mount and maintain. For all the King and his rivals can tell, the research paper, nimble-footed madcap Prince of Wales is squandering his royal inheritance in the dissolute company of that villainous abominable misleader of youth, Falstaff, and a low-life lot of tavern keepers, thieves, and prostitutes. But as we learn early in english research, Henry IV , part 1, Prince Hal is actually redeeming time in ways that surpass the political sagacity of even so Machiavellian a ruler as his father. Hal is acquiring firsthand knowledge of essays, his nation's ordinary citizens, and the benefit he anticipates is that once he is King of England he will be able to command all the good lads in example, Eastcheap. As he prepares himself for the military trials with which he must be tested, moreover, he does so in the awareness that once he throws off the base contagious clouds that smother up his beauty from the flood, world, he will emerge as England's true sun, rather than the flawed monarch he knows his father to be. And so he does. English Proposal? In the battle of Shrewsbury at the end of Henry IV , part 1, the valiant Hal defeats the fiery warrior the King would have preferred for a son.

By winning Hotspur's honors, Hal finally earns, at prove essay least for a moment, the respect and gratitude of a father whose life and kingdom he has saved. But it is not enough for Hal to have demonstrated the courage and prudence required of an proposal example heir apparent. In part 2 Shakespeare has him back at the Boar's Head tavern once again, and it is thesis coupon, only after he has demonstrated the remaining kingly virtues of temperance and justice--by casting off the influence of Falstaff and claiming as his second surrogate father the Lord Chief Justice--that Hal is finally granted the crown for which he has been so thoroughly educated. His epic reaches its apogee in Henry V , a play described by its Chorus as a pageant in proposal, honor of the mirror of all Christian kings. Whether or not we are to feel that the new King has dismissed some of thesis coupon, his humanity in his rejection of the old fat man at his coronation, and whether or not we are to regard with suspicion the ambiguous Salic Law that the Bishops invoke to justify the King's invasion of France, and whether or not we are to see the King as cruel in his threat to allow the maidens and proposal, children of Harfleur to be raped and slaughtered if the town refuses to surrender, the dominant impression that Henry V has made on most readers and producers is one of heroic celebration. The King proves firm and you exist, resourceful in battle, mingling with his men in research, disguise on the eve of the engagement and exhorting them to prove essay noble valor in his famous St. Crispin's Day address. And once his happy few, his band of brothers, have triumphed against all odds and won the day, the King gives the glory to God.

He thus illustrates those qualities of the nurturing mother pelican--piety, self-sacrifice, humility, and magnanimity--that Christian kings were to english research example display in addition to the monarchial attributes that Machiavelli and other political theorists had long associated with the lion and the fox. And in maths, his wooing of his French bride, Katherine, at the end of the play, the english research, King also exhibits the wit and charm that had endeared the historical Henry V to his admiring countrymen. It is possible that the wooden O referred to in the thesis coupon, Chorus's opening prologue was the Globe, newly opened on Bankside in 1599, and hence that Henry V was one of the first, if not the first, of Shakespeare's plays to be performed in proposal, that now-famous playhouse. Thesis Coupon? Be that as it may, the english research proposal example, play was probably completed in 1599, a year after Henry IV , part 2, and two years after Henry IV , part 1. All three plays had made their first appearances in print by 1600, the two parts of Henry IV in good quartos and Henry V in a bad quarto. The first reliable text of Henry V was that published in the First Folio in 1623. The first good text of a related play, The Merry Wives of Windsor , also appeared in the Folio, but it too was initially published in a bad quarto, this one a memorial reconstruction dated 1602. Just when Merry Wives was written, and why, has been vigorously debated for decades. - Research Paper? According to one legend, no doubt apocryphal but not totally lacking in plausibility, Shakespeare was commissioned to write the english, play because the Queen wanted to see Falstaff in optimization, love.

If so, it seems likely that the english research example, play was also produced as an maths za coursework occasional piece in honor of the award of the Order of the Garter to Lord Hunsdon, the english research proposal, patron of the Lord Chamberlain's Men, on 23 April 1597. Supply Optimization - Research? There are references to english proposal example a Garter ceremony at Windsor Castle in act five of The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Leslie Hotson has argued that even though the play may well have been performed later at helping victims essay the Globe, its first presentation was before Queen Elizabeth and Lord Hunsdon at Windsor on St. George's Day 1597. The Merry Wives of english proposal, Windsor is unique among Shakespeare's comedies in having an English town for its setting. Its bourgeois characters have delighted audiences not only in the playhouse but also on the operatic stage, in on violence, what many critics consider the most successful of Verdi's numerous achievements in Shakespearean opera. Research Example? Despite its obvious charms, however, the supply optimization paper, play has never been a favorite among Shakespeare's readers and literary interpreters. The reason is english research example, that the Falstaff we see in The Merry Wives of Windsor is a Falstaff largely lacking in the vitality and appeal of the character we come to interview paper love in english research, the first part of Henry IV . Without Prince Hal and chain optimization, the wit combats afforded by his jokes at Falstaff's expense, the Falstaff of Merry Wives is research example, merely conniving and crude. We may laugh at the comeuppances he receives at the hands of the merry wives he tries to seduce--the buck-basket baptism he gets as his reward for the first encounter, the beatings and pinchings he suffers in his later encounters--but we see nothing of the inventiveness that makes Falstaff such a supreme escape artist in thesis coupon, part 1 of english research proposal, Henry IV . So attenuated is the maths za coursework, Falstaff of The Merry Wives of Windsor that many interpreters have argued that it is simply a mistake to research example approach him as the same character. In any case, we never see him in love. His is essay, a profit motive without honor, and it is much more difficult for english research example us to feel any pity for his plight in Merry Wives than it is in the three Henry plays that depict the pratfalls and mla format interview paper, decline of the young heir-apparent's genial lord of english research example, misrule. The play does have the clever Mistress Ford and Mistress Page.

And in the jealous Master Ford and the tyrannical Master Page it also has a pair of thesis coupon, comic gulls whose sufferings can be amusing in the theater. But it is doubtful that The Merry Wives of Windsor will ever be among our favorite Shakespearean comedies, particularly when we examine it alongside such contemporary achievements as Much Ado About Nothing and As You Like It . Much Ado About Nothing and proposal, As You Like It were probably written in late 1598 and 1599, respectively, with the mla format research, former first published in a good quarto in 1600 and english example, the later making its initial appearance in the 1623 First Folio. Both are mature romantic comedies, and both have enjoyed considerable success in the theater. Nothing is victims essay, a word of potent ambiguity in Shakespeare (the playwright was later to explore its potential most profoundly in the nothing will come of nothing that constitutes the essence of King Lear ), and in english research example, Much Ado About Nothing its implications include the possibilities inherent in the wordplay on the Elizabethan homonym noting. Through the machinations of the mla format, surly Don John, who gulls the superficial Claudio into english research proposal, believing that he notes his betrothed Hero in the act of giving herself to another lover, an innocent girl is rejected at the altar by a young man who believes himself to have been dishonored.

Fortunately, Don John and his companions have themselves been noted by the most incompetent watch who ever policed a city; and, despite their asinine constable, Dogberry, these well-meaning but clownish servants of the Governor of Messina succeed in thesis coupon, bringing the crafty villains to justice. In doing so, they set in motion a process whereby Hero's chastity is eventually vindicated and she reappears as if resurrected from the grave. Meanwhile, another pair of notings have been staged by english the friends of Benedick and Beatrice, with the result that these two sarcastic enemies to of television love and to each other are each tricked into believing that the other is secretly in love. English Research Example? At least as much ado is research, made of Benedick and Beatrice's notings as of the others, and by the time the play ends these acerbic critics of amorous folly, grudgingly acknowledging that the world must be peopled, have been brought to the altar with Claudio and english example, Hero for a double wedding that concludes the play with feasting and merriment. Shakespeare could have drawn from a number of antecedents for the story of unp ac za coursework, Hero and Claudio, among them cantos from Ariosto's Orlando Furioso and Spenser's Faerie Queene . But the nearest thing to english research example a source for Beatrice and Benedick may well have been his own The Taming of the Shrew , whether another pair of unconventional would-be lovers struggle their way to interview research paper a relationship that is all the more vital for the aggressive resistance that has to be channeled into harmony to bring it about. English Proposal Example? In any event, if there is some doubt about where Benedick and Beatrice came from, there is no doubt about the direction in prove you exist, which they point--to such gallant and witty Restoration lovers as Mirabell and Millamant in William Congreve's The Way of the World . With As You Like It Shakespeare achieved what many commentators consider to be the finest exemplar of a mode of romantic comedy based on escape to and return from english proposal example, what Northrop Frye has termed the green world. As in A Midsummer Night's Dream (where the young lovers flee to the woods to evade an Athens ruled by the edicts of tyrannical fathers) and The Merchant of Venice (where Belmont serves as the antidote to all the venom that threatens life in Venice), in As You Like It the well-disposed characters who find themselves in the Forest of Arden think of it as an environment where even adversity is sweet and restorative. Duke Senior has been banished from his dukedom by a usurping younger brother, Duke Frederick. As the play opens, Duke Senior and maths unp ac za coursework, his party are joined by Orlando and research proposal, his aged servant Adam (who are running away from optimization - research, Orlando's cruel older brother Oliver), and proposal example, later they in turn are joined by Duke Senior's daughter Rosalind and thesis coupon, her cousin Celia (who have come to research proposal example the forest, disguised as men, because the wicked Duke Frederick can no longer bear to have Rosalind in his daughter's company at court). The scenes in thesis coupon, the forest are punctuated by english a number of mla format research, reflections on the relative merits of courtly pomp and pastoral simplicity, with the cynical Touchstone and the melancholy Jaques countering any sentimental suggestion that the Forest of Arden is a golden world of Edenic perfection, and her sojourn in the forest allows the wise and witty Rosalind to research proposal example use male disguise as a means of victims, testing the affections of her lovesick wooer Orlando.

Eventually Orlando proves a worthy match for Rosalind, in large measure because he shows himself to be his brother's keeper. English Research Example? By driving off a lioness poised to devour the sleeping Oliver, Orlando incurs a wound that prevents him from appearing for an appointment with the disguised Rosalind; but his act of unmerited self-sacrifice transforms his brother into a new man who arrives on the scene in Orlando's stead and eventually proves a suitable match for Celia. Meanwhile, as the play nears its end, we learn that a visit to the forest has had a similarly regenerative effect on Duke Frederick, who enters a monastery and mla format interview research paper, returns the dukedom to english example its rightful ruler, Duke Senior. Flood Victims Essay? As You Like It derives in large measure from english example, Thomas Lodge's romance Rosalynde or Euphues' Golden Legacy , a prose classic dating from 1590. But in optimization paper, his treatment of the strange events that draw the play to a conclusion presided over by Hymen, the example, god of marriage, Shakespeare hints at the kind of helping flood victims, miraculous transformation that will be given major emphasis in the late romances. The last of the great romantic comedies of Shakespeare's mid career, probably composed and performed in 1601 though not published until the 1623 First Folio, was Twelfth Night . Possibly based, in english, part, on an Italian comedy of the 1530s called Gl'Ingannati , Twelfth Night is another play with implicit theological overtones. Maths Unp Ac Za Coursework? Its title comes from the name traditionally associated with the Feast of Epiphany (6 January, the english, twelfth day of the Christmas season), and much of its roistering would have seemed appropriate to unp ac an occasion when Folly was allowed to reign supreme under the guise of a Feast of Fools presided over by a Lord of Misrule. In Shakespeare's play, the character who represents Misrule is Sir Toby Belch, the example, carousing uncle of a humorless countess named Olivia. Together with such companions as Sir Andrew Aguecheek, the supply optimization paper, jester Feste, and english proposal example, a clever gentlewoman named Maria, Sir Toby makes life difficult not only for Olivia but also for her puritan steward Malvolio, whose name means bad will and chain paper, whose function in the play, ultimately, is to be ostracized so that good will may prevail.

In what many consider to be the most hilarious gulling scene in all of Shakespeare, Malvolio is tricked into thinking that his Lady is in love with him and persuaded to wear cross-gartered yellow stockings in her presence--attire that he believes will allure her, but attire that persuades her instead that he is english proposal example, deranged. The treatment that follows is a mock exercise in exorcism, and when Malvolio is finally released from his tormentors at mla format research paper the end of the play, he exits vowing revenge on the whole pack of them. As with the english proposal, dismissal of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice , the punishment of Malvolio's presumption in Twelfth Night has seemed too harsh to many modern viewers and readers. But that should not prevent us from seeing that Twelfth Night is also a play about other forms of self-indulgence (Count Orsino's infatuation with the pose of interview, a courtly lover, and english research proposal, Olivia's excessively long period of mourning for thesis coupon her deceased brother) and the means by which characters sick of self-love or self-deception are eventually restored to mental and english research, emotional sanity. Through the ministrations of the wise fool, Feste, and the providential Viola, who arrives in flood essay, Illyria after a shipwreck in which she mistakenly believes her brother Sebastian to have died, we witness a sequence of coincidences and english research, interventions that seems too nearly miraculous to have been brought about by blind chance. Essay? By taking another series of potentially tragic situations and turning them to english research proposal comic ends, Shakespeare reminds us once again that harmony and romantic fulfillment are at prove you exist the root of what Northrop Frye calls the research proposal, argument of comedy. If Shakespeare's middle years are notable for sophisticated achievements in the genre we now refer to as romantic comedy, they are equally notable for the playwright's unprecedented strides in the development of two other genres: tragedy and tragicomedy. In 1599, probably at the Globe, the Lord Chamberlain's Men offered the earliest recorded performance of Julius Caesar (the first of on violence of television, three mature tragedies, now grouped as the english proposal, Roman Plays, which all saw print for the first time in the 1623 Folio). Two years later, in late 1600 or early 1601, the company probably added to unp ac its repertory Hamlet (a play whose immediate and sustained popularity was attested to by its 1603 publication in an unauthorized bad quarto, succeeded a year later by a good quarto that most textual scholars still rely upon for proposal all but a few passages, in preference to the slightly revised text in the 1623 Folio, which was set principally from a copy of the prompt-book). Then in late 1601 or early 1602--once again drawing on the classical matter that had been the prove you exist, basis for the action of Julius Caesar and for many of the allusions in Hamlet --Shakespeare completed Troilus and Cressida , a play so uncompromisingly intellectual in its insistence that the audience by example indirections find directions out that critics from the seventeenth century to the present have found it all but impossible to classify. If Troilus and Cressida is a comedy, as the epistle prefacing the 1609 First Quarto would indicate, it is at best a specimen of black humor very different in tone and treatment from Shakespeare's other efforts in tragicomedy.

If it is a tragedy, as its equivocal placement (occupying a no-man's-land between the Histories and the Tragedies) in the First Folio has led some scholars to argue, it is unique to the genre in the way its language and action undercut the chain paper, dignity of its heroic protagonists. Troilus and Cressida was followed, in 1602-1603 and 1604 respectively, by two other plays, again ambiguous in tone, that are also frequently discussed today as problem plays. All's Well That Ends Well and Measure for research example Measure (both of which made their initial appearances in print in the First Folio) are tragicomedies that turn on bed tricks, and in their preoccupation with the seamier aspects of sexuality they can be viewed as links between Hamlet , the prove essay, first of Shakespeare's great tragedies, and Othello , the second (which seems to have been composed in 1604, when there is a record of english example, performance at Court). Julius Caesar --a play that may owe something to unp ac sources as seemingly remote as St. Augustine's City of God and english, Erasmus's Praise of you exist, Folly in addition to such obvious classical antecedents as Plutarch's Lives and Tacitus's Annals --is now regarded as a dramatic work of considerable complexity. On the one hand, the english, play captures with remarkable fidelity the ethos and rhetorical style of helping flood essay, late-republican Rome--so much so, indeed, that it may be said that Shakespeare's portraits of Caesar and his contemporaries have largely formed our own impressions of how the ancient Romans thought and talked and conducted their civic affairs. Recent studies of the play's references to english proposal example philosophy indicate, moreover, that Shakespeare knew a good deal about Roman Stoicism and perceived it as one of the paper, characterizing traits that differentiated Brutus from Cassius, an Epicurean continually nonplussed by his companion's mental rigidity and emotional aloofness. But if Shakespeare brought to his dramatic art a historical imagination capable of reconstructing a self-consistent Roman world--and one that was distinct in research proposal example, significant ways from his own Elizabethan England--he was also capable of embodying in his representation of that world a perspective that amounted, in effect, to a Renaissance humanist critique of pre-Christian civilization. Prove Essay? Thus it was quite possible for Shakespeare to portray the conspirators and their cause, as it were, sympathetically--so much so, indeed, that a twentieth-century audience, unwittingly misreading the play, finds it almost impossible not to hear in such exclamations as peace, freedom, and liberty! the precursors of America's own founding fathers. At the english example, same time, however, Shakespeare would have known that he could rely on his Elizabethan contemporaries to maths unp ac regard as foredoomed any attempt to achieve social harmony through what they would have seen on the stage as bloody butchery and regicide.

By the same token, of course, Shakespeare could encourage his audience to identify with Brutus through participation in his soliloquies, while simultaneously assuming that alert members of research example, that audience would recognize that Brutus's thought processes are often misguided and za coursework, self-deceptive. In the late 1930s Mark Van Doren observed that, whatever Brutus's positive qualities as a high-minded patriot, he tends to english research example come across in the play as a self-righteous, almost pharisaical prig, particularly in the quarrel scene with Cassius. In recent years a number of scholars have confirmed the validity of Van Doren's perception by showing that it is consistent with the chain optimization - research paper, hypothesis that in his portrayal of english research example, Brutus Shakespeare was drawing on a widely held Christian tradition that regarded Stoicism as a philosophy that rendered its adherents hard-hearted, arrogant, and so assured of their own virtue as to be largely incapable of recognizing or repenting of their faults. If this reading of Brutus is mla format paper, closer to Shakespeare's intention than the more sentimental view that approaches everything in the play from the retrospective vantage-point of Mark Antony's eulogy for english research proposal example the noblest Roman of them all, it tends to cast much of Julius Caesar in an ironic light--and by implication to mla format research paper require an audience alert to clues that are not always so self-evident as a twentieth-century reader or viewer might expect. Such an audience seems called for by Hamlet as well, at least if we are going to take seriously Hamlet's admonition that the players address their performance to the judicious, to those who are capable of viewing all the action, including that involving the most engaging of protagonists, with a critical eye. This is difficult for english proposal example us, because we have long been accustomed to thinking of Hamlet as the sweet prince who epitomizes the ideal Renaissance courtier. There is no danger, to be sure, that Hamlet will ever lose his appeal as an essays of television articulate and ardent existentialist--as the prototype of modern man in spiritual crisis. But recent critical studies and productions of the play have raised questions about the matter of Hamlet in Elizabethan terms that suggest a somewhat less admirable protagonist than most of us would like to believe the play presents. It is no longer universally assumed, for example, that the english research, play within the supply chain - research, play, by proving the Ghost honest in his testimony about Claudius's guilt, is sufficient to prove the english proposal example, Ghost honest in Hamlet's more fundamental sense. Enough evidence remains in the play to suggest that the Ghost may yet be a devil intent on abusing the melancholic Hamlet by exhorting him to the kind of vengeance that Elizabethan Christians believed to belong only to God or to his deputed magistrates.

And Hamlet's disinclination to try the spirit earlier in the play is but one of many indications in the text that he fails to put to proper use what he elsewhere describes as godlike reason. A close examination of many of Hamlet's reflective speeches, including his celebrated To be nor not to be soliloquy, will show that they serve functions similar to those of Brutus in Julius Caesar . Unp Ac Za Coursework? By bringing the audience into the protragonist's confidence, they endear him to english research proposal us and incline us to see everything and everyone else in the action through his eyes. But if we pay careful attention to the nuances of essay, thought in these reflections, we will notice that many of research proposal, them tend to be irrational--peppered with non sequiturs and chain - research, disclosing the kind of emotional stress that renders a man prone to error. A dispassionate scrutiny of the roles of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern will reveal that, however conventionally ambitious these young courtiers may be, they mean Hamlet well and are anything but the adders fanged that Hamlet regards them as having become. The play provides no evidence that they deserve the sudden death, not shriving time allowed that Hamlet gleefully bequeaths them; and it is arguable that Shakespeare expected his audience to feel that they should be near Hamlet's conscience when he assures Horatio that they are not. And near the research example, end of the play, when Hamlet disregards the gaingiving that warns him not to accept the wager proffered by the treacherous Claudius--when he dismisses Horatio's prudence and disdains the kind of premonition that would perhaps trouble a woman--he allows himself to be seduced (and in a way that parallels Julius Caesar's being led to the Capitol) into a trap that means certain death. Far from being guided by providence, as his New Testament allusions would suggest at essays on violence this point in the action, Hamlet is being lured by pride into an ambush that he might have avoided by heeding his godlike reason. English Proposal Example? As Claudius had predicted, Hamlet shows himself to be remiss.

None of which in any way diminishes the attractiveness of Hamlet's wit and fervor, or suggests that he is not infinitely to be preferred to the mighty opposite whose regicide and usurpation he puts to supply chain paper scourge. No, there is no doubt that Hamlet uncovers and sets right much that is rotten in the state of Denmark. The only question is whether the play invites us to consider a set of might have beens that would have permitted us to approve of the protagonist even more unreservedly than we do. English Example? If the findings of recent commentators are to be credited, it would seem likely that our identification with Hamlet's cause should be qualified by an awareness that he did not completely find the way rightly to be great. Unp Ac? The whole argument is english research, a whore and a cuckold.

So the acid-tongued Thersites sums up the matter of Troy and the occasion of Troilus and Cressida . We may not wish to see our legendary forebears reduced so unceremoniously to the base matter of lust and dishonor, but there is little in interview paper, the plot or dialogue of Shakespeare's play to cite in refutation. English Research Proposal Example? The Trojan War is in fact a conflict over the ravishingly beautiful but thoughtless Helen (the whore whom Paris has stolen away from the cuckold Menelaus), and one would have to search hard to interview research paper find anything to admire in most of the english example, principals who figure in the inconsequential council scenes, squalid intrigues, and interrupted combats that dominate the action. Thesis Coupon? Because what Troilus and Cressida is largely about is example, a ludicrously unheroic siege to determine whether the Trojans return Helen to the Greeks or see their city fall in defense of a cause that even the greatest Trojan warrior considers unworthy of their several honors. As Hector points out, the mla format interview, Trojans can appeal to neither justice nor reason in support of their determination to keep Helen; the best that anyone can say of her is that, quite apart from what she may be in and of herself, she is a theme of honor and renown,/A spur to valiant and english, magnanimous deeds. But when we look for such deeds in the play, what we find on both sides are acts of questionable valor at best (as when Hector, having challenged the Greeks to find a combatant to uphold their honor as lovers, breaks off a hand-to-hand duel with Ajax on thesis coupon the grounds that they are cousins) and downright cowardice at worst (as when Achilles, having come upon Hector at a moment when he has removed his armor to rest, merely summons his Myrmidons to english research slaughter the champion of the Trojans). In the chain optimization - research paper, meantime we are treated to the voyeurism of Pandarus, an impotent and diseased bawd whose only pleasure in life is to research serve as go-between for Troilus and Cressida, and the homoerotic indulgence of Achilles and Patroclus, who have withdrawn from combat because of a slight the mla format research, prima donna Achilles thinks he has suffered at the hands of the Greek general, Agamemnon. Small wonder that Ulysses should observe that degree is shak'd. And little wonder that director Jonathan Miller, in his 1982 BBC television production of Troilus and research example, Cressida , hit upon M*A*S*H as the most apt twentieth-century analogue for a satiric seventeenth-century depiction of war as the triumph of unreason, ennui, and depravity. There is, to thesis coupon be sure, some momentary relief in the scenes depicting the proposal, wooing of Troilus and Cressida.

And when Cressida is eventually delivered back to essays on violence the Greek camp at the request of her father, one feels that her surrender to Diomede is more a result of research proposal, her feminine helplessness in a male-controlled world than a manifestation of some prior proclivity to you exist essay infidelity. But despite the lyricism of Troilus and Cressida's lovemaking, and the agony both lovers feel upon proposal parting, one emerges from this play moved less by the pathos of the prove you exist essay, love story than by Shakespeare's presentation of english proposal example, what T. S. Eliot, writing three centuries later about another literary work deriving ultimately from Homer, praised as a reflection of the essays of television, immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history. It may well be that Troilus and Cressida seemed just as modern and puzzling in the early seventeenth century as Joyce's Ulysses seemed when it appeared in english proposal example, the early twentieth. Modern in another sense may be a good way to describe All's Well That Ends Well . After a long history of neglect, this tragicomedy has recently enjoyed a good deal of success in the theater and on television, and one of the explanations that have been given is that it features a heroine who, refusing to maths accept a preordained place in english proposal, a hierarchical man's world, does what she has to chain optimization - research paper do to win her own way. Orphaned at an early age and reared as a waiting-gentlewoman to the elegant and english research example, sensitive Countess of Rossillion, Helena presumes to fall in love with the Countess's snobbish son Bertram. Using a cure she learned from her dead father, who had been a prominent physician, Helena saves the life of the optimization, ailing King of France, whereupon she is rewarded with marriage to proposal the man of her choice among all the eligible bachelors in the land. She astonishes Bertram by selecting him. Reluctantly, Bertram consents to matrimony, but before the marriage can be consummated he leaves the country with his disreputable friend Parolles, telling Helena in a note that he will be hers only when she has fulfilled two presumably impossible conditions: won back the ring from thesis coupon, his finger and english research example, borne a childe to him.

Disguised as a pilgrim, Helena follows Bertram to Florence. There she substitutes herself for a woman named Diana, with whom Bertram has made an assignation, and thesis coupon, satisfies the despicable Bertram's demands. English Example? One of the problems that have troubled critics of mla format, All's Well That Ends Well is the device of the bed trick. But we now know that Shakespeare had biblical precedent for such a plot (Genesis 35) and that it was associated in the Old Testament with providential intervention. Research? Which may be of some value to us in dealing with the other major issues: why should Helena want so vain and selfish a man as Bertram in the first place, and how can we accept at face value his reformation at the end?

If we suspend our disbelief enough to grant the fairy-tale premises of the plot (which derived from a story in Boccaccio's Decameron ,) we should be able to grant as well that in a providentially ordered world, the end may not only justify the means but sanctify them. And if the end that Helena has in view is not only to win Bertram but to make him love her dearly ever, ever dearly, we must grant the playwright the final miracle of a Bertram who can be brought to see his evil ways for what they are and repent of them. A similar miracle would seem to be the final cause of essays on violence of television, Measure for Measure . English Research Example? At the beginning of the play, Duke Vincentio, noting that he has been too lenient in his administration of the thesis coupon, laws of Venice, appoints as deputy an example icy-veined puritan named Angelo, whom he expects to be more severe for unp ac a season of much-needed civic discipline. Almost immediately upon the Duke's departure, Angelo finds himself confronted with a novitiate, Isabella, who, in pleading for the life of a brother condemned for fornification, unwittingly arouses the new deputy's lust. Angelo offers her an exchange: her brother's life for her chastity. Astonished by english example the deputy's disregard for both God's laws and man's, Isabella refuses. Later, as she tries to on violence prepare Claudio for his execution and english proposal, discovers that he is less shocked by the deputy's offer than his sister had been, Isabella upbraids him, too, as a reprobate. Za Coursework? At this point the Duke, who has been disguised as a friar, persuades Isabella to accept Angelo's offer on the understanding that his former betrothed, Mariana, will sleep with him instead. Once again the bed trick proves effectual and providential. In the trial that takes place at the entrance to the city upon the Duke's return, Isabella accuses Angelo of having corrupted his office and executed her brother despite an agreement to spare him (an order of the english research proposal, deputy's that, unknown to Isabella, has been forestalled by the friar).

But then, in response to Mariana's pleas for her assistance, she decides not to press her claim for mla format interview research justice and instead kneels before the Duke to beg that Angelo's life be spared. The Duke grants her request, and Angelo--illustrating Mariana's statement that best men are molded out of faults--repents and accepts the research proposal, Duke's mercy. Measure for Measure qualifies as a tragicomedy because the on violence of television, questions it raises are serious (how to balance law and grace, justice and mercy, in human society) and english, the issue (whether or not Angelo will be executed for you exist essay his evil intentions with respect to Claudio) is in english proposal, doubt until the moment when, by kneeling beside Mariana, Isabella prevents what might have been a kind of helping victims, revenge tragedy. (The Duke tells Mariana, Against all sense you do importune her./Should she kneel down in research example, mercy of this fact,/Her brother's ghost his paved bed would break,/And take her hence in horror.) In Shakespearean comedy, of course, all's well that ends well. Revenge gives way to forgiveness or repentance, and characters who might have died in self-deception or guilt are given a second chance. As for Isabella, she too gains insight and sensitivity as a consequence of her trials, and at the conclusion of the play she finds herself the recipient of a marriage proposal from her previously disguised counselor, the Duke. Whether she accepts it, and if so how, has become one of the you exist essay, chief problems to be solved by directors and actors in modern productions. Proposal? After Measure for on violence Measure , so far as we can tell, Shakespeare turned his attention entirely to tragedy for three or four years.

By 1604, apparently, he completed Othello , the research proposal, second of the four major tragedies. By 1605 he seems to have completed King Lear , the third and, in the estimation of many, the greatest of the tragedies. And by 1606 he had evidently written the last of the maths unp ac, big four, Macbeth . During the next two to research example three years Shakespeare turned once more to classical sources, completing Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus , respectively, in 1606-1607 and 1607-1608, and abandoning Timon of victims, Athens (if we are correct in thinking that it was left unfinished and unacted) sometime around 1607 or 1608. Only two of these plays appeared in quarto printings, King Lear in 1608 in what many scholars now regard as a memorial reconstruction of an early version of the play, and Othello in 1622 in a text of uncertain provenance. Most modern editions of english, King Lear and Othello follow the First Folio texts as their prime authorities, supplementing those texts where appropriate with readings or passages from the thesis coupon, quartos (although, particularly with King Lear , where the two printings of the play are thought by some to derive from english proposal, discrete and self-consistent earlier and later scripts of the play, there is maths unp ac, now a school of thought that opposes conflating the Folio and quarto versions). The other three tragedies all appeared for the first time in english research, the 1623 Folio. When we come to Othello fresh from prove you exist, a reading of either Hamlet or Measure for Measure , we can see links with the english research, earlier plays in Othello 's treatment of sexual love and in the play's preoccupation with ethical questions that turn, ultimately, on revenge versus forgiveness. For whatever else Othello is, it is a species of revenge tragedy. To the extent that Iago is impelled by something more specific than what Coleridge termed motiveless malignity, he is motivated by a determination to prove Othello egregiously an ass for promoting Michael Cassio rather than Iago to the lieutenancy. And Iago's vengeance extends to Cassio as well as to Othello.

But more to the point, once Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona has slept with Cassio, he transforms Othello into the principal tool as well as the prime object of his revenge. Iago's poison is administered in two doses. First he provides enough circumstantial proof to make plausible his insinuation that Desdemona has been unfaithful to Othello. But second and far more crucial, he works Othello into such a frenzy that he is unable to give serious consideration to any response to his knowledge other than revenge. Once Othello becomes persuaded that Desdemona is indeed guilty of infidelity, his instinctive reaction is to exclaim But yet the pity of it, Iago! O Iago, the unp ac, pity of it, Iago!

To which Iago replies If you are so fond over her iniquity, give her patent to offend, for if it touch not you, it comes near nobody. Here as elsewhere Iago's method is to get Othello to focus, not on english research Desdemona, but on himself. By constantly reiterating such terms as reputation, good name, and thesis coupon, honor, Iago plays upon Othello's insecurity as a Moorish alien and implies that his wife's behavior will make him the laughingstock of Venetian society. It is a mark of his worthiness as a tragic hero that, to the end, Othello retains the free and open nature that made him vulnerable to Iago in the beginning. Iago may manipulate Othello into english, committing a rash and terrible murder, but he cannot reduce Othello entirely to a blunt instrument of the ensign's vengeance. Before Othello can bring himself to suffocate Desdemona, he must first delude himself into believing that he is an agent of divine justice. And even in optimization - research, that role his innate compassion leads him to offer his wife a moment to prepare her soul for heaven. It is true that Othello becomes angry again when Desdemona fails to confess to a crime that would have been inconceivable to her, but one of the english research proposal example, things that makes his act pathetic rather than malicious is the fact that he continues to express his devotion for Desdemona even as he forces himself to snuff out her life.

In that sense as well as in Iago's more cynical sense, then, Othello becomes an honorable murderer. And no matter how we judge Othello's final speech and bloody period, we have to agree with Cassio's assessment that he was great of heart. With King Lear we come to a tragedy whose pattern is without parallel in essays, the Shakespearean canon. In all the other tragedies, despite the beauty of the benedictions that convey the protagonists to their eternal destinies, we are left at the end with a nagging sense of purposes mistook that might have been averted or deflected. The basic movement of the plot has been downward, and we come away feeling that we as audience have perceived something that the tragic protagonists themselves have been unable or unwilling to see. In those tragedies in which the protagonists have committed suicide, we are shown that in so doing they are wittingly or unwittingly admitting failure or surrendering to despair, notwithstanding their best efforts to keep their spirits up and evade the full consequences of the choices that have brought them to their present pass. But this is not the example, pattern we find in King Lear . In this play the spiritual movement (as distinguished from the protagonists' outward fortunes) is essentially upward. To be sure, there are terrible errors and paper, terrifying consequences; in this play, however, we are led to believe that at least some of the pain is cathartic. There can be little doubt that both Lear and Gloucester are in some sense better men at the end of their lives than they were at the beginning of the action. Proposal? And if the play is performed in such a way as to emphasize the degree to which the protagonists have been able to prove essay learn and grow through the endurance of tragic suffering, the audience is likely to emerge with a sense of uplift rather than with the weight of unmitigated pity and english research, fear.

This is mla format interview, not to suggest, of course, that there is research example, any less agony and tragic loss in King Lear than in Shakespeare's other works in the same genre. Indeed, given the thesis coupon, play's cosmic resonance--the honored place it now holds in the tradition represented by english proposal such theodicies as the Book of thesis coupon, Job-- King Lear has been thought by many to english evoke more existential terror than all of Shakespeare's other tragedies combined. Lear eventually comes to the realization that he has been a foolish fond old man. In a parallel recognition the blinded Gloucester acknowledges that he stumbled when [he] saw. But first both fathers must feel the brunt of the savagery their earlier misdeeds have unleashed upon the world. Having abdicated his throne and divided his kingdom, Lear soon discovers that he is powerless to prevent his pelican daughters from joining with Gloucester's bastard son in an all-out effort to devour it--and each other. Lear's faithful Fool wastes away. The loyal Kent and Edgar are reduced to wretches. And, most insupportable of all, at the end of the play the innocent Cordelia is hanged. For Lear as he enters cradling his beloved daughter in his arms, this is the ultimate punishment for the arrogance and folly that had led him, at the beginning, to spurn and disinherit her.

But as heartrending as this concluding pietà is for any of the play's audiences, it can represent a chance which does redeem all sorrows if it is staged in harmony with the psychological and spiritual undulations of Lear's dying moments. Just before he says Pray you undo this button, Lear believes that, as Kent puts it, all's cheerless, dark, and deadly. After he says Thank you, sir, however, Lear utters what can be read as an exclamation that by some miracle Cordelia yet lives: Do you see this? Look on interview her! Look, her lips,/Look there, look there! In our time these words have most often been interpreted as expressions of bleak despair. English Research Example? But a reading that is at least as consistent with the rest of the play is you exist essay, that Lear, like Gloucester, 'Twixt two extremes of passion, joy and grief,/[Bursts] smilingly.

We know, of research proposal example, course, that Cordelia is mla format research paper, dead as earth. But it seems fitting that as he dies Lear should see her as alive. If so, it may be nothing more than a merciful hallucination. It may be a desperate man's last grasp at something to sustain a flicker of faith. But it may also register an experience comparable to english research proposal that of another long-suffering king, the chain optimization - research paper, protagonist in Sophocles' Oedipus at Colonus . In short, it may be that Lear is here granted a last epiphany that takes him out of this tough world to a glimpse of something better beyond: because by the end of his long pilgrimage, in the words of english, T. S. Eliot's Little Gidding , it would seem that Lear has finally arrived at the true meaning of nothing: a condition of complete simplicity, costing not less than everything.

Near the end of Macbeth's bloody reign, as he braces for the closing in of his adversaries, he too would like to essays achieve a kind of simplicity: I gin to be aweary of the sun,/And wish th' estate o' th' world were now undone. But in Macbeth's case the goal to be obtained is mere oblivion, not the brief but beatific vision of a broken old man for english research proposal example whom at last something has come of nothing. For, unlike Lear's, Macbeth's career has charted a downward course, from the magnificently heroic champion whom Duncan has greeted as valiant cousin! worthy gentleman! to the desperate tyrant whose acts of regicide and wanton slaughter have tied [him] to a stake as the fiend who must be executed to set the time free. As a tragic action, Macbeth is almost the polar opposite of King Lear . Whereas in Lear we may be inclined to feel that death is maths za coursework, swallowed up in victory, in proposal example, Macbeth we feel that the protagonist's defeat is merely the prelude to final judgment and interview, damnation. Lear's is the kind of fortunate fall that results from research, a miscalculation born of habitual self-indulgence; it forces the King to contemplate unaccommodated man in maths, all his vulnerability, and it subjects him to a refining wheel of fire that purifies him spiritually. Macbeth's, on research proposal the other hand, is the kind of fall that results from flood victims essay, premeditated murder in the service of vaulting ambition. As he himself acknowledges, there are no extenuating circumstances behind which he can shield his crime, and the only change it brings about in Macbeth is temporarily to rob him of sleep and security until, supp'd full with horrors, he eventually loses all capacity for the taste of fears or any other humanizing emotion or sensation. English Proposal? By the final act, life for Macbeth is but a walking shadow, a tale/ Told by an idiot, full of victims, sound and fury,/Signifying nothing. And yet, despite his infamy, we still find it possible to participate in, and even in english research, some fashion to interview paper identify with, Macbeth's descent into hell. In part this results from our awareness of his auspicious beginnings--our recollection of that period at the outset when we see Macbeth tempted but nevertheless resisting the promptings of the Witches and Lady Macbeth.

Because Macbeth himself is aware of the heinousness of the deed he is on the verge of committing, we can sympathize with him as a man like one of us. And then, once he has taken the fatal plunge, we become parties to his inner turmoil. By means of the soliloquies and meditations that Shakespeare allows us to research example overhear, we share Macbeth's torment and anxiety, his feverish desire to put out of mind that which he cannot bear to dwell upon. And thus, even though what he and Lady Macbeth do is beyond the pale of thinkable human behavior, we can still bring pity and fear to both their stories--recalling, in the words of prove you exist, a famous prayer, that there, but for the grace of english research, God, go I. Moving from Macbeth 's Scotland to helping the Mediterranean ambience of Antony and Cleopatra is english proposal, a culture shock so disorienting as almost to make us lose our bearings. Essays? Can the same author who gave us Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, two potent personalities who seize power and then degenerate into tremulous tyrants, so soon thereafter have created Antony and Cleopatra, two mercurial rulers who seem, at least in their grandiloquent gestures, to become increasingly engaging as their fortunes wane and proposal example, they almost willfully throw their power away? And how do we graph the chain optimization - research, movement of the action in a play where at least part of the problem is to proposal example assess the relative merits of a Roman way of looking at things (which judges both lovers as failures because they have declined to elevate civic and military duty above all other human concerns) as opposed to thesis coupon an Egyptian way of looking at things (which is based on the premise that one should be willing, in Dryden's later phrase, to sacrifice all for love)?

Is it likely that Shakespeare expected his audience to bring a coherent Elizabethan perspective to bear on both ancient cultures? And if so, what would an audience viewing the play from that perspective have thought about Antony and Cleopatra? These are the kinds of english research example, question a reading of Antony and Cleopatra elicits, and the majority of its interpreters during the last three centuries have answered them in of television, such a way as to place this second Roman play in a category largely its own. Noting that the Roman characters are bloodless and english research, coldly calculating--particularly Octavius and his sister Octavia, whose hand Octavius gives to prove you exist Antony in an effort to resolve the political differences he has been having with his slothful counterpart in Egypt--most critics and theater professionals have found them much less appealing than they do the two lovers. The consequence has been that readers and viewers have tended to see Antony and Cleopatra as the characters see themselves and thus to regard the play primarily as a dramatization of what John Donne termed the english research proposal, canonization of love. The main problem with this interpretation of the action is supply chain optimization paper, that it requires us to example ignore the maths unp ac za coursework, many indications, throughout the play, that both lovers are impulsive and escapist. A sentimental approach to Antony and Cleopatra blinds us to clues that the new heaven and new earth to which the lovers direct their suicides is little more than a fantasyland that they have created as a way of palliating their defeat and impending capture. We may be stirred by the magic of english proposal example, Enobarbus's descriptions of Cleopatra's transcendent charms, and helping flood essay, we cannot help but admire the eloquence with which Antony and Cleopatra prepare themselves for research proposal death. But we should remember at supply chain - research the same time that it is research example, relatively simple to count the world well lost if through neglect one has already handed it over to one's enemies. An apt Elizabethan gloss on unp ac Antony and Cleopatra might well be borrowed from Shakespeare's Sonnet 129: All this the world well knows, yet none knows well/To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell. Because of the english research, vividness of its central figures and the exoticism and on violence, luxuriousness of english research example, its language, Antony and Cleopatra has long been one of Shakespeare's most popular plays.

But nothing could be farther from the case with its successor. Coriolanus the third and last of Shakespeare's mature Roman plays, is sparing and harsh in optimization, its diction and spartan in its spectacle. And only english example, rarely--but usually with distinction--has it been performed, even in our own production-rich century. Prove You Exist Essay? The hero of the english proposal, play is one of the least endearing of Shakespeare's major characters. Godlike in battle, where his feats of valor and leadership are so extraordinary as to seem Herculean, Coriolanus becomes a veritable beast when called upon to participate in flood, the civic affairs of early republican Rome. His contempt for the moblike plebeians is exceeded only by his hatred of the english proposal, tribunes and senators who play the supply optimization - research paper, soldier-general and the common people off against one another.

Coriolanus refuses to flatter anyone for any reason, and he lashes out at the hypocrisy required of him when he is told that he must bare his wounds and beg for the voices of the english proposal example, citizens in maths unp ac, order to english research proposal be elected tribune, an office he has not sought and prove, a responsibility he makes clear he does not want. Eventually his intransigence makes him so unpopular that he gets himself banished from Rome. To which he offers an arch retort that is perfectly in character: I banish you! Confident that there is a world elsewhere, Coriolanus departs from the city as a lonely dragon. But soon, to the astonishment and terror of his former fellows, he joins forces with Rome's arch-enemies, the Volscians. Example? In the final movement of the play we see him lead an army to the gates of flood, Rome that threatens to english research example destroy the Empire in its infancy. But at this point Coriolanus's mother, Volumnia, intervenes and pleads with the hero to spare his native city for her sake. Reluctantly, and with a premonition that his decision will prove fatal to flood victims essay him, Coriolanus accedes to his mother's request. Proposal? Then, cunningly provoked to one last intemperate outburst by on violence of television the foxlike Volscian general Aufidius, who calls him a boy of tears, Coriolanus brings down upon himself the wrathful hordes of the Volscians he has just betrayed.

Just what this rough-hewn and inhospitable play is about has been much debated. But critics as varied as T. S. Eliot and Frank Kermode, and actors as distinguished as Laurence Olivier and Alan Howard, have shown that it can be a challenging and at times a thrilling dramatic achievement. In all likelihood it will receive more attention--and admiration--in the future than it has tended to receive in research proposal, the past. Whether this will be true of Shakespeare's final experiment in tragedy, Timon of Athens is less certain. Derived, like the three major Roman plays, primarily from Plutarch's Lives , Timon of Athens is essays on violence of television, generally regarded as a play that the author left unfinished. There is no record of its having been performed in Shakespeare's lifetime, and it has only appeared sporadically (and seldom notably) in the centuries since. As a character, Timon has affinities with Lear and Coriolanus. Like Lear, he comes to think of himself as a victim of ingratitude, a man more sinned against english research proposal than sinning.

And, like Coriolanus, he responds to maths unp ac his mistreatment by banishing all society from his presence. Unlike either character, however, Timon is incapable of growth or compromise. Once he has spurned the friends who have refused to help him with the creditors his excessive generosity has brought to the door, Timon retreats to a cave and disregards every entreaty to concern himself with his fellow man. His foil, Alcibiades, can forgive Athens its injustices and english research example, return to save the essays on violence, city from ruin. But Timon elects to spend the rest of his life in solitude, cursing all of humanity with an invective that eventually becomes tedious in the extreme. Critics such as G. Wilson Knight and Rolf Soellner have argued valiantly for the poetic and theatrical merits of Timon of Athens . But thus far their adherents have proven only research proposal, slightly more numerous than the maths za coursework, followers of Timon himself. English? Original the play may be; but few have come to praise it as a fully realized work of dramatic art. After Coriolanus and Timon of Athens , Shakespeare seems to have shifted his focus again.

He wrote no more tragedies, so far as we know, and maths unp ac za coursework, the single history play that appeared was so different from his previous efforts in that genre that it seems to belong to the realm of romance rather than to english research proposal example the world of ordinary political and social interaction. Unp Ac? And indeed romance is now the generic term most frequently applied to the mature tragicomedies that critics once referred to english research somewhat loosely as the Late Plays. If we include Henry VIII in their number, there are six surviving works that qualify as late romances. One of them, The Two Noble Kinsmen , we know to have been written by Shakespeare in collaboration with his fellow dramatist John Fletcher. Supply Chain Paper? Two others, Pericles and Henry VIII , are also regarded by english proposal many scholars as likely to have resulted from joint authorship--as was evidently the case, too, with the lost Cardenio , attributed to maths za coursework Shakespeare and english proposal, Fletcher in a Stationers' Register entry of interview paper, 1753. Which leaves us with three plays-- Cymbeline , The Winter's Tale , and The Tempest --that are unanimously accepted as works entirely by english research Shakespeare. Since all but one of the Late Plays ( Pericles , which seems to have been completed in 1606-1608) appeared after Shakespeare's company added the chain optimization - research paper, Blackfriars as a venue for example performance--and since even that work may have been written with indoor staging in view (we know that Pericles was presented at Court sometime between January 1606 and November 1608)--it seems eminently possible, as Gerald Eades Bentley has suggested, that Shakespeare's modifications in dramaturigcal style resulted, at least in part, from changes in emphasis by the King's Men. If Shakespeare and his colleagues were easing away from total dependence on the comparatively broad-based audiences they had long attracted to the Globe and were beginning to cast their fortunes more confidently with the aristocratic clientele they served at Court or would be able to cultivate at the private Blackfriars theater, they may well have begun to za coursework rethink their dramatic repertory. Under these circumstances, Shakespeare and his fellow shareholders could readily have arrived at a determination to concentrate on offerings such as their more well-to-do audiences had grown accustomed to seeing: masquelike entertainments of the sort that Court patronage encouraged, and mythological and fanciful diversions of the type that the english research, children's companies had made their specialty in indoor halls like the Blackfriars.

In any event, the supply chain optimization - research paper, sequence of dramatic works initiated by Pericles is example, strikingly different in many respects from the sequence that preceded it. Relying as many of them do on such devices as a choral presenter (Gower in Pericles , or Time in The Winter's Tale ) to helping flood victims essay narrate background incidents, the romances tend to be rambling and panoramic by comparison with the earlier plays (the salient exception being The Tempest, which is unusually focused in time, place, and action). Frequently, they contain incidents that are wildly implausible (as when Antigonus exits pursued by example a bear in thesis coupon, The Winter's Tale ), and most of them draw heavily on english proposal storms, shipwrecks, and other violently disruptive acts of God to mla format move the action forward. Families are separated at sea, left to wander for english research years in adversity, and then miraculously reunited at the close. Mla Format Interview Paper? Symbolically named children (Marina in Pericles , Perdita in proposal, The Winter's Tale , Miranda in The Tempest ) function dramatically as instruments of flood victims, special grace, restoring faith and vision to parents who have temporarily lost their way. Terrible calamities are but narrowly averted, and then only because of sudden reversals that depend either upon some character's astonishing change of heart or upon an inexplicable visitation from english research, above. Rather than conceal their artifice, the romances tend to display it openly, on the one hand reminding the audience that what it is witnessing is only make-believe, on the other hand manipulating viewers' responses so as to thesis coupon prepare the audience for some climactic wonder toward which the entire sequence has been directed. The first three acts of Pericles seem so naive dramaturgically that many scholars consider them to be by research a playwright other than Shakespeare. Among the contemporaries whose names have been proposed for the dubious honor of collaborator in accordance with this hypothesis is George Wilkins, whose novel The Painful Adventures of Pericles Prince of Tyre appeared in the same year (1608) as the entry for you exist Pericles in the Stationers' Register.

All we know for certain is english research, that the play was first published in 1609 in a relatively crude quarto that was reprinted several times before Pericles made its initial folio entry when it was added to the second issue of the Third Folio in 1664. Just why Pericles was not included in prove essay, the First Folio has never been determined. Research Proposal Example? Its omission may have had something to do with the poor condition of the helping flood victims essay, only available text. English Research Proposal? Or it may have stemmed from the assumption that the play was not completely by Shakespeare. The second of these hypotheses would also explain the exclusion of The Two Noble Kinsmen (though of course it would not explain the in clusion of Henry VIII if, as many scholars believe, that too was a play that Shakespeare wrote in thesis coupon, collaboration with another playwright). Whatever the research example, case, Pericles is immediately recognizable as a point of departure. Drawing from unp ac za coursework, a fifth-century romantic narrative by Apollonius of Tyre as retold in the Confessio Amantis of the fourteenth-century English poet John Gower, the play is studiously antique in its apparently unsophisticated presentational style. Old Gower himself is resurrected to serve as the barnacled chorus, and english research example, the singsong tetrameters that serve as the metrical vehicle for his medieval diction remove the play's events from the present to a dreamlike past more suited to fairy lore than to realistic fiction. In such an atmosphere the audience is unp ac, more readily induced to suspend its disbelief--with the consequence that we become vicarious participants in episode after episode as the hero's adventures convey him from youth (when he solves the riddle of Antiochus and research proposal, is immediately forced to flee for mla format paper his life upon disclosing his knowledge of the wicked King's incestuous relationship with his daughter) through old age (when, having been reduced almost to research proposal example despair by decades of wandering and thesis coupon, loss, Pericles is miraculously rejoined with his radiant daughter, Marina). As we allow ourselves to be hypnotized into accepting the premises of such a providential universe, we fall under the research example, spell of a moldy tale peopled by such characters as a wicked stepmother (Dionyza), a Bawd, and on violence, a Governor (Lysimachus) who becomes so enraptured by Marina's innocence that he forswears a life bedimmed by vice.

Pericles' final awakening has often been compared to Lear's reunion with Cordelia. English Research Proposal? And a lovely lyric (Marina) by T. S. Eliot is eloquent in its testimony that twentieth-century audiences can still be moved by a beloved child's power to regenerate her father and renew his faith in life. Until recently Pericles has rarely been performed, but as the magic of its marvels becomes more widely appreciated it may one day find its way to a more secure footing in the repertory. Such may also be the prove you exist, case with Cymbeline . First printed in the 1623 Folio, it probably enjoyed its initial performances in 1609-1610, either at Blackfriars or at the Globe (where the physician Dr. Simon Forman saw it, probably in 1611). Its historical frame, featuring a pre-Christian monarch from approximately the same era as King Lear, Shakespeare derived primarily from Holinshed's Chronicles . In this portion of the play, wherein Cymbeline at english research example first refuses and then later volunteers Britain's annual tribute to Emperor Augustus Caesar, Shakespeare adumbrates the commingling of British and Roman traits that Renaissance Englishmen believed to be at the root of their nation's greatness.

Shakespeare combined with this theme a number of other romantic motifs, his sources varying from Boccaccio's Decameron to helping essay a pair of anonymous plays of the 1580s, The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune and Sir Clyomon and Sir Clamydes . Research Proposal Example? The result is helping flood essay, a romantic tragicomedy unusually episodic in structure and english research example, so bewildering in the rapidity and complexity of helping flood victims, its concluding disclosures as to leave an audience wondering how any agency other than providence could possibly have untangled the various strands of the plot. At the heart of the play is Imogen, a woman of exemplary chastity whose foolhardy husband Posthumus allows himself to english example be tricked into thinking that she has been seduced by a braggart named Iachimo. Like the resourceful heroines in Shakespeare's earlier tragicomedies, Imogen assumes a disguise in her efforts to win her husband back. Supply Optimization? In time her circumstances bring her to the cave where Cymbeline's long-lost sons, Guiderius and Arviragus, have been reared in english proposal example, rustic exile by supply chain paper an old lord, Belarius, whom the King had unjustly banished. She casts her lot with them and becomes a participant in Britain's war against research example Rome. Once the conflict is over, the chain optimization, King and his sons are reunited in the same denouement in which Posthumus recognizes Imogen as his most constant wife. And in a reconciliation scene that carries overtones of the Augustan pax Romana under which Christ was born, Cymbeline announces that Pardon's the word to all. Evil has been exorcised (Cymbeline's bad angels, his wicked Queen and her doltish son Cloten, have died), and the way-ward characters who survive have all experienced enlightenment and example, contrition.

Enlightenment and contrition are prerequisite to the happy ending of The Winter's Tale , too. Here again a husband falls victim to interview research vengeful jealousy, and english research proposal example, here again the plot builds up to the moment when he can be forgiven the folly that, so far as he knows, has brought about thesis coupon his innocent wife's death. Based primarily on Robert Greene's Pandosto: The Triumph of english research example, Time , a prose romance first published in 1588 and reprinted under a new title in 1607, The Winter's Tale was probably completed in 1610 or 1611. Its initial appearance in print was in the 1623 Folio. Essay? The action begins when Leontes, King of Sicilia, is seized with the humour that his wife Hermione has committed adultery with his childhood friend Polixenes. It is proposal example, abundantly clear to prove you exist essay everyone else, most notably Hermione's lady-in-waiting Paulina, that Leontes' suspicions are irrational. But he refuses to listen either to the counsel of his advisers or to the oracle at Delphi--persisting with this trial of english research proposal example, Hermione until he has completely devastated his court.

He drives Polixenes away with the faithful Sicilian lord Camillo; he frightens to death his son Mamilius; and he pursues Hermione so unrelentingly that she finally wilts into helping victims essay, what Paulina declares to be a fatal swoon. At this point, suddenly recognizing that he has been acting like a madman, Leontes vows to do penance for the remainder of his life. Years later, after Perdita (the lost child whom the raging Leontes has instructed Paulina's husband Antigonus to expose to the elements) has grown up and fallen in love with Florizel, the research, heir to Polixenes' throne in Bohemia, the on violence, major characters are providentially regathered in Leontes' court. Leontes is reunited with his daughter. And then, in one of the most stirring and unexpected moments in all of Shakespeare's works, a statue of Hermione that Paulina unveils turns out to be the living--and forgiving--Queen whom Leontes had killed some sixteen years previously. In a speech that might well serve to research epitomize the import of all the late romances, Paulina tells the King It is requir'd/You do awake your faith. The regenerated Leontes embraces his long-lamented wife, bestows the widowed Paulina on the newly returned Camillo, and blesses the forthcoming marriage of za coursework, Perdita to english research the son of flood victims, his old friend Polixenes, the english proposal example, object of the thesis coupon, jealousy with which the whole agonizing story has begun. English Research Example? The circle that is completed in supply chain paper, The Winter's Tale has its counterpart in The Tempest , which concludes with the marriage of Prospero's daughter Miranda to Ferdinand, the son of the Neapolitan king who had helped Prospero's wicked brother Antonio remove Prospero from his dukedom in Milan a dozen years previously. Research Proposal? Like The Winter's Tale , The Tempest was completed by 1611 and printed for the first time in essays of television, the 1623 Folio. Because it refers to the still-vext Bermoothes and derives in part from three accounts of the research proposal, 1609 wreck of a Virginia-bound ship called the Sea Adventure , the play has long been scrutinized for its supposed commentary on flood essay the colonial exploitation of the New World. But if the research proposal, brute Caliban is not the noble savage of Montaigne's essay on cannibals, he is probably not intended to essays on violence be an instance of Third World victimization by European imperalism either.

And Prospero's island is at least as Mediterranean as it is Caribbean. More plausible, but also too speculative for english research uncritical acceptance, is the thesis coupon, time-honored supposition that the magician's staff with which Prospero wields his power is meant to be interpreted as an analogy for Shakespeare's own magical gifts--with the corollary that the protagonist's abjuration of his potent art is the dramatist's own way of english research example, saying farewell to the theater. Were it not that at least two plays were almost certainly completed later than The Tempest , this latter hypothesis might win more credence. But be that as it may, there can be no doubt that Prospero cuts a magnificent figure on the Shakespearean stage. At times, when he is recalling the usurpation that has placed him and his daughter on the island they have shared with Caliban for a dozen lonely years, Prospero is maths unp ac za coursework, reminiscent of Lear, another angry ruler who, despite his earlier indiscretions, has cause to feel more sinned against than sinning. At other times, when Prospero is using the spirit Ariel to manipulate the english research example, comings and goings of the enemies whose ship he has brought aground in a tempest, the once and future Duke of Milan reminds us of the Duke of Vienna in Measure for Measure . But though his influence on the lives of others turns out in the end to have been providential, Prospero arrives at thesis coupon that beneficent consummation only through a psychological and spiritual process that turns on his forswearing vengeance in favor of the rarer action of forgiveness. Proposal? Such dramatic tension as the play possesses is to be found in the audience's suspense over whether the prove you exist essay, protagonist will use his Neoplatonic magic for good or for ill. And when in fact Prospero has brought the men of sin to a point where they must confront themselves as they are and beg forgiveness for their crimes, it is paradoxically Ariel who reminds his master that to english proposal be truly human is finally to be humane. Uniquely among the late tragicomic romances, The Tempest has long been a favorite with both readers and audiences. Its ardent young lovers have always held their charm, as has the effervescent Ariel, and its treatment of the temptations afforded by access to transcendent power gives it a political and religious resonance commensurate with the profundity of its exploration of the depths of thesis coupon, poetic and dramatic art. In the end its burden seems to be that an acknowledgment of the limits imposed by english proposal example the human condition is the beginning of wisdom.

The last of the plays attributed wholly to Shakespeare by its inclusion in maths za coursework, the First Folio, where it first achieved print, is Henry VIII . Modern stylistic analyses have called Shakespeare's sole authorship into question, of course, but since the case for collaboration has never been definitively proven we may do just as well to proceed on the assumption that Henry VIII was mostly if not entirely a play for which the research, playwright was responsible. Its theatrical history has had more ups and downs than is true of many of Shakespeare's other dramatic works (the most notable occurrence on maths za coursework the down side being the accident during its earliest recorded performance, on 29 June 1613, that burned the Globe to the ground), and proposal, its critical reception, like that of Troilus and Cressida , has been complicated by debates about the play's genre. In many respects Henry VIII seems to be the essays on violence, capstone to research example Shakespeare's nine earlier English history plays. It focuses on kingship as the key to a nation's political and maths unp ac, social stability, and it glorifies the Tudor dynasty as God's means of bringing peace, prosperity, and empire to an England whose greatness had reached new heights during the reigns of the two monarchs under whom Shakespeare had served. Fittingly, the play's final cause is the birth of Elizabeth, the royal infant whose advent, according to the prophecy uttered by Archbishop Cranmer at the end of the play, promises/Upon this land a thousand thousand blessings. But, as is so often true in english example, Shakespeare, it also offers the audience a topical glance at maths an event of contemporary significance, the February 1613 wedding of Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King James I and his Queen, to Frederick, the english research, Elector of Palatine. Like the earlier English history plays, Henry VIII is epic in its scope and in prove essay, its patriotic impulse. And like them, it reflects Shakespeare's interest in the grand themes of English historiography, as derived not only from the 1587 second edition of Holinshed's Chronicles but also from other sources as varied as John Foxe's Acts and Monuments (1563) and John Speed's History of Great Britain (1611).

In its earliest performances the play even seems to research proposal have had an essay alternate title, All is True , to assert its fidelity to the essence of its historical subject matter. But a close examination of its way of treating that matter will indicate that Henry VIII is more cosmic than the history plays that preceded it--a play that presents the events it dramatizes almost solely in the light of eternity. Research Proposal Example? Though the King is you exist essay, not without his faults, he is portrayed more positively in Shakespeare than he had usually been depicted by historians prior to Henry VIII . During the first half of the play the bluff Henry may be misled by his bad angel Cardinal Wolsey; but the english research proposal, King's intentions are noble, and after Wolsey's discomfiture he evolves into victims, a creditable exemplar of God's deputy. Meanwhile, there is an unmistakable emphasis on providential design throughout the play. The action is structured around a succession of trials, each of research example, which serves to test a character's mettle and to induce in him or her a new degree of self-knowledge, humility, faith, and compassion.

Buckingham is framed by Wolsey's machinations, but as he proceeds to his execution he forgives his enemies and blesses the King who has condemned him. Katherine, another of Wolsey's victims, pleads eloquently and forcibly in her own defense; but once her fate is essay, settled, she resigns herself with patience to the destiny prepared for her and goes so far as to english example express pity for her archenemy Wolsey. Maths Unp Ac Za Coursework? And once he recognizes that there is no escape from the noose he has unwittingly prepared for himself, Wolsey himself dies penitent and never so happy. In each instance death is swallowed up in a victory of sorts, and the sequence as a whole reinforces the audience's sense that even in research, the often-brutal arena of English history all's well that ends well. Of Television? Perhaps the best way to describe Henry VIII is to call it a tragicomic historical romance. But whatever it is generically, it is english research, a play that offers a plenitude of supply chain, majestic pageantry. As the 1979 BBC television production reminded us, it is english research, Shakespeare's version of Masterpiece Theatre . Whether or not it is the last play in which Shakespeare had a hand, The Two Noble Kinsmen is the last surviving instance of his dramaturgy.

With but a handful of exceptions, modern scholars regard the play as a collaborative effort in mla format interview, which the guiding hand may have been John Fletcher's rather than William Shakespeare's. Research Proposal Example? It was probably completed in maths, 1613, and english proposal, its first appearance in print was in a quarto edition of thesis coupon, 1634 that attributed it to both playwrights. Proposal? It was reprinted in the Beaumont and Fletcher second folio of 1679, but it never appeared in any of the seventeenth-century folios of Shakespeare's dramatic works. The play is a dramatization of Geoffrey Chaucer's Knight's Tale about two cousins, Palamon and Arcite, who come to blows as a consequence of their both having fallen in love with the same damsel, Emilia. Like the other late romances of Shakespeare, it has a remote Mediterranean setting (ancient Thebes and Athens), it invokes the flood victims essay, gods for intervention in research proposal example, human affairs, and it depends for its effects on thesis coupon scenes of grand pageantry such as the wedding procession of Theseus and Hippolyta. It is not a great work, but it has probably received less attention than it should as a play that deserves, at least as much as does The Tempest , to be considered as Shakespeare's epilogue to the theater. Tradition holds that Shakespeare returned to Stratford for his declining years, and three years after the burning of the Globe his own flame went out. Following his death on research proposal 23 April 1616, he was laid to supply chain paper rest where fifty-two years earlier he had been christened. Shortly thereafter, a monument to his memory was erected above the tomb in Holy Trinity, and that monument is still in place for english research example Shakespeare admirers to see today. But an even greater monument to essay his memory appeared seven years later, when his theatrical colleagues, John Heminge and example, Henry Condell (both of whom had been mentioned in prove you exist, the playwright's will) assembled a large volume of his collected plays.

The 1623 First Folio was a labor of love, compiled as an office to the dead, to procure his orphans guardians and to keep the memory of so worthy a friend and fellow alive as was our Shakespeare. Our Shakespeare. English Research Proposal Example? It is thesis coupon, not without exaggeration that the example, book that preserves what is probably his most reliable portrait and the most authoritative versions of the majority of his dramatic texts (indeed the only surviving versions of half of them) has been called incomparably the most important work in the English language. Essays On Violence? In the words and actions that fill his poems and plays, in the performances that enrich our theaters and silver screens, in the countless off-shoots to be found in other works of art, and in the influence the playwright continues to have on virtually every aspect of popular culture throughout the world, now as much as in the age of Elizabeth and James, Shakespeare lives. William Jaggard, Shakespeare Bibliography: A Dictionary of Every Known Issue of the Writings of Our National Poet and of Recorded Opinion Thereon in the English Language (Stratford-upon-Avon: Shakespeare Press, 1911). Walter Ebish and Levin L. Schucking, A Shakespeare Bibliography (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931).

Gordon Ross Smith, A Classified Shakespeare Bibliography, 1936-1958 (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1963). English Example? Ronald Berman, A Reader's Guide to Shakespeare's Plays, revised edition (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1973). David Bevington, Shakespeare (Arlington Heights, Ill.: AHM Publishing, 1978). Larry S. Champion, The Essential Shakespeare: An Annotated Bibliography of Major Modern Studies (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1986). Alfred Harbage, William Shakespeare: A Reader's Guide (New York: Noonday, 1963). Maths Unp Ac? F. E. Halliday, A Shakespeare Companion, 1564-1964 (London: Duckworth/Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964).

O. J. Campbell and Edward G. Quinn, The Reader's Encyclopedia of Shakespeare (New York: Crowell, 1966). John W. Velz, Shakespeare and the Classical Tradition: A Critical Guide to research proposal Commentary, 1660-1960 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1968). Kenneth Muir and S. Interview? Schoenbaum, eds., A New Companion to Shakespeare Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971). David M. Bergeron, Shakespeare: A Study and Research Guide (New York: St. Martin's, 1975).

David M. Zesmer, Guide to Shakespeare (New York: Barnes Noble, 1976). Stanley Wells and Gary Taylor, William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion [to the Complete Oxford Shakespeare] (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987). E. K. Chambers, William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems, 2 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930). M. M. Reese, Shakespeare: His World and His Work (London: Arnold, 1953). Gerald Eades Bentley, Shakespeare: A Biographical Handbook (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961). A. L. Rowse, William Shakespeare: A Biography (London: Macmillan, 1963). English? Anthony Burgess, Shakespeare (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970).

S. Schoenbaum, Shakespeare's Lives (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970). Prove You Exist? Schoenbaum, William Shakespeare: A Documentary Life (London: Oxford University Press/Scolar Press, 1975). Schoenbaum, William Shakespeare: Records and Images (London: Oxford University Press/Scolar Press, 1981). David George, Shakespeare and Pembroke's Men, Shakespeare Quarterly, 32 (1981): 305-323. Shakespeare Jahrbuch: Jahrbuch der Deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft (1865-1964). Research Proposal Example? Shakespeare Jahrbuch (Heidelberg and mla format interview research paper, Bochum), edited by Werner Habicht (1965- ). Shakespeare Jahrbuch (Weimar), edited by Anselm Schlusser and research, Armin-Gerd Kuckoff (1965- ). Shakespeare Newsletter, edited by Louis Marder (1951- ). Unp Ac? Shakespeare Quarterly, edited by James G. McManaway, Richard J. Schoeck, John F. Andrews, Barbara A. Mowat (1950- ). Research Example? Shakespeare Studies, edited by J. Leeds Barroll (1965- ). Prove Essay? Shakespeare Studies (Tokyo), edited by Jiro Ozu (1962- ).

Shakespeare Survey, edited by Allardyce Nicoll, Kenneth Muir, Stanley Wells (1948- ). E. A. Example? Abbott, A Shakespearean Grammar, revised and enlarged edition (London: Macmillan, 1870). John Cranford Adams, The Globe Playhouse (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1942). John F. Andrews, William Shakespeare: His World His Work, His Influence, 3 volumes (New York: Scribners,1985). Chain Optimization Paper? T. Research Proposal? W. Baldwin, William Shakespeare's Small Latine Lesse Greeke (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1943). Bernard Beckerman, Shakespeare at prove essay the Globe, 1599-1609 (New York: Macmillan, 1962).

Gerald Eades Bentley, The Profession of Dramatist in Shakespeare's Time, 1590-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971). Bentley, The Profession of Player in Shakespeare's Time (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). Bentley, Shakespeare and the Blackfriars Theatre, Shakespeare Survey, 1 (1948): 38-50. Fredson Bowers, Bibliography and Textual Criticism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964). Bowers, On Editing Shakespeare (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1966). John Russell Brown, Shakespeare's Plays in Performance (London: Arnold, 1966). English? Geoffrey Bullough, ed., Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, 8 volumes (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1957-1975). Fausto Cercignani, Shakespeare's Works and Elizabethan Pronunciation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981).

E. K. Chambers, The Elizabethan Stage, 4 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923), III: 479-490. Wolfgang Clemen, The Development of Shakespeare's Imagery (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1951). Ruby Cohn, Modern Shakespeare Offshoots (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976). Maths Unp Ac? Ann Jennalie Cook, The Privileged Playgoers of Shakespeare's London: 1576-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981). Richard David, Shakespeare in research example, the Theatre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978). Madeleine Doran, Endeavors of Art: A Study of essays on violence of television, Form in Elizabethan Drama (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1954).

G. R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953). Roland M. Frye, Shakespeare and Christian Doctrine (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963). W. W. Greg, The Editorial Problem in english research, Shakespeare: A Survey of the Foundations of the Text (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954). Mla Format Interview Paper? Greg, ed., Dramatic Documents from the Elizabethan Playhouses: Stage Plots; Actors' Parts; Prompt Books, 2 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931). Andrew Gurr, Playgoing in research proposal, Shakespeare's London (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987). Gurr, The Shakespearean Stage, 1574-1642 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970). Alfred Harbage, Shakespeare's Audience, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1941). Christopher Hill, The Century of unp ac, Revolution, 1603-1714 (New York: Norton, 1961). Charlton Hinman, The Printing and Proof-Reading of the research proposal, First Folio of Shakespeare, 2 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963). C. Walter Hodges, Shakespeare's Second Globe: The Missing Monument (London: Oxford University Press, 1973). Richard Hosley, The Discovery-Space in essays on violence of television, Shakespeare's Globe, Shakespeare Survey, 12 (1959): 35-46.

Hosley, The Gallery over the Stage in the Public Playhouses of Shakespeare's Time, Shakespeare Quarterly, 8 (Winter 1957): 15-31. Hosley, ed., Shakespeare's Holinshed (New York: Putnam's, 1968). Jack Jorgens, Shakespeare on Film (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977). Bertram Joseph, Elizabethan Acting (London: Oxford University Press, 1951). English Research Example? George R. Kernodle, From Art to flood essay Theatre: Form and english research example, Convention in the Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944). Helge Kökeritz, Shakespeare's Pronunciation (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953). Mla Format Paper? Wallace T. Proposal Example? MacCaffrey, The Shaping of the Elizabethan Regime (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968). Scott McMillin, The Elizabethan Theatre The Book of Sir Thomas More (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987).

W. Moelwyn Merchant, Shakespeare and the Artist (London: Oxford University Press, 1959). Sister Miriam Joseph, Shakespeare's Use of the Arts of Language (New York: Columbia University Press, 1947). Kenneth Muir, Shakespeare's Sources, 2 volumes (London: Methuen, 1961). Maths Unp Ac? Richmond Noble, Shakespeare's Biblical Knowledge and english research proposal, Use of the flood, Book of Common Prayer (New York: Macmillan, 1935). C. T. Onions, A Shakespeare Glossary, revised edition (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1919). John Orrell, The Quest for research proposal example Shakespeare's Globe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). Eric Partridge, Shakespeare's Bawdy, revised edition (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1969).

Alfred W. Pollard, Shakespeare's Folios and Quartos: A Study in chain - research paper, the Bibliography of Shakespeare's Plays, 1594-1685 (London: Methuen, 1909). Alexander Schmidt, Shakespeare-Lexicon, revised and proposal, enlarged by Gregor Sarrazin, 2 volumes (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1962). S. Schoenbaum, Shakespeare: The Globe and the World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979). Peter J. Helping Flood? Seng, The Vocal Songs in the Plays of Shakespeare: A Critical History (London: Oxford University Press, 1967) Charles H. Shattuck, Shakespeare on the American Stage: From the Hallams to Edwin Booth (Washington: Folger Shakespeare Library, 1976). Irwin Smith, Shakespeare's Blackfriars Playhouse: Its History and research example, Its Design (New York: New York University Press, 1964). Irwin Smith, Shakespeare's Blackfriars Playhouse: Its History and Its Design (New York: New York University Press, 1964). Robert Speaight, Shakespeare on the Stage: An Illustrated History of Shakespearian Performance (London: Collins, 1973). T. J. B. Spencer, ed., Shakespeare's Plutarch (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964).

Marvin Spevack, The Harvard Concordance to Shakespeare (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973). Arthur Colby Sprague, Shakespearian Players and Performances (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954). Lawrence Stone, The Crisis of the Aristocracy, 1558-1641 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965). Stone, The Family, Sex, and Marriage in England, 1500-1800 (New York: Harper Row, 1977). J. Flood Victims Essay? L. Styan, The Shakespeare Revolution: Criticism and Performance in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979). English Research Example? J. A. K. Thomson, Shakespeare and the Classics (London: Allen Unwin, 1952). E. M. W. Tillyard, The Elizabethan World Picture (London: Chatto Windus, 1943). J. C. Trewin, Shakespeare on thesis coupon the English Stage, 1900-1964: A Survey of Productions (London: Barrie Rockliff, 1964). Virgil K. Whitaker, Shakespeare's Use of Learning (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1953).

Glynne Wickham, Early English Stages, 1300-1600, 2 volumes (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1959-1972) W. English? H. Auden, The Shakespearian City, in his The Dyer's Hand and Other Essays (New York: Random House, 1948), pp. 171-172. Gerald Eades Bentley, Shakespeare and Jonson: Their Reputations in flood essay, the Seventeenth Century Compared, 2 volumes (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945). David Bevington, and Jay L. Halio, eds., Shakespeare: Pattern of Excelling Nature, essays from the 1976 Washington Congress of the proposal example, International Shakespeare Association (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1978). M. C. Bradbrook, The Living Monument: Shakespeare and the Theatre of helping flood essay, His Time (New York: Barnes Noble, 1969).

Philip Brockbank, ed., Players of Shakespeare (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Example? Sigurd Burkhardt, Shakespearean Meanings (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968). James L. Calderwood, Shakespearean Metadrama (Minneapolis: University of essay, Minnesota Press, 1971). Nevill Coghill, Shakespeare's Professional Skills (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964). English? Walter Clyde Curry, Shakespeare's Philosophical Patterns (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1937). Leonard F. Dean, ed., Shakespeare: Modern Essays in chain optimization, Criticism, revised edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967). Alan C. Dessen, Elizabethan Drama and the Viewer's Eye (Chapel Hill: University of english, North Carolina Press, 1977). Dessen, Elizabethan Stage Conventions and unp ac, Modern Interpreters (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984). John Drakakis, Alternative Shakespeares (London: Methuen, 1985). English Research? Juliet Dusinberre, Shakespeare and the Nature of Women (London: Macmillan, 1975). Arthur M. Eastman, A Short History of Shakespearean Criticism (New York: Random House, 1968).

Philip Edwards, Shakespeare and the Confines of Art (London: Methuen, 1968). G. Blakemore Evans, Shakespeare: Aspects of Influence (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976). Thesis Coupon? Michael Goldman, Shakespeare and the Energies of Drama (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). Research? Harley Granville-Barker, Prefaces to Shakespeare, 2 volumes (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1946-1947). Maths? Alfred Harbage, Shakespeare and the Rival Traditions (New York: Macmillan, 1952). Terence Hawkes, That Shakespeaherean Rag (London: Methuen, 1986). Research Example? Norman Holland, Psychoanalysis and Shakespeare (New York: Octagon Books, 1976). Robert G. Hunter, Shakespeare and maths unp ac za coursework, the Mystery of God's Judgments (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1976). Emrys Jones, The Origins of Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977). Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971).

Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971). Coppelia Kahn, Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare (Berkeley: University of english example, California Press, 1981). Alvin B. Kernan, ed., Modern Shakespearean Criticism: Essays on Style, Dramaturgy, and the Major Plays (New York: Harcourt, Brace World, 1970). Arnold Kettle, ed., Shakespeare in prove, a Changing World: Essays on research proposal example His Times and interview, His Plays (London: Lawrence Wishart, 1964). Proposal? Arthur C. Optimization Paper? Kirsch, Shakespeare and the Experience of Love (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981). G. Wilson Knight, Shakespeare and Religion: Essays of Forty Years (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1967). L. C. Knights, Some Shakespearean Themes (London: Chatto Windus, 1959). Jan Kott, Shakespeare Our Contemporary, translated by Boleslaw Taborski (Garden City: Doubleday, 1964).

Clifford Leech and J. M. Research? R. Margeson, eds., Shakespeare 1971: Proceedings of the World Shakespeare Congress, Vancouver, August 1971 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972). Harry Levin, The Primacy of Shakespeare, Shakespeare Quarterly, 26 (Spring 1975): 99-112. Richard Levin, New Readings vs. Old Plays: Recent Trends in the Reinterpretation of English Renaissance Drama (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979). James G. McManaway, ed., Shakespeare 400: Essays by American Scholars on the Anniversary of the Poet's Birth (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1964). John Munro, ed., The Shakespeare Allusion Book: A Collection of Allusions to Shakespeare from you exist essay, 1591 to 1700, 2 volumes (London: Chatto Windus, 1909). Patricia Parker and Geoffrey Hartman, Shakespeare and the Question of Theory (London: Methuen, 1985). Research? Hereward T. Price, Construction in victims essay, Shakespeare (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1951).

Norman Rabkin, Shakespeare and the Common Understanding (New York: Free Press, 1967). Rabkin, Shakespeare and the Problem of Meaning (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981). Research Example? Rabkin, ed., Approaches to Shakespeare (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964). Thomas M. Raysor, ed., Coleridge's Shakespearean Criticism, 2 volumes (London: Constable, 1930). Anne Righter, Shakespeare and the Idea of the Play (London: Chatto Windus, 1962). A. P. Rossiter, Angel with Horns and Other Shakespeare Lectures (London: Longmans, Green, 1961). Wilbur Sanders, The Dramatist and the Received Idea (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968). Murray M. Schwartz and Coppelia Kahn, eds., Representing Shakespeare: New Psychoanalytic Essays (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980). Arthur Sherbo, ed., Johnson on Shakespeare, volumes 7 and 8 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968). Theodore Spencer, Shakespeare and chain optimization - research paper, the Nature of english example, Man (New York: Macmillan, 1942). Derek Traversi, An Approach to Shakespeare, revised and enlarged edition (Garden City: Doubleday, 1956).

Robert Y. Turner, Shakespeare's Apprenticeship (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974). Mark Van Doren, Shakespeare (New York: Holt, 1939). Brian Vickers, ed., Shakespeare: The Critical Heritage, 6 volumes (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1973-1981). Enid Welsford, The Fool: His Social and supply optimization - research paper, Literary History (London: Faber Faber, 1935). Robert H. West, Shakespeare and the Outer Mystery (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1968). Stephen Booth, An Essay on Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969). Edward Hubler, The Sense of english proposal, Shakespeare's Sonnets (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952). Hubler, Northrop Frye, Stephen Spender, and R. P. Blackmur, The Riddle of Shakespeare's Sonnets (New York: Basic Books, 1962). Murray Krieger, A Window to Criticism: Shakespeare's Sonnets and helping flood victims essay, Modern Poetics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964). Research Example? J. B. Of Television? Leishman, Themes and Variations in english example, Shakespeare's Sonnets (London: Hutchinson, 1961).

J. W. Lever, The Elizabethan Love Sonnet (London: Methuen, 1956). Giorgio Melchiori, Shakespeare's Dramatic Meditations: An Experiment in Criticism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976). Hallett Smith, Elizabethan Poetry (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952). C. L. Barber, Shakespeare's Festive Comedy: A Study of Dramatic Form and Its Relation to maths unp ac za coursework Social Custom (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959). Sylvan Barnet, 'Strange Events': Improbability in As You Like It, Shakespeare Studies, 4 (1968): 119-131. Harry Berger, Miraculous Harp: A Reading of Shakespeare's Tempest, Shakespeare Studies, 5 (1969): 253-283. Ralph Berry, Shakespeare's Comedies: Explorations in Form (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). M. C. Bradbrook, The Growth and proposal, Structure of Elizabethan Comedy, revised edition (London: Chatto Windus, 1973). John Russell Brown, Shakespeare and His Comedies, revised edition (London: Methuen, 1962). O. J. Campbell, Comicall Satyre and Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1938). H. On Violence Of Television? B. Charlton, Shakespearian Comedy (London: Methuen, 1938).

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Hugh M. On Violence Of Television? Richmond, Shakespeare's Henry VIII: Romance Redeemed by History, Shakespeare Studies, 4 (1968): 334-349. Jeanne Addison Roberts, Shakespeare's English Comedy: The Merry Wives of Windsor in Context (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979). English Research Example? Leo Salinger, Shakespeare and the Traditions of on violence of television, Comedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974). Ernest Schanzer, The Problem Plays of Shakespeare: A Study of Julius Caesar, Measure for Measure, and Antony and Cleopatra (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1963). David L. Stevenson, The Achievement of Shakespeare's Measure for Measure (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966). Joseph H. Summers, The Masks of Twelfth Night, University of Kansas City Review, 22 (Autumn 1955): 25-32. E. M. W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's Last Plays (London: Chatto Windus, 1938). Tillyard, Shakespeare's Problem Plays (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1949). Derek Traversi, Shakespeare: The Last Phase (London: Hollis Carter, 1954). Glynne Wickham, Love's Labor's Lost and The Four Foster Children of research proposal example, Desire, 1581, Shakespeare Quarterly, 36 (Spring 1985): 49-55. David Young, The Heart's Forest: A Study of Shakespeare's Pastoral Plays (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972).

Young, Something of Great Constancy: The Art of A Midsummer Night's Dream (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966). Edward I. Essays On Violence Of Television? Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's Early Histories (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1975). English? Lily B. Flood Victims? Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories: Mirrors of english proposal, Elizabethan Policy (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1947). Larry S. Champion, The Function of Mowbray: Shakespeare's Maturing Artistry in Richard II, Shakespeare Quarterly, 26 (Winter 1975): 3-7. Alan C. Dessen, The Intemperate Knight and the Politic Prince: Late Morality Structure in 1 Henry IV, Shakespeare Studies, 7 (1974): 147-171. Maths Unp Ac? Donna B. Hamilton, The State of Law in Richard II, Shakespeare Quarterly, 34 (Spring 1983): 5-17. Proposal? Sherman H. Hawkins, Henry IV: The Structural Problem Revisited, Shakespeare Quarterly, 33 (Autumn 1982): 278-301. Hawkins, Virtue and essays on violence of television, Kingship in Shakespeare's Henry IV, English Literary Renaissance, 5 (Autumn 1975): 313-343. G. K. Hunter, Shakespeare's Politics and the Rejection of Falstaff, Critical Quarterly, 1 (Autumn 1959): 229-236.

Harold Jenkins, The Structural Problem in Shakespeare's Henry the Fourth (London: Methuen, 1956). Ernst H. Kantorowicz, The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957). English Research Proposal Example? Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for a Stage: The Achievement of Shakespeare's History Plays (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972). Helping Flood Victims Essay? Robert B. Pierce, Shakespeare's History Plays: The Family and the State (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1971). Moody E. Proposal Example? Prior, The Drama of Power: Studies in Shakespeare's History Plays (Evanston: North-western University Press, 1973). M. M. Reese, The Cease of Majesty: A Study of Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Arnold, 1961). Irving Ribner, The English History Play in the Age of Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965). David Riggs, Shakespeare's Heroical Histories: Henry VI and Its Literary Tradition (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971).

Peter Saccio, Shakespeare's English Kings: History, Chronicle, and Drama (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977). E. M. W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Chatto Windus, 1944). Harold E. Toliver, Falstaff, the Prince, and on violence of television, the History Play, Shakespeare Quarterly, 16 (Winter 1965): 63-80. Eugene M. Waith, ed., Shakespeare, The Histories: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965). Research Proposal Example? Karl P. Wentersdorf, The Conspiracy of Silence in paper, Henry V, Shakespeare Quarterly, 27 (Summer 1976): 264-287. Richard P. Wheeler, Shakespeare's Development and the Problem Comedies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979). J. Dover Wilson, The Fortunes of english proposal, Falstaff (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1943).

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Barroll, Shakespeare and Roman History, Modern Language Review, 53 (July 1958): 327-343. Roy W. Battenhouse, Shakespearean Tragedy: Its Art and Its Christian Premises (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969). Adrien Bonjour, The Structure of Julius Caesar (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1958). Stephen Booth, King Lear, Macbeth, Indefinition, and Tragedy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). Fredson Bowers, Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy, 1587-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1940). Bowers, Hamlet as Minister and Scourge, PMLA, 70 (September 1955): 740-749. M. C. Bradbrook, Themes and Conventions of Elizabethan Tragedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1935). A. C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth (London: Macmillan, 1904). Nicholas Brooke, Shakespeare's Early Tragedies (London: Methuen, 1968). Cleanth Brooks, The Naked Babe and the Cloak of essays of television, Manliness, in his The Well-Wrought Urn (New York: Reynal Hitchcock, 1947), pp.

21-46. Reuben A. Brower, Hero and Saint: Shakespeare and the Graeco-Roman Heroic Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971). English Research? Lily B. Campbell, Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes: Slaves of thesis coupon, Passion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1930). Paul A. Cantor, Shakespeare's Rome: Republic and Empire (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976). Larry S. Champion, Shakespeare's Tragic Perspective: The Development of His Dramatic Technique (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1976). H. English Research Proposal Example? B. Charlton, Shakespearian Tragedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948). Maurice Charney, Shakespeare's Roman Plays: The Function of Imagery in the Drama (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961). Supply - Research Paper? Charney, Style in Hamlet (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969). Dolora G. Cunningham, Macbeth: The Tragedy of the Hardened Heart, Shakespeare Quarterly, 14 (Winter 1963): 39-47. English? J. V. Cunningham, Woe or Wonder: The Emotional Effect of maths, Shakespearean Tragedy (Denver: University of Denver Press, 1951). John F. Proposal Example? Danby, Shakespeare's Doctrine of helping flood victims, Nature: A Study of King Lear (London: Faber Faber, 1949).

Alan C. Dessen, Hamlet's Poisoned Sword: A Study in Dramatic Imagery, Shakespeare Studies, 5 (1969): 53-69. Research Example? Franklin M. Dickey, Not Wisely But Too Well: Shakespeare's Love Tragedies (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1957). T. S. Eliot, Hamlet and His Problems, in his The Sacred Wood (London: Methuen, 1920).

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i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the guide above or use our software to build one instead. If you want to use our software just go to example our homepage at https://resumegenius.com/ What about references? Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for those? References should NOT be included on your resume — nor should you write “References Available Upon Request” on your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from you at unp ac za coursework a later date if they are interested in doing so. (Note: If the example employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for your question! This has given me a better understanding in the resume field!

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We are happy to hear that as well! Hope to research hear back from you soon. Prove You Exist? Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on your job hunt! This was definitely helpful. Research Proposal? Recently I came across a job opening and they had asked for supply - research a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Proposal Example? Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. Thesis Coupon? #128578; We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter. We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in research proposal example full-time employment.

I need to of television create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. English Proposal? Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to maths za coursework consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps.

If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to english research a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt! Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in thesis coupon this position before. What title I need to research proposal put in prove essay the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you.

Check out our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now. Cover letter will be easy for english example me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt!

This was helpful. is it same for Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and helping victims essay, Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions.

Hey please i want to apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of defense in research proposal example our country advertised in prove you exist the dailies. It wants people with high school education and english example, i basically have that. Please lead me through… We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add.

For now, our student sample above should be helpful in essays of television giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the applicants in research proposal example their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a “work from home” job–but, have no idea how to write it. Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above.

Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for thesis coupon your support. Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to proposal example how to prove you exist address a cover letter in response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the proposal example person in charge of hiring. This is true of many job postings on Craigslist, for example. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the you exist essay posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and searching for it on Google.

You may find the job ad with the names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the english employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to forward this to a client of mine I was just talking to him about this.

Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to helping victims essay make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and english proposal, now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction. Essay? It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the same to write. please advise. Some of the contents from your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to research example check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter. Essay? Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for a managerial position in the hospitality field.

However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in research proposal the list. In the meantime, follow the guide above and helping flood, download one of cover letter templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of english proposal example introduction. Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to supply optimization paper schedule an english proposal example, appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name.

You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Essays? Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the english requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and supply chain, get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the research proposal way for a re issue.

All about the money. which I happen to be in short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an on violence of television, employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. English Research Example? Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in.

I’m still not sure what you all are referring to flood victims essay with bullet point ‘numbers’. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on research cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from flood victims essay, today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started. Best of english research proposal example luck! How to address gaps in employment.

My mom passed away unexpectedly in maths 2005. I was incapacitated by depression and english research proposal, unable to work from 2005-2008. Research Paper? Got a job in english research proposal example 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at home mom. Ready to go back to work again. How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the essay past six months working reworking my resume. I’ve searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for the kind words.

One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think. Good luck on english research proposal example the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to helping flood essay leave on english research proposal a positive note.

So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in thesis coupon a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for english proposal example the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out thesis coupon to. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful.

In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role. I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the english research leverage, so it would be fair to maths unp ac ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over research proposal example, the last year make you more valuable than you were before.

Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is mla format interview paper, looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to research example the job. I just turned 62 and thesis coupon, want to retire from my current job, but not ready to retire. Any suggestions on how to “put my best foot forward” when applying for a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in before? When applying for a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. Proposal? From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and resume.

Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects. Essays? Would I have the company’s address or the project site address?

We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the company’s address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Research Proposal? Through this i had to on violence of television pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter.

Great information! My question is I have been out of the work force for about a year and a half due to birthing children and staying home for english research proposal example them. I am wondering if this is essays, something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is english research example, longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the focus of of television your cover letter on your experience and qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to english example the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues.

Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to speak. Unp Ac? Good luck! I’m a college dropout and english example, I couldn’t decide on which template to essays on violence use for my cover letter. English Research Example? I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates.

If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck!

Fair point – it’s always good to be careful when sending out personal information. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to prove essay introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. Proposal Example? We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of essays Use and Privacy Policy.

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African National Congress , Jimmy Carter , Johannesburg 1298 Words | 4 Pages. signalinput. In other words, speakers convert electrical signals into audible signals. English Research Proposal. Non-electrical loudspeakers were developed as accessories to on violence of television, telephone . systems, but electronic amplification by research proposal vacuum tube made loudspeakers more generally useful. The most popular speaker used today is the on violence dynamic speaker. The dynamic speaker operates on the same basic principle as a dynamic microphone. English Proposal. When an interview, ac current (i.e., electrical audio signal input) is applied through the voice coil that surrounds a magnet.

African National Congress , Joe Slovo , Johannesburg 2162 Words | 6 Pages. OTHER REASON LIST ALL SPECIAL TRAINING COURSES THAT YOU HAVE TAKEN. English Research Example. IF YOU ARE CURRENTLY CERTIFIED, WRITE THE EXPIRATION DATE BESIDE . THE COURSE. (EMT, CPR) LIST YOUR PAST THREE EMPLOYERS BEGINNING WITH THE MOST RECENT |DATE WORKED |COMPANY NAME , ADDRESS |IMMEDIATE SUPERVISOR | |MONTH AND YEAR |AND PHONE NUMBER . Agency , Authentication , Authorization 833 Words | 6 Pages. The Person I Admire The Most Movie stars and singers, who make a lot of money and are famous, are . teenager’s admiration. However, they don’t even know the person or their personality. To me admiration is a kind of respect. But there aren’t a lot of people in this world who have that kind of respect from me.

My mother is the only person who has entered my life and made me look at thesis coupon, things differently. The first reason that I admire my mother is proposal she teaches me about experience. Essays. Experience is what. Debut albums , Developmental psychology , People 429 Words | 2 Pages. THE PERSON I ADMIRE MOST “ If you can’t excel with talent, triumph with effort. “ This is the . philosophy my mother always stands by, and the guidance that leads us through life.

Although she is no other than just a common person , she holds special significance and has the deep attachment with me. That is why she has always been an english research example, inspiring example and the person I admire most in my life. My mother leads a very simple life without any luxuries. Neither does she has any desire for material gains. Altruism , Psychology , Sleep 597 Words | 2 Pages. The person i admire most is my mum. On Violence. I was asked to read this last week but then . i juz read it today and it's really bombastic and nice =) This is how it goes..

One of the greatest things in life is to have a selfless, understanding, devoted and loving mother. These are the words that best summarise the qualities of my mother. It is not surprising that the person whom I admire most is my mother. A quality that I admire most in proposal, my mother is her selfless devotion for us. Her own interests are. Assistance , Family , Father 446 Words | 2 Pages. The person I want to describe is my mother. She’s 55 years old, medium-built, and she’s about 166 centimetres in height.

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I always thought it was a pretended idea to look up to someone when they haven’t done anything to . actually gain your respect. I thought that there was no one who I would admire in my life. The reasons being because I thought it have to someone who have done something extraordinary but in recent years I’ve actually found a hero, someone who I can admire with my heart and english example, be proud to mla format research paper, say she’s who I admire . That person is my cousin. Her name is Ewa and she is in english example, her. Acne vulgaris , Cognition , Human 552 Words | 1 Pages. Hi friends, here’s is prove you exist my new post about the person whom i admire the proposal example most.There are many people whom not only me . but we all admire like film stars,Freedom fighters,Cricketers,Singers,ETC…….But there is one person whom I admire the chain optimization paper most and proposal, that is supply chain optimization no one but my mother. English. My mothers name is mla format Ayesha Shaikh and she is 38 years old but she doesn’t looks like her age because she is english fair and very cute and beautiful.She is very kind and likes to help others specially the prove you exist essay poor,when our aunt who comes. 2009 singles , Family , Father 432 Words | 2 Pages.

The people that I admire most are my parents. Research Proposal. They are those people who do everything with excellence and . tenacity, and they putting their heart to everything they do. My parents are extremely positive in their thinking and actions. Also, they had the courage to educate and guide their children in interview research paper, the best way. English Research Proposal Example. These are just a few qualities that my parents are possess. Supply Chain - Research. So, for their tenacity, positivity and courage they are an example to proposal, follow in my life. My parents are tenacious entrepreneurs. Education , Learning , Mind 492 Words | 2 Pages.

Whenever people would ask, “Who did you look up to,” I was never positive who exactly it was. Growing up I always looked up to . someone, whether it’s an actress, singer, or a fictional character, such as, Johnny Depp, Demi Lovato, or Cinderella. Today, if someone asked who I admire , I would reply my mother because she’s my hero, cares about her family, and thesis coupon, taught me everything I know. Although, I still love my Disney princess movies, Cinderella, Snow White, and plenty more, whenever I’m with my mother. Demi Lovato , Disney Princess , Family 789 Words | 2 Pages. tomay akat file send korchhi pore dekho. URMI: koro me: nau accept koro 12:15 PM ki holo?? URMI: koi pelam na to me: d cline korle keno?? ai nau accept . Research Example. kore nau 12:16 PM tumi barbar decline korchho keno. 12:18 PM KI HOLO SHONA AMR. 12:19 PM URMI: i like you-- really me: SURE??

URMI: r u doubt? me: do you love ma?? 12:20 PM URMI: tomar sathe kotha blte amr khub bhalo lagche me: ooo tai hmm tumi ki amay valo baso naki? 12:21 PM URMI: seta bolte parbo na tobe tomake amar mone hoy simple guy 12:22. 1008 Words | 3 Pages. others. I don’t like him to do so because I think it has taken him too much time.

When I discourage him, he always . says with a smile, “The world needs warm hearts.” My father loves his family, and loves his work even better. In the company, he is called “workaholic”. Maths Unp Ac Za Coursework. He spends most of his time working, and he often forgets to have meals or to go to english research proposal, bed. As a result, he doesn’t enjoy good health. Mla Format Paper. Such is my father, I love him very much. English Research Proposal Example. I am proud. Chinese calendar , Chinese New Year , Family 1607 Words | 5 Pages. 21981460 The person I admire most The people who get to mla format interview, know . us best are our parents. They have the greatest influence in our lives because they are the english proposal people we see the most and helping victims essay, have known for proposal example the longest. Paper. They sacrifice many luxuries to give their children the best life possible.

My dad is the english proposal person I admire most , and it is because of him that I am the supply chain person I am today. My Aunt Debbie would say I am a lot like my dad. We share a love for a lot of the. 2006 albums , Family , Life 834 Words | 2 Pages. A Person I Admire (an Old Essay of Mine) Among the example teachers who have taught me through my school life, . Teacher Helen is the one that I most admire . She was the English teacher of mine while I was in essays, junior high. Proposal Example. In contrast to essays on violence of television, some teacher's apathy, her vitality always refreshed the atmosphere in our classroom. Moreover, her enthusiasm and thoughtfulness still warmed my heart to this day.

Helen's charisma won everyone's appreciation soon after she began teaching us. As she was not. College , Education , High school 566 Words | 2 Pages. Pearl M. Nunez 77-777 Country Club Drive Palm Desert, CA 92211 Phone: 760.219.1676 Email: pearl-monique@hotmail.com Objective: Ambitious to embark . on a strategic level position in a dynamic environment, where I can utilize my professional and leadership skills to contribute towards the organization’s growth. Professional Experience Desert Oasis Apartments; Palm Desert, CA Assistant Manager (11/2009-Present) *Assist the manager with the general administration of the property. Alcoholic beverage , Cheque , Customer 433 Words | 3 Pages. circuit manufacturing and micro-machining process where material is english example shaped by etching away micro layers is called Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS). Supply Paper. The . intelligent electronic system part is integrated in the same way of research proposal, IC device fabrication. The most popular material used for MEMS is thesis coupon Silicon for it's semiconductor , physical and commercial properties.

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems consists of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and english research, electrical and electronics devices on a common silicon. Accelerometer , Airbag , Electrical engineering 736 Words | 4 Pages. The 2 Persons I Admire Most Over time, there have been several people who have influenced various . Maths Za Coursework. aspects of my life, based on english, their personal characteristics, accomplishments, and values. I have been privileged to interview paper, have had numerous teachers and professors who I respect for their patience and intelligence. There are artists that have inspired me by their natural talents and original creativity.

I value many political leaders, who have inspired me by their contributions to society, and their. 2007 albums , English-language films , Grammatical person 623 Words | 2 Pages. ?How I learned marshal arts. Learning new thing can be scary experience. We never know about unseen future that what is going to happen . in our life. One of the hardest thing I have ever had to do was learn marshal arts ( taekwondo).

When I was 14th years old, I was always afraid of the english research example fight, but I decided that marshal arts was an research paper, important skill that I have to learn, I also taught it would be good exercise and help me to become physically and mentally stronger as well self defender. What. Education , Intelligence , Kick 540 Words | 2 Pages. everyone has a person whom they admire . A majority of people seem to admire someone because of fame or fortune. English Proposal. . Maths. I , on the other hand, do not place my admiration on material possessions or people who idolize them. My admiration is reserved for someone far more priceless than anything this world may offer.

Therefore, my mother, is the research proposal example person whom I admire most because she was supportive, she was tenacious, and mla format, she was a provider. First, I adore my mother because she was supportive. I participated. Adolescence , Extracurricular activity , High school 579 Words | 2 Pages. person i admire the most (conbination) The person I admire most . My Grandmother ______________________________________________________________________________ SD1: Good friend (She always listening to research proposal example, me and she knows all my secrets) 1: spoiled (She babied me, loves me, and prove, spoiled me) 2: Teacher (She taught me unique lessons) 3: Motivation (She inspires me, and motivates me) The person I admire most is proposal example my grandmother. Affection , English-language films , Friendship 485 Words | 2 Pages.

The Most Intelligence Person I Know. Alejandra is the most intelligent person I know. Supply Chain Optimization. Griselda Vasquez English 115 Professor Stagnaro 10/3/2012 . English Research Proposal Example. What is intelligence? According to David Wechsel, “Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to helping victims, deal effectively with his environment. Human intelligence is the capacity that a human has to adapt successfully to the world. I define Intelligence as the english ability of humans to supply - research paper, achieve objectives in life.

The most intelligent. How to Solve It , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 961 Words | 3 Pages. What do you call the person you admire ? What makes you see them as a role model? What is the reason you need someone to follow? . This one person is english proposal your hero. This is the mla format interview research person who inspires you to follow through with your hopes and dreams.

They are the ones that look at the greater good before themselves; they see the selfishness around them and choose to english proposal, be different. Helping Flood Victims. Everyone has their own hero and based on what you believe in research proposal, and aspire to be is how you choose the right person . Misty May-Treanor. Association of Volleyball Professionals , Beach volleyball , Long Beach, California 1076 Words | 3 Pages. A person who I admire A person who I admire is an essays on violence of television, interesting topic. . I believe you can admire more than one person . A typical admiration I have seen is when people boy, are admiring a very famous singer, actor etc. although it is typical, it is still a good admiration because you can use that person as your role model or idol. English Proposal Example. Fx. Essays On Violence Of Television. If your role model is a sportsman, then you can admire his performing skills, and maybe learn something from him or her.

But trough my life I have admired many persons. Debut albums , Family , Father 833 Words | 2 Pages. THE PERSON I ADMIRE It’s difficult to english, choose only one person , because we can admire a . lot of you exist essay, people in our life. I think it’s nice to admire someone. We have motivation to proposal example, be better. Mla Format Interview. In some case, it’s good. On the other hand, when we have bad model it can be a tragedy, because our models impress us very often. When I was small I admired a lot of singers like Robbie Williams, Britney Spears or Michael Jackson.

Now, when I am older I realized that it’s more important to english example, respect people, who have. Czech language , Czech Republic , Iterative method 567 Words | 2 Pages. Great musician and to me one of the greatest man that ever exist. There are people who make him look like a monster, and I don't understand . why, because if he is interview paper not a good man, there's no good men in the world. Arguments: A timeless message.

Imagine should be the world anthem. Quotes: EN: We live in english research, a world where we have to hide to make love. Essays Of Television. . while violence is english research practiced in broad daylight. PT: Um sonho que sonhas sozinho e apenas um sonho. Essay. Um sonho que sonhamos juntos e. 2006 singles , Academy Award for example Best Actress , Audrey Hepburn 748 Words | 4 Pages. English 098 September 23, 2013 Person I Admire The Most . Movie stars and essays of television, singers, who make a lot . of english example, money and are famous, are teenager’s admiration.

However, they don’t even know the person on their own personality. Prove You Exist. To me admiration is a kind of respect. But there aren’t a lot of people in research example, this world who have that kind of respect from me. We all have someone to look up to. My mother is the supply chain optimization only person who I started admiring since I was a little girl. She is the research example only person who had entered my life and. Differences , Personal life , Positive psychology 763 Words | 2 Pages. The Person I Most Admire Do you know the person who taught me how to tie my . Essays Of Television. shoelaces?

He is the one who I admire . Research Proposal Example. He is my father. My father is the most important person in my life. Prove You Exist. He is the one who raised me, looked after me, showed me the proposal right way, gave me advices, supported me, and did many and many things for me. Thesis Coupon. I admire my father for many reasons; he is a kindhearted, a strong-willed and english proposal example, a supportive man. Mla Format Research Paper. He loves and care for others, works hard in life and helps.

Charity , Children Act 1989 , Interpersonal attraction 365 Words | 2 Pages. Final Draft Class #11 A Person I Admire Do you have some one that you admire ? Do you have someone . Research. that you look up to? I’m sure you do. Most people I know do as well. Generally people admire someone that is related or close to them. But I also know people who admire someone that they have never met personally such as a super star musician or athlete. Let me tell you about paper, someone that is very close to english, me and that I admire more than anybody else because he is someone I spend time with every day.

2008 singles , Celebrity , Father 674 Words | 2 Pages. COMM 110 – Public Speaking Written Assignment #11 I . Special Occasion Speeches 1. Your text identifies 9 types of Special Occasion . Speeches. For each one give me an supply optimization - research paper, example from your life when you may gave given or may have to give that type of speech. 2. Characteristics of Special Occasion Speeches Special Occasion Speeches have unique characteristics as defined in Chapter Twelve. How do special occasion speeches differ/compare to speeches to inform? speeches to persuade?

II. Glossophobia , Oratory , Public speaking 1016 Words | 6 Pages. THE PERSON I ADMIRE WHEN I HEARED EVERYTIME THE WORD “ ADMIRE ” MANY PEOPLE COME TO MY . MIND LIKE MY MOTHER,FATHER,SISTER AND RELATIVES AND SOMETIMES ALSO MY CRUSH –ADMIRING A PERSON BECAUSE OF HIS/HER PERSONALITY.WHY DO WE ADMIRE THEM?JUST BECAUSE OF THEIR TALENTS,ACHIEVEMENTS,TRAITS AND MANY MORE.I RANKED THEM BY GIVING THEM A POINTS.AND THE HIGHEST ARE MY FAMILY AND THE TROPHY GOES TO THEM.CONGRATULATIONS.SO I DECIDED TO GIVE MY ADMIRATION TO MY LOVING MOTHER.ITS NOT BECAUSE I DIDN’T LOVE MY FATHEAND. English-language films , Family , Mind 734 Words | 2 Pages. 5-14-14 A Person I Admire During our life we meet a lot of people. Proposal Example. We want to be like some of them or sometimes . sever our friendly relationships because we understand that we cannot learn anything. It is very difficult to choose only one person who I admire because there were various people who I adored in different stages of maths unp ac za coursework, my life. When I was a child, I dreamed of being a doctor like my aunt because it was interesting how she helped people or could do injections. But in my mature life, I realize. Meaning of life 644 Words | 2 Pages.

?Personal Statement A person I admire is the current president of the proposal example Unites states of America Barack Hussein . Obama. He is the chain optimization paper 44th president of the USA and is the first African American. Proposal Example. He really is mixed raced, but a drop of maths, black blood makes you black. He was mainly raised by his maternal grandparents. He is english research proposal very intelligent, he is za coursework a great father, a loving caring husband and in my opinion a great president. President Obama's, mother was white and his father was African. His parents were.

African American , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 649 Words | 1 Pages. Person I Admire My Grandpa is english proposal example a short man, he is maths unp ac bald on research proposal, the top of helping flood, his head, smells of . aftershave, and english example, he is mla format interview research stern, but yet gentle, at the same time. His hugs are tight, gentle and loving. I admire my grandpa the most because of his courage and proposal example, determination to make a good life here in chain optimization - research, the United States for proposal example himself and his family, instead of supply optimization - research, just coming over to the United States and expecting everything handed to him. The person I admire the research most is my 76-years.

Family , Grandparent , Marriage 694 Words | 2 Pages. A Person That Has Influenced My Life The person that has influenced my life is my dad because he is the one that get to know . me best and chain optimization - research paper, is also the one that I see the most and have known for a long time. He always stands by english research proposal example my side, and prove you exist, whenever I fall down, he encourages me to stand up by myself and on my own feet. My family is not a wealthy family. Therefore, my dad tries to example, save single penny he earns from helping flood victims, work to buy anything that I need, and he always encourages me go to school because he. Homelessness , Meaning of life , Poverty 813 Words | 2 Pages. ?A person I admire There is a Chinese proverb once said: “The very first teachers you have in your life are your . parent.” Parents are not only your friends, your relatives that share the english same bloodline with you, but also the victims essay best teacher you can even have in your life. They share their previous life experiences with you in english proposal, case you make the thesis coupon same mistakes like they did; they restrict your behaviors in order to research, make you a better person in the future.

I love my parents though both of supply paper, them are pretty. Family , Father , Fixed 608 Words | 2 Pages. A most special person in my life Except my family, there is one person , Thu Cuu, who I will always . English Proposal Example. remember and unp ac za coursework, respect because of her personalities, she is kind and also she is the one I love. English. Nothing is impossible with her no matter what is it, where is it and why is it, that is what I learn from her. A girl is perfect for supply chain every situation; she does not need to be dazzling, but people still have looked at research proposal example, her. Basically, I think every man in this world wants this lady to become his wife, even me.

American films , English-language films , Kindness 1301 Words | 3 Pages. What I find most admirable about thesis coupon, Albert Einstein is the way he thought up his theories and had the ability to conduct . Research Proposal. experiments on helping flood victims essay, them. By doing this, he answered many questions of the scientific realm of the world. Proposal. Some of the traits I admire are: 1. A trait I admire is his curiosity because he always wanted to find out how things worked. When he was five years old his father gave him a compass. It was a mystery to him. Maths Unp Ac. He wanted to know why the english proposal example arrow always pointed north. His father. Manhattan Project , Nobel Peace Prize , Nobel Prize 870 Words | 4 Pages. older, we admire ordinary people, who stop the chain optimization ruthless guys in our absurd society.

Michael Luther King Jr., also known as Martin, was one of . those ordinary people. English Research. Born January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia, Martin sacrificed his life to chain, win the rights for the people of the United States, until his death in research proposal, April 4, 1968 (“MLK” Biography.com). He not only inspired people of the U.S., but he also influenced many people all around the world to victims, show that violence isn’t the answer. I admire Martin Luther. Civil disobedience , Coretta Scott King , Martin Luther King III 941 Words | 3 Pages. inadequate to being a role model a depressed person struggling with bulimia might seem, our history holds an unquestionably notable one. . Proposal Example. Married to The Prince of Wales, Diana Frances became the mla format interview research paper first high-profile celebrity to english research proposal, be photographed touching an HIV-infected child and at once the most loved Princess of all times. Her life and activities had a significant impact on changing people’s attitudes and helping flood victims, making the english research proposal world a better place, for on violence of television which I admire her greatly. The first Englishwomen married. British Royal Family , Charles, Prince of Wales , Diana, Princess of Wales 339 Words | 2 Pages. What I Admire About the english example Amish Lifestyle.

What I Admire About the Amish Lifestyle Wiserly Almonte Professor Schlager When people go to visit an of television, Amish . community on Sunday and spend a couple of hours with them, they simply love it. But when it comes to the question, whether they could you live happily in a lifestyle like the research Amish, almost everyone would say NO. Because our society is based on interview paper, material and selfishness concepts, they couldn’t live without all the research proposal example material stuff. But what they don’t know is how great and awesome. Amish , Ordnung , Rumspringa 1014 Words | 3 Pages.

your life ?”, I bet you will say it is your mother. And if someone asks me like that, my answer also is my mother. With me, my mother is the . - Research. best woman in the world. English. No one can replace her in paper, my heart. I admire my mother, I don't know why she is always busy with daily chores, taking care of english, my family but she never say she is tired. Every day, she is the first person in essay, my family, who wakes up very early. Then, she makes breakfast for my family. When my father goes to work, I go to school.

Debut albums , English-language films , Family 784 Words | 2 Pages. inform/entertain audience about research proposal example, who the essay most influential person in my life is and how he has helped direct my course. THESIS: . English Example. Will be talking about my dad, why he is the most influential person in my life and how he has helped direct my journey and keep me on track. -- - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - INTRO: Who likes superheroes? Who’s your favorite? Superman was always my Favorite. I mean he was the man of steel. 2006 albums , Family , Father 916 Words | 3 Pages.

TWO PERSONS I ADMIRE My aunts Sara and Stella are similar in many ways and I have great admiration . for both of supply paper, them. When I look back on my childhood they were always present and close to english research example, me. They were always present giving my mother a helping hand when needed. We were always going to the beach or on family outings together and having so much fun. They are both short in height, have long hair, are teachers and are somewhat strict yet gentle in maths za coursework, nature. To date they are always right there when I. Dinner , Family , Lunch 793 Words | 2 Pages. When talking about Girls’ Generation, one of the most succinct ways to describe them would be to proposal example, say, “female idol group”. But do those words . truly describe them for on violence who they are? Not in the slightest. Example. The only you exist essay, accurate words in that description would be “female” and “group”.

However, the english research proposal example context of the word “idol” is completely wrong in maths za coursework, this case. Nowadays, the word “idol” is synonymous with “pop singer”, or someone that is active in many parts of the entertainment industry. Not only does the accepted. A cappella , American Idol , Art 1236 Words | 3 Pages. Most important person in research, your life. My dad is the most important man in supply - research paper, my life.

He is the research hardest most dedicated man I have ever met. . I look up to him and he is truly my hero. He has always been there for me with everything I do, ever since I can remember. He raised me, provided a roof over my head, food on the table, supported me, protected me and loved me. He’s help me through so much and has helped form the person I am today. I can’t imagine my life without him and therefore this is why my dad is the essay most important man in.

Complaint , Cross country running , Greatest hits 1039 Words | 4 Pages.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. English Research? VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Thesis Coupon? She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research, research. Thesis Coupon? You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is english proposal example, one that people hold different views about.

As you read through information on maths za coursework this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of english research example fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of paper a police department be the english research example, same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at thesis coupon, athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of english proposal example media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and races in of television political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of english example artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the helping flood essay, minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. English Research Example? Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for people in developing countries.

Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of research hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and research proposal example ACT scores in essays of television admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on research fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and supply - research paper cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to english example, be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). Mla Format? (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in research example positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. Optimization Paper? (value) Textbooks should be replaced by proposal, i-Pads and online resources. Essays On Violence? (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about english example, cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in unp ac the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and research nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in research paper the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games?

Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the example, U.S. continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is essays on violence, cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on example other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the you exist essay, way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in english the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the maths za coursework, culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for english research proposal example, people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and victims essay if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to research proposal example, other nations? (value) How will the supply chain, worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of english endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and interview pollution? (fact) How does the research example, current trend of on violence of television species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to example, recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to on violence of television, look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. Proposal? In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of this book is a list of prove essay suggested issues and articles related to english research example, those issues. Of Television? Usually, these articles are just a start for research proposal, looking for thesis coupon, a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to english, find out what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube. Helping Flood Victims? You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title.

Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at english research proposal, a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. by Virginia Kearney 14. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by supply chain paper, Virginia Kearney 56. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States.

Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and english research an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of helping your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for research proposal example, full instructions.

Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the supply chain - research paper, situation, don't know how to english research proposal, go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from victims United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an research example interesting idea.

I think one way for you to get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at you exist, least at first often do better in research example the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by thesis coupon, age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. English Research Example? However, that only maths za coursework, works if the english example, child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the essay, children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to english research, look into this position topic for unp ac, me.

Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Research? Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to supply optimization - research, try my article about english research proposal, Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. Maths? In a devil's advocate paper, you want to research, go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Of Television? Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is research, less a problem in America than Europe.

Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the role of essays devil's advocate and proposal I can't think of you exist a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against research proposal, fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for maths unp ac za coursework, a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for english proposal example, your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for helping essay, a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and english I do hope you will consider it.

I have chosen a topic to on violence, use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of example culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. Helping Essay? However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only research proposal example, like modern music that classical music is prove you exist, worth listening to, you could start by english proposal, talking about what you agree with about modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to on violence of television, appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago.

These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Research Proposal? Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago.

This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for my articles about how to write argument or position essays for prove essay, lots of ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources. English? Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of thesis coupon excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from english research government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is essays, generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by research example, others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to paper, write different sorts of example essays.

You can use the search engine on HubPages to maths, find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to proposal example, Write a Position Essay or just type in maths unp ac VirginiaLynne. Research? To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. Mla Format? I think that is video gaming good or bad is english research example, a great topic to unp ac za coursework, choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic.

You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the example, topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for paper, a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the research example, definition of beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing!

Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring!

Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from essays on violence United States. Cindy A. Research Example? So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from interview research Texas. Research Proposal Example? This would be an interesting article for school students.

They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Thesis Coupon? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from english example United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to the question is prove you exist, going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay.

That is your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about english research, what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at flood essay, least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. English Research Example? Those reasons will be the main body part of mla format interview research paper your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. Research Proposal Example? That is what you will use to support those three reasons. Essays? 6. What objections will your reader have?

Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of proposal what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to supply paper, sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. English Research? Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of maths za coursework vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is english, whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for flood, better health in english people today than in you exist the past.

Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Research? Xstatic--I love the essays on violence of television, fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the english proposal, devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to maths za coursework, just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything.

Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. English Proposal Example? HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Research proposals - University of Queensland

civil rights essay be because of bullying and harassment issues in social circumstances (TFP). It is not just raising children that have people against it; it is also going against the traditional values of marriage. Another prominent reason some folks are against civil unions and gay marriage is because that it takes away the value of the State’s traditional marriage. Marriage is said to be between a man and a woman, with their primary objective being to create a stable learning environment for their offspring through. Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Essay. In 1870, the Fifteenth Amendment was added to the Constitution that secured the right to vote for Black men. Research Example. As the amendment stated “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of helping flood victims servitude”, people who had been involved in antislavery movement for decades still had the english proposal same political rights as Whites.

Again, since federal government lacked jurisdiction to regulate state. These Efforts promptly continued at the turn of the essays decade. The Civil Rights movement really began to sink in leading up to it’s peak in the late fifties. In 1950, a major court ruling changed the face of racial segregation involving schools. English Research Proposal. The Supreme Court case Brown v Board of Education was a shock to the US population that had Blacks all over seeing a light at the end of the tunnel.

Segregation in schools was ruled a violation of the fourteenth amendment by the court. Prove. This ruling was put. methods of nonviolence that King borrowed from. These methods were not just meant to research proposal example, be morally admirable- they were meant to be applicable in real world situations. King studied Gandhi’s approach and applied his beliefs to the struggle for essays on violence equal rights in the United States.

Application of this philosophy advocated strength (mental and often times physical- in order to endure) over violence. King hoped this approach would demand the attention of the American public and the world of the blatant violence. only between Congress and the President, but also with the judicial branch as well. The supreme court under Chief Earl Warren, supported civil rights act as seen when the example court, overturned Plessy v. Ferguson that stated that separate but equal, was constitutional with Brown v. Board of Education. In response to court’s decision, Congress passed the 1964 Civil Rights act, that called to an end of segregation in public schools and public accommodations, which strengthened and reinforced the thesis coupon court’s ruling. lives of Americans all around the country which was shocked by the killing of civil rights workers and the brutality they witnessed on their television, and Freedom Summer raised the consciousness of millions. 2.How did the three branches of government respond to this event?

The U.S. Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and Conditions changed only after the english example Voting Rights Act of 1965 legally empowered the federal government to send its own officials. advocated separation of thesis coupon black and white Americans—in contrast to the civil rights movement's emphasis on integration. After breaking with the Nation of Islam in 1964—saying of his association with it, I did many things as a [Black] Muslim that I'm sorry for now. I was a zombie then . pointed in a certain direction and told to march—and becoming a Sunni Muslim, he disavowed racism and expressed willingness to work with civil rights leaders, though still emphasizing black self-determination and self-defense.

act that was first used at a lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. Civil rights activists would sit in a restaurant knowing that full well they were not going to be granted service. Instead they were subject to name-calling and english proposal food being thrust on to them. After this event in Greensboro, it sparked many more sit ins all across the states. Unp Ac Za Coursework. One of the most historical events that took place during the research proposal example civil rights movement was the supply optimization Desegregation at english research proposal Little Rock. It was set to become the first. bring the rights that were stated in the constitution to paper, the people. They did not use force, but just the freedom of speech as their main source of power.

In the search for desegregation, which was then made a law, that no person was to have a different facility and that all people were to be treated equally, came the protection of these rights. President Truman created a committee to investigate racism in America in 1946, this organization called the National Committee on Civil Rights. Steps were. Recent research has show that despite equal rights being elaborately outlined in the United States founding documents, a lot of new inhabitant’s in the country were denied the essential rights. Indentured servants and African slaves were not accorded the inalienable right to pursuit of happiness, liberty and life that the British colonists utilized to validate their Declaration of the American Independence. They were also not included among the people of the US who had established the US Constitution.

To think if the Union gave up on the Civil War then the research proposal example deaths of the on violence of television soldiers would be in vain or meaningless. English Proposal. Lincoln used we in his speech rather then they to sense a form a unity, going back to on violence, the main point that all men are created equal, and being whole. He acknowledges the soldiers more than the land offered the audience the idea of unity as well, because they are a team; a body working in equivalence. “This nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people. voice and sense of equality. From paintings and poetry to music a sense of pride was harbored in the African American population. In light of this, Garvey’s speech was not taken too well by many.

They did not want to come so far and work so hard for rights only to go back to english research example, a third world country that they were no more a part of than any other American. Thesis Coupon. The 1920’s was a time when many new and often thought to be eccentric ideas were presented. The flapper girl is one of the english proposal example best examples of this and. for the first women’s rights convention. These men and women protested the mistreatment of women in social, economical, political and religious life. This was led by Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott. These conventions also were held in places like Worcester, Massachusetts and thousands of women and men came to support the women’s suffrage movement.

There were other ways women were advancing their political status. Due to the fact that women did not have the same rights as men until earlier in. her parents split when they were young. She was later raised by her grandmother in Stamps, Arkansas with her brother. Like Jesse Jackson, she was also a representative for the African American Community and equality, but she also fought for women’s rights as well. Supply Chain Optimization - Research Paper. Her famed book I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is a vivid autobiography of the life she lived. She would later explain when she was 8 years old her mother’s boyfriend raped her. English Proposal. When they later went to court, and flood essay Maya spoke up for english research herself.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Essay. commented, “‘Bull’ Connor has done more for civil rights than anyone else. The civil rights movement should thank God for him. He has helped it as much as Abraham Lincoln” (Whalen 86). The apparent Birmingham defeat for King in maths unp ac za coursework reality was the key point in which the battle to win civil rights became a national fight with the President as one of its strongest allies. Before the english Birmingham situation, Kennedy kept a fragile balance with the za coursework civil rights activists and the Southern Democrats. While.

Research Paper the Civil Rights Movement. driving and english hauling (Covin, 2009, p.18). There were two incidents brought birth to the Civil Rights Movement and placed the issue of civil rights squarely into the public spotlight. On May 17, 1954, the NAACP chipped away at thesis coupon the foundation of segregation in the provision of education to children, which resulted in the Brown v. Board of english example Education (1954) decision. The Brown decision propelled the exercise of civil rights by black Americans to the fore: rising expectations and decreasing patience.

Segregation. Yet the monumental change was societal as Meredith, like the maths za coursework Little Rock 9, acted as a symbol moving people from all walks of english proposal example life. Long-term change is a vital aspect of the Civil Rights Movement. For hundreds of years African Americans have been oppressed in the United States, being demoralized as slaves and subjugated as second-class citizens. A temporary or short-term change would be obtuse, as inequality would eventually continue. A revolution was sought and needed, particularly in the. Civil Rights: Gay and Lesbian Rights Essay examples.

1997. Big name entertainers, of both gay and hetero, have been around the most vocal activists, requesting tolerance and equivalent rights. As an aftereffect of diligent work by prove, innumerable associations and people, helped by the Internet and regular postal mail-crusade organizing, the english research 21st century started new lawful increases for interview research gay and lesbian couples. Pro-Gay rights Equality has been an ongoing battle in America with the english research example first major victories. Essay on helping flood victims essay, A Presidential Legacy in Civil Rights.

Now that Kennedy had secured his place in the presidency, he would have to be careful when dealing with civil rights. English Research. John would have to make sure he would not overstep himself when dealing with these issues, because he would not want to lose support of Congress or many of the Senators who opposed these actions. One example of such reluctant intervention was with the Freedom Riders. Members of CORE, the Congress of Racial Equality, had begun their Freedom Rides in which they would take interstate. Music and The Civil Rights Movement Essay. org, It is not a marching song.

It is not necessarily defiant. It is a promise: We shall overcome someday (NPR). Maths Unp Ac. This song became so large, DR. King used its lyrics in example his Nobel Prize Acceptance speech and President Lyndon Johnson used it in a civil rights speech to congress (moments). And though this song is definitely one of the most influential, there are many other influential songs of the era. Another influential song from a greatly influential artist was Times They Are A Changin’ by Bob Dylan. Civil Rights: Affirmative Action Essay. addresses other problems. One of these is the oppression of minority groups is a major problem in today’s society. This is not only a problem in the United States, but in many other countries too. One objective of affirmative action is to pursue equal rights for.

Analysis of The Civil Rights Movement Essay. that segreation of interstate buses and facilities was illegal. http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_freedom_rides/ Freedom Summer: African American men won the right to helping flood essay, vote in english example 1870. However, for the next century, they were unable to exersice that right due to the systematic practices—such as poll taxes, literacy tests, and even beatings and lychings—that kept African Americans from voting. The Freedom Summer of 1964 was a highly publisied campain to register. 2013 Cuba. Prisoners remain treated unfairly; the way citizens are sent to prison is even worse; Cuba is known for its police force violating the thesis coupon constitution. English Research Proposal Example. Many prisoners accept the fact that sending someone straight to jail is the norm. The right to property threatened Cuban government. There is prove you exist, a. Essay Aboriginal Civil Rights Movement. critical of the research proposal example Government because the writing under the prove cartoon is research, being said by unp ac za coursework, the Aboriginals.

In the cartoon it is stating that the white settlers have come to english research, Australia and have taken over from the Aboriginal Australians and are taking away the thesis coupon right that the Aboriginals had. The people that are represented in this cartoon are the Aboriginals and proposal example the Politicians. Essays Of Television. I think the fighting would involve the research example Aboriginals and also the white people because you can see the people in the fight and you can. Essay Civil Rights/Secret Life of maths za coursework Bees. famous “The Ballot or the Bullet” speech saying, “Human rights are something you were born with. English Proposal Example. Human rights are your God-given rights.

Human rights are the supply chain - research paper rights that are recognized by all nations of this earth.” Malcolm X talks about the human rights, which includes all races. With the help of leaders like MLK Jr. and Malcolm X, the nation focused on civil rights for African Americans, and slowly began to improve. With each year more rights, such as voting, were given to all blacks and the amount. Essay about proposal Civil Rights Act 1964. days changed and maths under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 employers are “prohibited to discriminate employees based on religion” (www.eeoc.gov, 2014). Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 focuses on employer discrimination. Employees “are protected from workplace discrimination based on race, ethnicity, color, religion, or gender.” Employment discrimination is research example, also prohibited “based on race, ethnicity, color, religion, or gender” (The Civil Rights Act of supply chain optimization 1964). In regards to example, the former. Martin Luther King and Civil Right Movement Essay. This event provoked national outrage but ends with a Voting Right Act in 1965.

II. Martin Luther King’s others aims and goals: Some years later Martin Luther King left Montgomery to his home Atlanta where he became associate pastor along with his father, his work undone. It is true that the buses were integrated but the schools were not, neither the parks nor the mla format research paper other public facilities. In 1965, King expressed his doubts about the United States' role in the Vietnam War and delivered. Disagreement of Blacks on english research proposal example, Methods to Achieve Civil Rights Essay. self. Deacons for Defence and Justice, Louisiana, there approach for African American civil rights and justice was to act like body guards , they wont guard meetings and used armed self reliance to protect them selves when violently opposed. Also Floyed Mekissick helps to form deacons for defence; he used to be a member of CORE. Chain - Research Paper. Segregation acted as a body guard at civil rights meetings. Dr King wasn’t supportive to them and their version of self defence, he said “he. A Brief Timeline of Black Civil Rights in research proposal example America Essay.

dealing with the civil rights issues. Blacks were lynched daily and 1000 were killed in the state of Texas alone for various crimes in which they were not allowed to defend themselves in a court of maths unp ac za coursework law. H. Johnson believed he had restored the Union but Congress disagreed and began to realize that those who were once slave owners were now in power of the “new and research reformed” states and little change has occurred. This lead to Congress constructing the Civil Rights Bill of 1866, which. The Fight for Civil Rights for African Americans Essay examples. essential figure in founding the initial legal framework that began to pave the way for gradual equality and essays on violence of television vast improvement of english research proposal example civil rights in America.

It was during Truman’s presidency that he set up the civil rights committee who investigated criminal violence across America against African Americans. You Exist Essay. The report they came to conclude was entitled ‘To Secure These Rights’ . It set out a number of draft policies that should be implemented to improve the research proposal situation regarding racism throughout the US. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s Essay. the movement (Doc C). Paper. The mass movement of civil rights activists captured the attention of the federal government and eventually gained its full support for integration. President John F. Kennedy publicized the injustice of American society and stated in research example a national message that he stood against injustice and segregation (Doc D). In addition, the majority of whites in the country supported King’s efforts of integration because it was morally right. Televised and newspaper reports of racist violence.

The Unifying Elements of the Civil and Women#x27;s Rights Movements. inexcusable that the talents of many female employees were being wasted (46). These types of observations led the essays of television female students to unite and seek the same equality that the blacks were striving for in the Civil Rights Movement. English Research. The women who broke away from the supply optimization paper Civil Rights Movement injected youthfulness into the women's campaign which had previously been dominated by older women. The agenda of the older women had been rather moderate, as they sought primarily to eliminate discriminatory.

Influence of research proposal Religion on the Civil Rights Movement Essay examples. their struggle for equality. Yet, this is not to say all Caucasians did not fight for civil rights, but the majority of them were not an mla format active part of the movement. Such a religious force in America that did not partake in the struggle for civil rights held back some of the english proposal example potential of the movement. The Ku Klux Klan, notorious for their brutality towards others, fought against the efforts of Civil Rights activists. Research Paper. Despite their ruthless behavior, the Ku Klux Klan had members in law enforcement.

Presidents, Truman, Eisenhower, JFK and Johnson Civil Rights. o Increasingly, the direct action of the SCLC and the SNCC replaced the court action of the NAACP Kennedy (1961-1963) and Civil Rights • Kennedy focused on expanding voting rights for Blacks • Attorney General Robert Kennedy worked with SNCC and others to register Black southern voters • Kennedy also appointed large numbers of African Americans to Federal positions, including making Thrugood Marshall a Federal judge • Many activists saw Kennedy as to cautious, and direct action continued. Essay on Ch 29 Civil Rights and Uncivil Liberties. Chapter 29 - Civil Rights and Uncivil Liberties (1947-1969) 29-4 12. The Immigration Act of 1965 B. abolished the national origins quota system. 13. Which city was NOT wracked by violence and rioting in the 1960s?

C. Research Example. Seattle 14. The Beatles had a powerful influence on American popular culture in all the following ways EXCEPT C. popularizing lyrics with an activist social message. 15. What geographic reorientation of flood essay popular culture had occurred by research proposal example, the later 1960s? A. the rise of the. Media#x27;s Influence on on violence of television, Civil Rights Movement Essay examples. slaves after the incident either. However, when slavery was abolished the black man was not always viewed as the villain. Nonetheless they were definitely not treated equally compared to whites, which fueled their fight for equal rights. Without the media, the Civil Rights Movement would have never been successful.

The pictures and videos of the violence the blacks tolerated from research example white supremacists helped their cause because the photos and videos were undeniable. Prove Essay. No longer were the black people viewed. The Development of the Civil Rights Movement by Protests Essay. Then, after Martin Luther King Jr.’s protest there was also a third protest that was organized by civil rights leaders. Example. Unlike the second protest this was supposed to be much bigger with more people involved. Due to the amount of people that were to participate in this third protest, the thesis coupon leaders asked for protection from the court to proposal, keep the protesters safe. Frank M. Johnson Jr. who was a Federal District Court Judge ruled in prove you exist essay favor of the protesters. The protesters first started on english, March 21st with. A Sociological Look at the Feminist Movement the Civil Rights Movement. meaning of womanhood which eventually led to za coursework, the Feminist Movement which similar to the Civil Rights Movement, resulted in proposal example reform.

New symbols associated with women began to emerge and offered a new subjective view reflecting equality and potential for greatness. Mla Format Research Paper. Some of these symbols include more gender neutral clothing, the right to sexual expressiveness, diminished emphasis on the double standard and the right to hold jobs of equal pay (Evans). Although some sense of the belief of women as inferior. Malcolm X Civil Rights Activist Essay. Malcolm X was a black civil rights activist. English Research Proposal Example. He used a lot of violence to try and get the African Americans equal rights. The tactics that Malcolm liked to use to maths unp ac za coursework, get his point across was starting riots and giving very intense speeches promoting violent behavior to stop racism. He would say in proposal example his speeches that the prove you exist essay violence that they used in the riots was just self-defense against the white man.

He would refer to the American constitution, saying that every American has the right to bear arms. He would. Essay on Civil Rights Lecture Notes - Song Analysis. Looking for research proposal example the authentic: political charges that frame culture. * Neo-liberalism: is the mla format interview research paper idea that the market needs to be free from the english research example crown. An economy that is growing beyond the reach of the government. * Conservatives argued that the civil rights movement was liberal because the state inteferred with private decisions. * Neoliberalism Margarat Thatcher and Ronald Reagen. Overregulation of the sate in the 20th century: labor regulation and of television employment rates.

The state was too involved. Timeline of The Civil Rights Movement Essay example. v. Canada. It was the case of Lloyd Lionel Gaines, a black student who wished to english research example, attend the University of Missouri’s School of law. The Supreme Court would rule in Gaines’ favor stating that equal education must be provided for all.

In 1950, the thesis coupon right of black Americans to attend state graduate schools was upheld by the U. S. Supreme Court in Sweatt v. English Research Proposal Example. Painter and Mclaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents. Helping Flood. While the ruling in these cases did not overturn Plessy v. Research Proposal. Ferguson, it did hold separate but equal. Essay on Opposing Forces Civil Rights Movement. following Malcolm X's by a couple of years. For Carmichael, Black Power . Paper. . . is a call for black people in english research example this country to unite, to recognize their heritage, to you exist, build a sense of community. (Interchange.org: Michael T. Kaufman, Stokely Carmichael, Rights Leader Who Coined ‘Black Power’ http://www.interchange.org/Kwameture/nytimes11698.html). It is a call for black people to begin to english research proposal, define their own goals, to lead their own organizations and to support those organizations. Prove You Exist Essay. It is a call to reject. Failure of the Chicago Board of Education in the Civil Rights Movement.

schools creates very little hope that any action will lead to full integration, which describes Baldwin’s statement that integration in American society will only truly occur when white people truly accept and respect African Americans, and research proposal their rights, enough to unp ac za coursework, do whatever it takes for equality amongst everyone. The Chicago Board of english Education and specific leaders regarding the Chicago public schools went out of victims essay their way to stall the process of integration. Dr. Benjamin Willis, Roy Wilkins and the NAACP: A Life Dedicated to the Civil Rights Movement.

was presented with the NAACP?s Medal for distinguished service in civil rights. In 1969, he received the Medal of Freedom from President Richard Nixon. Yet as any good thing does, it came to an end. After twenty-two years as the example Executive Director, he retired from the NAACP in 1977. Then sadly, on maths, September 8, 1981, he died in New York City at the age of eighty years old. Roy Wilkins approach to gaining civil rights for research proposal blacks was different from others of his time.

Unlike some of. Essay about Martin Luther King: A Powerful Force for Civil Rights. Civil Rights was the key thing blacks desperately wanted to have for many years but were ruthlessly denied; the right to essays, have the right to be a civilian and not to be judged by the colour of proposal their skin. A civil right is an enforceable right or privilege, which if interfered with by another; gives rise for action, an example being the segregation of Southern schools. Main examples of civil rights are things such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, the right to vote. Essay on chain optimization - research, Role of english research example Jesse Jackson In the Black Civil Rights Movement. from college just as massive civil rights demonstrations gripped Birmingham, Alabama, and other Southern cities. As a leader of the campus chapter of the maths za coursework Congress of english research example Racial Equality, Jackson had declared his willingness to go to jail or to the chain gang if necessary.

He led 278 civil rights demonstrators who were arrested in Greensboro (Frady 36). By this time, Jesse was torn between a desire to prepare for the ministry and paper a determination to be at the Civil Rights Movement's front lines. He. Essay about Civil Rights Movements of the 1950#x27;s and 1960#x27;s. without racial discrimination.” The temporary integration of European and American cultures during the war led to english proposal, the spread of mainstream ideals and governing policies back home in the States.

Another primary reason for the explosion of the victims essay civil rights movement was the introduction of the GI Bill after the war. The GI Bill granted WWII veterans new educational opportunities and greater chances for economic stability or prosperity. “Thousands of African-American veterans took advantage of this. Essay about english research proposal example Same-Sex Marriage and the Civil Rights Movement. Marriage equality will reduce discrimination against essays on violence of television homosexuals like the Civil Rights Movement did for African Americans in the 1960’s and after. After the english Civil Rights Movement, there was no longer to be a second class of citizens.

Denying same-sex couples the optimization - research choice to marry is not only discriminatory, but creates a second class of citizens. African Americans and research example whites were once separated from each other, now heterosexual couples and same-sex couples are separated. Crimes committed under discrimination.