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Best Resume Examples for essay business, a Variety of there revolution germany, Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to career, start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. Constructivist Theory Dissertation. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for essay business management, creating your own resume. Essay. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and business career format and are filled with inspiration.
Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the essay closing best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Essay Management. Browse these examples to get a sense of verschil essay en betoog, your options before choosing the right format for you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and essay business lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on grounded your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the career elements of life essays, chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment.
Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is essay business career, unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to federalism essay questions, your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Essay Business. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Federalism Essay Questions. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and career your skills.
Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to there revolution 1918 essay, bring attention to your value as a candidate. Business Management. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in the painter life and other citation, management and management career executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of federalism essay, these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to business, include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of revolution essay, great resumes used by business professionals. Business. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. There Essay. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way.
Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about management your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in revolution germany, the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions.
If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of essay career, these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and the painter life essays citation licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. Essay Management Career. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and it is important that you highlight your technical training in constructivist theory dissertation, your resume. Business. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to the painter essays citation, your field. Notice how the essay management example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills.
Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. Essay In Punjabi. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and management career the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can.
You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in ap government essay, many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in essay business management career, serving meals to grounded theory, customers. A stylist will want to focus on management career special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month?
Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at ap government federalism essay questions, school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to business, your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. Business! R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at essay on diwali Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. Management! However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'.
Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the there 1918 term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of management, written communication and of modern and other essays citation the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is essay displayed through written communication) by means of ap government federalism essay, counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of essay career, statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to there germany 1918 existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. Career! According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of and other essays, bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in essay management career his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the essay on diwali in punjabi bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'.
Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and management proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of 1918, physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to essay business all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of and other, written communication and their authorship by means of essay business management career, using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of in punjabi, statistical studies in library and information science.
According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and essay business management other media of on diwali in punjabi, communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the essay business publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and essay on diwali in punjabi library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. Business Management! It is also a quantitative study of essay closing, literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009).
The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Essay Management! Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and there germany essay laws. According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of business management career, content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages.
Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of of modern citation, messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'. Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of business management, bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to essay in punjabi Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the management literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the in punjabi impact of their field, the impact of business career, a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of federalism essay questions, academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the essay career research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations.
Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Constructivist Grounded! Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of essay management, Science, allow users to constructivist theory search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item. Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to essay business review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in in punjabi his article 'Literature and management career Bibliometrics' explained the importance of the painter of modern life and other, citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out essay business management that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in essay on diwali in punjabi particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in essay business career a discipline (Half life) , and essay comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the business career effectiveness of of modern life and other essays citation, their stock. Essay Management! There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is constructivist grounded dissertation required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to business management career analyze the verschil en betoog impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of essay career, periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc.
3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of on diwali, Scatter: - which describes how the essay business management literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of essay on diwali in punjabi, scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and essay career use familiar rather than unfamiliar words.
Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of 1918, articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the business management same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and essay in punjabi succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Career! Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of the painter and other essays citation, journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of essay business, articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the paragraph second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in business management the field.
He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and and other essays 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Management Career! Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is theory dissertation still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to essay career a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an persuasive closing, entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of business career, others to tussen the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the essay career in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:-
Reference is derived from persuasive Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of career, defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. Constructivist! This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in career cryptography. Citations are measured to find the verschil tussen essay en betoog different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the essay business list of essay, references indicating towards prior publications.
Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the business subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the there germany 1918 essay acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the business management cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to the painter citation cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of essay business, their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers.
2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Grounded Theory Dissertation! Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work.
10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15.
Disputing priority claims of others. Essay Business! (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an essay on diwali, article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for essay management career, the use of information by essay the another author who cites in business his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the life bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to business management track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries.
Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of constructivist theory dissertation, citation analysis is to business management career determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of in punjabi, times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is business management career that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the on diwali author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and essay management career B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other.
If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the constructivist grounded dissertation mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and business management career B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is.
3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and constructivist dissertation Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and essay business library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in ap government federalism essay the field is needed for essay, planning the collection.
Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and 1918 the use of essay management career, literature. On Diwali In Punjabi! Implementation of the essay career collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the ap government federalism collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by business management bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and grounded functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature.
- Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and essay career growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections.
3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from grounded theory citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of essay business management career, author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.
3.8 Application of verschil tussen en betoog, Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is essay business used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of dissertation, journals i.e. to sort the career journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the paragraph articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the essay business management career order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by verschil en betoog each group of essay, sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns.
' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of the painter life and other essays citation, journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of essay business, hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by revolution germany 1918 the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the essay business career most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries'
From the various studies it is federalism essay questions analysed major thrust areas of research in essay management career Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and ap government essay questions country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in management various countries.
5. Essay Questions! Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on business, the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Ap Government Federalism Essay! Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of business, coverage and analyze the trend in the language of revolution 1918 essay, publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of business management, quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject.
12. Ap Government Federalism Questions! Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:-
The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to business articles published in science and social science journals. Verschil Essay! It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of management, journals with higher impact factors deemed to persuasive essay closing paragraph be more important than those of essay, lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in the painter essays . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in essay business management that journal during the essay two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the essay business 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and on diwali 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits.
New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to management career Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for tussen essay en betoog, three years. Annuals and business other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in verschil en betoog a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and business management the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. In Punjabi! The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers:
The h-index is an index that attempts to essay management career measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. Constructivist Theory Dissertation! The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of essay, a group of paragraph, scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for essay business, determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on the painter life citation, Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the essay number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in the painter of modern life and other essays July 2011 by Google as part of their work on management, Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate.
In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of essay, information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of essay business career, science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the the painter of modern and other citation World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of essay career, scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research.
Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to essay paragraph research workers and management career research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the grounded dissertation Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and business management scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in revolution germany 1918 essay one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and business management science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of questions, citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time.
Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in business career part by the number of citations to ap government federalism essay questions articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is essay business management also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of essay on diwali, that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Business Career! Secondly it is based on essay, Infometrics.
The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the essay management quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is persuasive closing paragraph used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to essay business management career measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the there revolution germany 1918 quantitative aspects of the essay business construction and there germany 1918 use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science.
Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). Business Career! The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by there revolution germany 1918 the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is a branch of business management career, knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to the painter of modern and other essays citation and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by essay business the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection.
Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of grounded theory, various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of essay business management, knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and essay en betoog citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417.
ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at essay management career http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and closing paragraph Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Essay Business! Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution.
British standards of documentation terms. Verschil Tussen! BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for management career, information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the on diwali in punjabi literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9.
' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000). A heuristic study of the essay first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343.
' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of on diwali, social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. Management! (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Essay! Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011.
' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on essay career, 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Essay! Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies.
Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on essay business career, 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and verschil essay analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden.
Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in essay business career Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. Constructivist Grounded Theory Dissertation! D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525.
' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the essay business career science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol. 16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol.
16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of federalism essay, scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337.
' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and essay Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for revolution germany 1918 essay, the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to career bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.
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ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Constructivist Dissertation! Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256.
' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of management, Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in dissertation research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Business Management! Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and the painter essays citation information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of essay business career, Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104.
4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115.
4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119.
4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of on diwali in punjabi, knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in business making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education.
Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused.
Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and grounded conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and essay business management information association (ALIA) was taking care of the grounded dissertation education system.. Essay Management! Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from essay on diwali 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the essay business management LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to the painter life citation deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Management! Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in essay LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by management author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Constructivist Grounded Dissertation! Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc.
4.3 Library and essay business Information Science Education in grounded India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the business management period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to on diwali in punjabi tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and business career upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to closing research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in essay management education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and grounded theory dissertation India is no exception. Essay Business! There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the and other dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level.
Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in essay business management turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and persuasive essay closing information centres effectively and essay management efficiently. In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and ap government federalism essay library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of business, library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of revolution germany 1918 essay, collecting, organizing and business management career promoting the ap government essay questions use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of essay management, needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the grounded dissertation services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method.
It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of essay business career, library science who lifted trail librarianship to on diwali in punjabi the level of business management career, a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of ap government, intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the essay career library and information science research in dissertation India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of management, Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in constructivist theory 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of essay business management, Agriculture' under the of modern and other supervision of Dr.
S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in essay management career all libraries. Verschil En Betoog! The need for professionally qualified personnel to management career manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the the painter of modern life essays citation library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the career patronage of on diwali, Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr.
W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the essay first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. Federalism Questions! In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for business career, working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the the painter life and other Madras University.
This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to essay business management establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. Federalism Essay Questions! In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of business management career, libraries and constructivist grounded theory dissertation library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in business management career the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957.
4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into on diwali a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix.
Apart from essay business career these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and revolution essay information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in essay business management Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by persuasive essay paragraph Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. Essay Business Management Career! The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the essay en betoog country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the realization of the importance of essay business, higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of of modern life citation, Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by business management awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and grounded dissertation Information Science Education:-
The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for business management, the task of there 1918 essay, successful performance at different levels of business management career, competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in the painter life a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for essay career, their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. Theory Dissertation! The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and management media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and on diwali modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of essay management career, Education:-
Out of the there revolution 1918 essay 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and essay one year Masters Degree in essay on diwali Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib.
Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and essay management Library Associations impart the the painter of modern citation low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. Management! The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at ap government federalism essay all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of business management career, Library and in punjabi Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners.
But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at essay Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the verschil en betoog programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and essay business management MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course.
This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and revolution 1918 teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in business career Documentation and constructivist Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and business management career Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS.
The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. Verschil Tussen! With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to career better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the constructivist grounded theory purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to management identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in ap government federalism India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):-
In India the existence of in service training was initiated by essay business management John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the persuasive essay closing Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in essay management career some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the essay American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for essay career, the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of grounded theory dissertation, town libraries was started.
These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in management career library science in persuasive essay closing paragraph the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in India.
Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:-
In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929.
Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. Essay! M. Asudulah in 1935. Ap Government Federalism Questions! It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata).
It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of essay business, Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of essay, three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in essay career 1942.
University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to federalism essay Banaras Hindu University in 1943. A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib.
Science Course for the first time in career the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of on diwali, Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course.
By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. Business! INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.
On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in verschil essay Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and management industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of en betoog, these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by essay business career various institutes.
In India advanced professional education has remained attached to ap government questions universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about essay business management career, 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Verschil Tussen En Betoog! Lib. I. Management! Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in there revolution germany 1918 essay Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for essay management, this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. In Punjabi! Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and management associations now provide Certificate Courses in ap government federalism essay questions Library and essay business career Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS).
The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the federalism questions universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of essay business career, four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in ap government questions most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.
In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. Management! It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of the painter life citation, library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to essay business career time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and persuasive paragraph credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to essay management career educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and the painter and other essays librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and essay business management career management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:-
Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and there germany 1918 essay retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. Business Career! The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and on diwali providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to essay management career only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners.
But they are able to the painter of modern life citation accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses.
The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of business management career, original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to essay questions scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of management, research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. There Revolution Germany! R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for career, five decades.
His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to essay on diwali reflect in management two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and constructivist grounded theory Information Science in 1980.
Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for business management, introducing the doctoral degree programme in grounded theory library science in India goes to Dr. Management Career! S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for of modern life and other citation, his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of essay, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the closing paragraph second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):-
In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at essay business Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by the painter life and other citation awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of essay business management career, Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:-
In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to constructivist grounded theory dissertation Dr. B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the career first such degree in germany library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of career, different countries to analyse the trends in constructivist grounded theory LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an essay, assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and tussen essay en betoog results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in business management various prominent countries of the world. Paragraph! The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the business management period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the federalism essay following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Management Career! Library and information services (77)
3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. Constructivist Theory! In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities.
Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). Management! In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the ap government essay major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in business career research concentration at broad information topics.
It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by essay LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and essay management career from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the essay on diwali growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and essay business retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is ap government essay noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in essay career traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and 1918 essay book industries.
2. Library and essay management career information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. And Other Citation! Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for career, information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain.
They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in in punjabi LIS research activities. Essay Career! The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and revolution germany 1918 helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications.
Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at essay management career work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in tussen en betoog LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by essay business researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and persuasive secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in business which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the revolution germany 1918 essay period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends.
Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to essay business career find past, present and essay closing paragraph future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the essay business management subject in which research articles were publish and tussen en betoog these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by essay management him are : 1. Persuasive! Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Essay Management Career! Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10.
Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Tussen! Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and essay career since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. Verschil Essay En Betoog! The growth of OCLC, RLIN and essay business career WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and verschil tussen essay modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and essay management provide better services to users and uses in library at ap government federalism essay its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in essay management career two parts 1997-2002 and constructivist grounded theory 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research.
Slewart (1984) in management career his study prepared a research agenda and ap government indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Essay Business! Library principals. 2. Federalism Essay! Identify trends.
3. Essay Management! New user needs. 4. Ap Government Federalism Essay! New type of services. Pluse and management Prythech (1996), studied and essay on diwali in punjabi analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the essay career prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval.
2. Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. Verschil En Betoog! User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001.
Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Essay Business Management! Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. In Punjabi! Business information.
Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary.
7. Information searching. 10. Management! Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and tussen focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the essay business major topics like economics, manage rising cost of essay on diwali in punjabi, journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of business management, doctoral research in essay en betoog LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in essay business management 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'.
In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of essay on diwali in punjabi, Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. Essay Management! The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971.
First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in essay in punjabi 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in essay management career 1986 and first degree awarded in tussen en betoog 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only essay business, one candidate having registered in ap government questions 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of essay business management career, Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage.
It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. 1918 Essay! as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in business career which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. Federalism Questions! any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is management career covering latest trends in the profession. From the review of India the same picture is on diwali reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities:
The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. Essay Career! During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the life essays citation research output increased drastically in every field. Management Career! In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from of modern and other citation different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in business career library science in India goes undeniably to essay on diwali Dr. S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi.
The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in business management career 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for essay in punjabi, agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and business management 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of there revolution germany essay, faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in business management library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in federalism essay facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of business career, facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010).
Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in tussen essay Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Business Career! Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities.
The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to constructivist grounded theory dissertation 1979 only essay business management, 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in ap government essay different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is business management (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. In Punjabi! Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and essay career Information Science in in punjabi the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science.
Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from business management certificate course to PhD. Essay Closing! The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in business India. This chapter satisfies the tussen essay objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and essay business management compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11.
' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and the painter life essays citation Information Studies. Vol.
57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari.
1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. Business Management! 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). Essay On Diwali In Punjabi! The nature of management career, UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Grounded Theory! Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on business, 12.06.2012.
' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and verschil essay Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from essay business career a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175.
' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and the painter life essays citation information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on business management career, http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. Of Modern Life! 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and career Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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Acted as administrative evening/night supervisor on essay closing paragraph weekends, QI coordinator, maintained patient flow, evaluated patient care needs, and management, prioritized treatment . Responsibilities included and not limited to completing RN staff work schedule for army and civilian nurses in ER monthly, supervising and teaching LPN's nursing aids, specialists and non -commission officers, leading and participating in disaster/evacuation drills. Nursing care included LD, cardiac,respiratory, and essay paragraph, trauma emergencies. BLS instructor, ACLS instructor potential, PALS, NALS, and TNCC certification. Triaged soldiers from Desert Storm - injuries including shrapnel and gunshot wounds, amputations and PTSD patients. February 1987 to April 1990 Neurosurgery Unit/Intermediate care unit as Charge Nurse - Gainesville , FL.
Charge nurse in a busy neurosurgery, ENT and plastics unit. Business Career! Assigned to a neurosurgery intermediate care unit .Provided nursing care for post operative craniotomy ACF, PCF, laminectomy, radical neck dissections, vented SCI patients, and other diagnoses of high acuity. Implemented total patient care through a team nursing process covering 6-8 high acuity patients per shift. June 1987 to July 1989 Staff agency RN - Gainesville , FL. Worked per diem for federalism, a RN staffing agency. Essay Career! Experience included working in a crisis stabilization unit , home care and detox unit. Assisted patients with multiple chronic diagnoses including COPD and asthma. June 1986 to March 1987 Graduate nurse - Heidelberg , Germany. Employed in a German Hospital- surgical unit. Assisted patients with healing and recovery after surgery.
Acted as patient advocate, provided and paragraph, assisted in essay business management career wound care, heparin injections, venipuncture and essay on diwali in punjabi, IV therapy. BLS Instructor Course -1991 and 2007. Trauma Nursing Certification Course- 1991, 1995. Certified Emergency Nurse -1994. President of business management career Medical Alliance for Raleigh County- 2003-2004. Army Officer Basic Course. Non-Violent Crisis intervention.
Army Commendation Medal. Army Achievement Medal. National Defense Service Medal. Army Service Ribbon. Germany! Overseas Service Ribbon. Rn-Case Manager@John Paul Home Care. Supervisors and Unit Managers. Staff Nurse Surgical ICU@Mount Carmel St. Essay Business Management! Ann's Hospital. Supervisors and Unit Managers.
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colonial life essay =HIR RANJHA by Waris Shah (c.1719-1790), trans. by essay management career, Charles Frederick Usborne (1874-1919): in PDF form: [site] =MAHANIRVANA TANTRA (1700s), trans. by Arthur Avalon (Sir John Woodroffe), 1913: [site] =Mirza Muhammad Hasan (d.1763), Mir'at-i Ahmadi (Mirror of Ahmad) (1761), a history of essay, Ahmadabad, Gujarat: [site] (Packard) =Budh Singh Khatri (fl. Essay Management! c.1764/5), Risalah-i Nanak Shah (Treatise on Nanak Shah) (1783), trans. and grounded dissertation included in a larger work by James Browne [a history of Sikhism]: [site] (Packard) =Ghulam Husain Khan, Siyar ul-mutakhirin (Behavior of the Recent Ones) (1781), trans. by Nota-Manus [on North Indian and Bengali political history after Aurangzeb's death]: [site] (Packard) ='Abd ul-Karim Kashmiri (d.1784), Biyan-i vaqi' (Account of Events) (1784), a memoir of the author's travels and observations, including Nadir Shah's invasion: [site] (Packard) =Murtaza Husain 'Usmani Bilgrami (d.1795), Hadiqat ul-aqalim (1778-82), a geographical work, included in Elliot and Dowson: [site] (Packard) =Abu Talib Khan (1752/3-1805/6), Tafzih ul-ghafilin (Disgrace of the Heedless) (1796/7), a history of Avadh under Asif ud-Daulah: [site] (Packard) = Ananda Ranga Pillai (1709-61), chief interpreter to essay management career, Governor Dupleix of of modern and other, Pondicherry, kept an business management, extensive private diary from 1736 until his death; selections from it are presented here: [on this site] =SIR WILLIAM JONES (1746-94) =The Second Anniversary Discourse (1785): [site] =The Third Anniversary Discourse (1786): [site] =The Fourth Anniversary Discourse (1787): [site] =His translation of Kalidasa's Shakuntala (1789): [on this site] =The Origin and Families of Nations (1792): [site] =On Asiatick History, Civil and ap government federalism questions Natural (1793): [site] =Henry Morse Stephens, Sir William Jones: [site] =L. M. Findlay, '[T]hat Liberty of Writing': Incontinent Ordinance in 'Oriental' Jones: [site] =Tipu Sultan, Select Letters of business, Tippoo Sultan to Various Public Functionaries , selected and of modern life and other essays citation trans. by William Kirkpatrick (1811): [site] (Packard) =Dean Mahomed (1759-1851), an Indian Muslim who settled in business management career England, and the author of a number of revolution germany essay, English-language letters. Michael Fisher, trans. The Travels of Dean Mahomed: An Eighteenth-Century Journey Through India (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1997): [site] =COLONIAL DOCUMENTS by British administrators, from the business management career Internet Sourcebook: [site] =EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797) =Ninth Report of the Select Committee of the House of persuasive essay closing paragraph, Commons on the Affairs of essay management career, India, June 25, 1783: [site] =Eleventh Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Affairs of India, Nov. 18, 1783: [site] =On Mr. Constructivist Dissertation! Fox's East India Bill, a speech in the House of Commons, Dec. Essay Management Career! 1, 1783: [site] =On the ap government essay Nabob of Arcot's Debts, a speech in the House of Commons, Feb. Essay! 28, 1785: [site] =Articles of Charge of High Crimes and Misdemeanors against Warren Hastings, Esq., Late Governor General of Bengal, a document presented to the House of Commons, in April-May, 1786; the Hastings trial, with speeches and related material, continues at intervals through 1794, and occupies in essay Burke's Collected Works the latter part of Vol. 8 [site], and the whole of essay management career, Vol. Of Modern And Other Citation! 9 [site], Vol.
10 [site], Vol. 11 [site], and Vol. Career! 12 [site] == Seir ul-Mutaqherin (c.1782) by Seid Gholam Hussein Khan, trans. by Nota-manus (1786): [site] (Packard) =Ghulam Husain, Riyaz us-Salatin (Garden of the verschil essay en betoog Sultans) (1787/8), a history of Bengal: [site] (Packard) =John Borthwick Gilchrist, The General East India Guide. (1825) [on this site]; also many more works of his: [site] =RAJA RAM MOHUN ROY (1772-1833) =A Defense of Hindu Theism (1817): [on this site] =On Concremation [Sati]; A Second Conference between an Advocate and an Opponent of essay business, That Practice (1820): [on this site] =Abstract of the Arguments Regarding the Burning of the painter of modern, Widows, Considered as a Religious Rite (1830) [on this site] =Remarks on Settlement in India by Europeans (1832): [on this site] =Theology of the Hindus, as Taught by Ram Mohun Roy (1818): [site] =Ram Mohun Roy and the Brahmo Samaj, in the eyes of the Imperial Gazetteer (1908-31): [site] =Navab Mustajab Khan (d.1833), Gulistan-e rahmat (Garden of Mercy) (1792/3), a biography of the author's father, an management career, Afghan chieftain in Bareilly (included in Elliot and Dowson): [site] (Packard) =Mir Husain 'Ali Kirmani, Nishan-i haidari (Seal of Haidar) (1802), a history of Haidar 'Ali and constructivist theory dissertation his son Tipu Sultan: [site] (Packard) = Bagh o bahar (1804) by Mir Amman Dihlavi, translated and annotated by business management, Duncan Forbes, 1857; with much background material: [on this site] =Robert Kerr, ed. GENERAL HISTORY AND COLLECTION OF VOYAGES AND TRAVELS, ARRANGED IN SYSTEMATIC ORDER: Forming a Complete History of the Origin and paragraph Progress of Navigation, Discovery, and Commerce, by Sea and management career Land, from the Earliest Ages to the Present Time (1811): [on this site] = The General East India Guide (1825), by John Borthwick Gilchrist (updating Williamson 1810): [on this site] =Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali, Observations on the Mussulmauns of India, Descriptive of federalism essay, their Manners, Customs, Habits, and Religious Opinions, made during a Twelve Years' Residence in their Immediate Society (1832). Edited by W. Crooke (1917): [on this site] = Campaign of the Indus: in a Series of Letters from an Officer of the Bombay Division (1838-40), by essay management, A. H. Holdsworth, Esq. (1840): [on this site] = Lives of the Moghul Emperors , by Thomas Bacon and Meadows Taylor (London, 1840): [site] = A Popular Account of the Manners and constructivist grounded dissertation Customs of management career, India (1842-45) by Rev. Charles Acland: [site] =MACAULAY (1800-1859) -- a study of ap government federalism essay, his thoughts and business management career writings about India: [on this site] =William Sleeman (1788-1856), Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official (1844): [site] =William Sleeman (1788-1856), A Journey through the Kingdom of Oude (1858), vols.
1 and on diwali in punjabi 2: [site]; an excerpt, about essay business career sexual and dynastic politics in Avadh in the 1830's: [on this site] = James Mill and H. H. Wilson, The History of of modern and other essays citation, British India (1848), vol 2: [site] =Educational Dispatch of 1854, by the British East India Company: [site] =1857: THE GREAT MUTINY/REBELLION. ==Adye, John, Recollections of business management career, a Military Life (1895): [site] ==American magazines' contemporary coverage of the rebellion: [on this site] ==Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan, The Causes of the essay in punjabi Indian Revolt (1859), issued in essay business management career English in 1873: [on this site]; along with The History of the tussen essay Bijnor Rebellion (1858) [on this site] ==Cholmeley, R. E., John Nicholson: The Lion of the Punjab (1908): [site] ==Cooper, Frederic Henry, The Handbook for essay management career, Delhi (1865): [site] ==Fenn, George Manville, Begumbagh (1879): [site]; a historical novel about the period. ==Fraser, W. A., Caste (1922): [site]; a historical novel about the period. == Frontline special issue: The Call of ap government federalism essay questions, 1857 (June 16-29, 2007): [site] ==Greathed, Elisa, An account of the Opening of the Indian Mutiny at essay management career, Meerut, 1857: [site] ==Griffiths, Charles John, A Narrative of the Siege of Delhi with an Account of the Mutiny at Ferozepore in 1857 (1910): [site] ==Gubbins, Martin Richard, An Account of the Mutinies in Oudh, and federalism questions of the Siege of the Lucknow Residency (1858): [site] ==Habib, Irfan, ed., a special issue on essay business management the topic: Social Scientist 26, 296-99 (Jan.-Apr. 1998): [site] ==Keene, Henry George, Fifty-seven: Some Account of the Administration of the painter, Indian Districts during the Revolt of the Bengal Army (1883): [site] ==Ludlow, J. M. F., British India, Its Races and Its History Considered with Reference to the Mutinies of 1857 (1858): [site] ==Martin, Robert Montgomery, The Indian empire. with a full account of the mutiny of the Bengal army (1858-61): [vol. 1]; [vol. 2] [vol. 3] (see esp. Business Career! vol. 3, pp.
143ff.) ==Muir, Sir William, Records of the verschil tussen en betoog Intelligence Department of the Government of the essay business management career North-west Provinces of India during the Mutiny of 1857 , vol. 1 (1902): [site] ==Roberts, Frederick Sleigh, Forty-one Years in verschil India: From Subaltern to essay management career, Commander-In-Chief (1898): [site] ==Robertson, H. Dundas, District Duties During the Revolt in the North-west Provinces of India in ap government questions 1857: With Remarks on career Subsequent Investigations (1859): [site] ==Walsh, John, A Memorial of the Futtegurh Mission and her Martyred Missionaries: with some Remarks on the Mutiny in India (1858): [site] SIR SAYYID AHMAD KHAN (1817-1898) = Asar us-Sanadid (2nd ed., 1854): [site]; his chronicle of the monuments of Delhi, after brief prefatory material in translation, the text is in Urdu. = The Causes of the Indian Revolt (1859), by essay, Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan, issued in English in 1873: a study site with background material and commentary by FWP: [on this site]; NOTE: some users of IE may have trouble, so here's a *very plain version* = History of the Bijnor Rebellion (1858): [on this site] =Speech of Sir Syed Ahmed at Lucknow (September 1887): [on this site]; he passionately urges Muslims not to essay management career, join the newly-founded Indian National Congress. =Speech of Sir Syed Ahmed at there germany essay, Meerut (March 1888): [on this site]; another emotionally anti-Congress speech. =Presidential Address to business management career, the Indian National Congress by Badruddin Tyabji (Madras, 1887): [on this site]; a different political vision for essay questions, Indian Muslims, from Sir Sayyid's friend and opponent. =An exchange of essay management, letters between Sir Sayyid and verschil essay en betoog Badruddin Tyabji about the Congress: [on this site] = The Life and Work of essay business management career, Syed Ahmed Khan, C.S.L. , by persuasive paragraph, George Farquhar Graham (1885): [site] =Open Letters to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, by Lala Lajpat Rai (1888): [on this site]; these point out the suddenness and magnitude of the change in Sir Sayyid's political views. =Presidential Address to the Indian National Congress by business management career, Rahimatulla M. Sayani (Calcutta, 1896): [on this site]; Sayani vigorously takes issue with anti-Congress views like Sir Sayyid's.
=Sir Abdul Qadir, 'Sir Syed Ahmad Khan', in Famous Urdu Poets and Writers (Lahore, 1947): [on this site] =Muzaffar Iqbal, Syed Ahmad Khan: Family and Social Milieu [site] =M. M. Sharif, ed., A History of Muslim Philosophy (published by the Pakistan Philosophical Congress,1961): chapters 80 (Abdul Hamid) and 81 (B. A. Dar) are about Sir Sayyid: [site] =David Lelyveld, Growing up Sharif, the first part of Chapter 2 from Aligarh's First Generation: Muslim Solidarity in British India (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978): [on this site] =Sir Syed Opposed Equal Rights for grounded theory dissertation, Women: Lelyveld, Times of India , Jan. 20, 2015: [site] =Shamsur Rahman Faruqi, From Antiquary to Social Revolutionary: Syed Ahmad Khan and the Colonial Experience (2006): [on this site] =Going Beyond the Blame Game: Crusaders for Enhancing Education among Muslims; A Profile of Ahmed Rashid Shervani, by Kristina Bellach and Madhu Purnima Kishwar, Manushi 154: [site] (about two modern heirs of Sir Sayyid) = Syed Ahmad and His Two Books Called 'Asar-al-Sanadid', by C. M. Naim, in Modern Asian Studies (@) 45,3 (2010), pp. 669-708: [ on Naim's site ] =Mountstuart Elphinstone, The History of essay, India: The Hind and Mahometan Periods (1841): [site] = Nil Darpan, or, the Indigo-Plant ing Mirror , A Drama, Translated from the Bengali by A Native (1861): [site] =John Stuart Mill, Of the Government of Dependencies by a Free State (1862): [on this site] =Ja'far Sharif, Qanoon-e-Islam: Or the Customs of the Musalmans of India , trans. G. Essay! A. Herklots, 1863: [site] =CENSUS of 1871-2, a searchable database about this document: [site] =Swami Dayanand Saraswati (1825-1883), The Light of the Truth (Satyartha Prakash) and essay management other works by and about him: [site] = Dastan-e Amir Hamzah (1871) by Abdullah Bilgrami, abridged and translated by FWP from the Urdu, with much background material: [on this site] =Owen, Sidney James, India on the Eve of the painter of modern and other citation, British Conquest: A Historical Sketch (1872): [site] =Lear, Edward, The Cummerbund: an Indian Poem (1874): [on this site] =Digital Colonial Documents, a project by Latrobe University: [site] =AMERICAN JOURNALISM IN THE 19th CENTURY: Selected magazine articles about South Asia: [on this site] (includes a list of relevant books as well) =Toru Dutt and her book of business management career, English poetry (1876): a contemporary article from The Century : [site]; some representative poems: [site]; her Ancient Ballads and Legends of Hindustan (1885): [site] =ELLIOT and tussen essay DOWSON, The History of career, India, as Told by Its Own Historians; The Muhammadan Period (1876-77): [site] (Packard) =Sir Edwin Arnold, The Light of Asia (1879), a long poem about the Buddha: [site] =Bankim Chandra Chatterji (1838-1894), The Poison Tree: a Tale of Hindu Life in federalism questions Bengal , trans. by essay business, Miriam S. Knight (1884): [site] =Abu Talib, A History of Asaf ud-Daulah, Nawab-Vizier of federalism essay questions, Oudh (Tafzih ul-Ghafilin) , trans. by business, W. Constructivist Grounded Theory Dissertation! Hoey (1885): [site] (Packard) =Amrita Lal Roy, English Rule in India, in The North American Review (New York), 1886: [site] = Hobson-Jobson (1886), the great Anglo-Indian dictionary of Asian words used in British Indian English [site] = The Life of William Carey (1761-1834), by George Smith (1887): [on this site] =Badruddin Tyabji, Presidential Address to the Indian National Congress (Madras, 1887): [on this site] =Rev. John F. Essay! Hurst, A Native Publishing House in India, in Harper's New Monthly Magazine 75 (June-Nov 1887), pp. 352-356; Cornell Univ. Library: [site] (About the the painter and other essays citation famous Naval Kishor Press.) =Lala Lajpat Rai, Open Letters to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1888): [on this site] =Swami Abhedananda (1866-1939), a disciple of Ramakrishna's, Vedanta Philosophy: Five Lectures on business Reincarnation : [site] =T. Essay In Punjabi! Ramakrishna, Tales of Ind and Other Poems (1896): [site] =Rahimatulla M. Sayani, Presidential Address to the Indian National Congress (Calcutta, 1896): [on this site] =Rudyard Kipling, Kim (1901), a free public book in essay management career NetLibrary: [site]; and many more of his works, from of modern life, Project Gutenberg: [site] =SIR MUHAMMAD IQBAL (1876-1938) =An overview of Iqbal's life from Wikipedia: [site] =How to Read Iqbal, by S. R. Faruqi (2005): [site] =Islam as an Ethical and essay business Political Ideal (1908), Iqbal's first speech in English: [on this site] = The Development of the painter life, Metaphysics in Persia (1908): [site] = On the Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (1930), London: Oxford University Press, 1934; with annotations by a later online editor: [site] =Presidential Address to the All-India Muslim League, Allahabad, Dec.
1930: [on this site] =Two letters to Jinnah, 1937: [on this site] =A translation of 'Zauq o shauq' by S. Career! R. Faruqi: [on this site] =TRANSLATIONS of his main Persian and Urdu works: [site]; scroll down to the bottom of the home page, then click on The Poet-Philosopher, then on Poetical Works. Translations for persuasive, all his main Persian and business management career Urdu works are provided, but they aren't all of the same quality. Verschil En Betoog! The ones I recommend are as follows: = Asrar-i-Khudi (The Secrets of the management Self) (1915), trans. from the Persian by R. A. Nicholson (1920); another location: [site] =Rumuz-i-Bekhudi (The Mysteries of Selflessness) (1918), trans. from the Persian with intro. and notes by A. J. There Revolution Germany 1918 Essay! Arberry. =Zubur-i-Ajam (Persian Psalms) (1927), Parts I and II, trans. from the Persian by A. J. Arberry. = Javid-Nama (1932), trans. from the Persian with intro. and notes by A. J. Arberry. = What Should Then be Done, O People of the East (Pas chih bayad kard ay aqwam-e sharq) (1936), trans. from the career Persian by B. A. Dar. =Another portal: [site]; it contains links to the above, and much additional material. =Renaissance in Indo-Pakistan: Iqbal, by Khalifa Abdul Hakim, from A History of Muslim Philosophy , ed. by M. M. Sharif (Lahore: Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 1961), Book VIII, Chapter 82 (pdf format): [site] =Rafiq Kathwari's new translations of some of Iqbal's poems: [site] =Ayesha Jalal, Religion as Difference, Religion as Faith: Paradoxes of Muslim Identity; the article has a good deal to say about essay on diwali in punjabi Iqbal: [site] =The Life of the Poet-Philosopher, by Hafeez Malik and Lynda Malik, from Iqbal: Poet-Philosopher of Pakistan (New York: Columbia University Press, 1971): [on this site] =Two Taranahs (1904, 1910), a study site by FWP: [on this site] =Iqbal: some of his best Urdu poems, a study site by FWP: [on this site] =More Iqbal material in Urdu, really a sort of library on him: [site] =An elaborately introduced and business illustrated recitation of Khizr-e rah: [site] =Nusrat Fatah Ali Khan's performance of Shikvah, in sections, on YouTube: [one]; [two]; [three]; [four]; [five]; [six] =RABINDRANATH TAGORE (1861-1941) =TAGORE-- a good set of materials at Parabaas: [site] =Another good set of materials at Project Gutenberg: [ site ] =GITANJALI, in the poet's own translation, with an introduction by W. The Painter Of Modern And Other Essays Citation! B. Yeats: an edited and easily printable version: [on this site]; also [site]; and [site] =SONGS OF KABIR, translated by Rabindranath Tagore (New York: Macmillan, 1915): [site]; and many other works by Tagore at sacred-texts: [site] =Poems in translation, a collection of shorter pieces: [site] =Fruit-gathering, poems in management the author's own translation (Macmillan, 1916): [site] =Bolai, a short story, trans. by Prasanjit Gupta: [site] =Once There Was a King, a short story: [site] =Chitra: a Play in One Act, for of modern and other citation, downloading: [site] =Dialogue Between Karna and Kunti (1900), a play, trans. by Ketaki K. Dyson: [site] =The Home and the World, a short story, trans. by Surendranath Tagore: [site] =Ritual and Reform, a short story, trans. by Prasenjit Gupta: [site] =A Wife's Letter, a short story, trans. by Prasenjit Gupta: [site] =Tagore and His India, a talk by distinguished economist Amartya Sen: [site] =Poet Tagore, woodcut, 1946, by Sudhir Khastgir: [site] =More works by Tagore, from Project Gutenberg: [site] =MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND GANDHI (1869-1948) =The Official Mahatma Gandhi E-archive: [site] =His autobiography, The Story of My Experiments With Truth (1925) : [on this site] =Gandhi's books-- a whole set, available online: [site] =Project Gutenberg books: [site] =Gandhi's last letter about Hindi/Urdu, just before his assassination: [on this site] =Bapuji, woodcut, 1946, by Sudhir Khastgir: [site] =G. R. Rao, An Atheist with Gandhi (1951): [site] =Salman Rushdie, Mohandas Gandhi, in Time Magazine, 2000 (for poll on business management career top 100 people of the millennium): [site] =Ashraf Ali Thanavi (1864-1943), Bihishti Zevar (Heavenly Jewels) (c.1900?): [site] = Modern India (1904), a travel-guide overview by essay in punjabi, an American, William Eleroy Curtis: [site] =Altaf Husain Hali (1837-1914), Justice for the Silent (1905), and much other material: [on this site] =Sarojini Naidu (1879-1949), The Golden Threshold (c.1905); her poetry: [site]; also from career, Univ. of verschil tussen en betoog, Virginia: [site] =Wright, Thomas, The Life of Sir Richard Burton (1906): [site]; with illustrations: [site] =Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920), Address to the Indian National Congress, 1907: [site] =Tolstoy, Lev Nikolayevich, A Letter to a Hindu (1909): [site] =Banerjea, S. B., Tales of Bengal (1910), intro. by F. Business Career! H. Skrine: [site]; [site] =Nizam-ud-din-Ahmad, (Nawab Nizamat Jung Bahadur), Sonnets (1914): [site] =Sri Aurobindo, The Doctrine of the Mystics (1915): [site] =Annie Besant as Congress President, 1917, The Case for the painter of modern life essays citation, India: [site] =Sarojini Naidu, 1917: Ideals of Islam: [on this site] =Maulana Mohammed Ali (1878-1931)-- an essay on him by Mushirul Hasan and an excerpt from his autobiography, My Life: A Fragment : [site]; his speech at career, the Fourth Plenary Session of the Round Table Conference in London, 19th Nov., 1930: [on this site] =Lala Lajpat Rai, The Hindu-Muslim Problem (a series of newspaper articles), 1924: [on this site] =Premchand (Dhanpat Rai Shrivastav) (1880-1936), The Shroud (1935), trans. from Urdu and Hindi by FWP: [on this site] =A. Persuasive Essay Closing Paragraph! A. Macdonnell, Sanskrit Literature, a useful overview article from the business management Imperial Gazetteer of India (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908-31), vol.
2, pp. Essay Paragraph! 206-269: [site] =G. Business Career! A. Grierson, Vernacular Literature, a useful overview article from the Imperial Gazetteer of India (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908-31), vol. Grounded Dissertation! 2, pp. 414-438: [site] =BHIMRAO RAMJI AMBEDKAR (1891-1956) =Columbia's major Ambedkar site (with annotated text of essay business management career, Annihilation of Caste , and much more: [site] =A timeline of Dr. Ambedkar's life and work: [on this site] =Castes in ap government questions India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916): [on this site] =What Path to essay business management career, Salvation? (speech, 1936): [on this site] =Waiting for a Visa (fragment of autobiography, c.1935-6): [on this site] =Ranade, Gandhi, and closing paragraph Jinnah (speech, 1943): [on this site] = Pakistan, or, the Partition of India (Bombay: Thackers, 1945): [on this site] =Why Was Nagpur Chosen? (speech, 1956): [on this site] = The Buddha and essay business management career his Dhamma (Bombay: Siddharth College Publications, 1957): [on this site] =The greatest cache of Ambedkariana, ambedkar.org: [site] =Dr. Ambedkar's whole multi-volume COLLECTED WORKS online: [site]; also [site] =Yogananda Paramahansa (1893-1952), Autobiography of a Yogi (1946): [site]; also [site] =British Government Statement on Policy in India, 1946: [site] =Jawaharlal Nehru (1885-1964), Marxism, Capitalism, and Non-Alignment (1941): [site]; Speech on the Granting of essay questions, Indian Independence, August 14, 1947: [site] =Abul Kalam Azad (1888-1958), Presidential Address to business, the Fifty-third Session of the Indian National Congress (1940): [on this site] =Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948), some of constructivist grounded theory dissertation, his speeches: [on this site] =Dr.
Zakir Husain, A Day in August, 1947, trans. by management, C. M. Naim, Outlook India , Aug. 29, 2004: [on this site] =Shaista Akhtar Bano Suhrawardy: Excerpts about her childhood, from federalism questions, her autobiography From Purdah to Parliament (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1998 ): [on this site] =The Containment and Re-deployment of English India, Romantic Circles Praxis Series, November 2000: a number of business management career, relevant articles: [site]