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The National Idea in Italian Literature. THE NATIONAL IDEA IN. EDMUND G. GARDNER, M.A., LittD., Professor of Italian Studies in the University of for research, Manchester. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. LONGMANS. GREEN CO. LONDON, NEW YORK, BOMBAY, ETC. Commendatore ARTHUR SERENA, whose munificent gifts have firmly.

established Italian Studies in the. Universities of England. The National Idea in Italian Literature was the title of the making process essay inaugural lecture delivered in reference papers, the University of essay, Manchester, on November 6th, 1919, at the opening of the pages for research newly-founded department of Italian Studies. In the following pages the lecture has been somewhat expanded and, here and there, modified. It remains, however, substantially the same. Is The Thesis Statement. I would ask my readers to take it still as no more than a prolusione , and to let this explain, if not excuse, the omission of pages for research papers, many names, especially in the nineteenth century, which could not have been passed over in any fuller treatment of the subject. THE NATIONAL IDEA IN ITALIAN LITERATURE. There is a noble poem by Carducci, Per il monumento di Dante a Trento (written in 1896), in which the making process essay soul of the Divine Poet soars up after death to the gate of Purgatory, impelled by conscience to seek the expiation of his pride before passing into the bliss of Paradise. A voice from on reference for research high tells him that the spiritual world of his vision has passed away, but God has consigned Italy to making process his charge; he is to watch over her destiny as a guardian spirit through the centuries, until the fulness of the times shall come:—

Ed or s'e fermo, e par ch'aspetti, a Trento. The national idea came to pages for research papers Dante as part of that essential continuity between ancient Rome and modern Italy which is the key to Italian civilisation. Virgil himself had defined the national aspirations of Italians throughout the centuries, when he placed upon the lips of Aeneas the pregnant words: Italiam quaero patriam. There was never a time, from the day on which a barbarian conqueror dethroned the last of the old Roman emperors in the west to that on which Victor Emanuel assumed the to critical and creativity joe lau crown of the united modern kingdom, when Italy—in the notorious phrase of Mettemich—was a mere geographical expression. Reference Pages. From the writers of statement sentence, ancient Rome the Italians of the early Middle Ages had inherited the conception of the Italy of classical literature, whose glories and beauties, whose ancient gods and heroes, had been sung by Virgil and pages for research Horace—the Italy which, through the Roman Empire, had given the Latin civilisation to the nations whom she united in the Roman Peace. Computer Personal Statement Masters. The continuity of the reference pages for research Latin tradition in Italy, kept alive by the grammarians and rhetoricians, by the study of the classics and of Roman law, preserved this conception of an ideal Italian unity after the political unity had been torn to pieces as the resume result of the Langobard conquest.

We find Italia in this sense in the letters of Gregory the Great at the very beginning of the pages Middle Ages, when the political dissolution of the peninsula had but just begun. An anonymous writer of Ravenna, at the end of the seventh century, speaks of that patria nobilissima quae dicitur Italia . There was a notably strong sense of Latin continuity in the eleventh and essays funny twelfth centuries; the new, vigorous, many-sided life and activity of the reference for research papers communes was, in part, a conscious renovation in the Italian cities of the spirit of ancient Rome. Thus, the making process anonymous poet, who celebrates the victory of the reference pages Pisans over computer personal statement masters the Saracens on the African coast in 1088, begins by uniting this new glory of Pisa with the deeds of the Romans of old:— And he calls upon not only Pisa, but all Italy, to weep for the fallen hero, Ugo Visconti. A few years later (about 1114), the author of the Liber Maiolichinus —the poem on the conquest of the Balearic Islands from the Saracens—conceives of the enterprise as a national one in which the Commune of Pisa is, as it were, the representative of the Italian nation.

The poem begins with Pisa, Pisani populi vires et bellica facta, and ends with the name of Italy 1). This—somewhat vague—sense of Italian nationality becomes, for reference pages papers, a moment, more explicit in the latter part of the making essay twelfth century, during the heroic contest carried on by the Lombard League against the mightiest of mediaeval German Caesars, Frederick Barbarossa. There is sufficient evidence that, above and beyond their respective cities or communes, these Italian burghers recognised—however dimly—the conception of a common Italian native land. Pages For Research. A contemporary chronicler, Romoaldus of Salerno, tells us that, when the representatives of the Lombard communes met Pope Alexander III at Ferrara in 1177 (the year after their great victory at Legnano), they claimed to speak in thesis statement, the name of all Italy, universa Italia, and to have fought pro honore et libertate Italiae . They will receive peace from the Emperor gladly, but only salvo Italiae honore : We freely grant him what Italy owes him of old, and deny him not his ancient jurisdiction; but our liberty, which we have received by hereditary right from our forebears, we will never abandon, save with life itself; for reference pages papers, we would rather meet a glorious death with liberty than preserve a wretched life in servitude 2). The fruits of the victory of Legnano and the peace of Constance were already being lost in process, the fratricidal conflicts of the Italian cities, when a national consciousness appears vividly in the writings of the pages papers grammarian and rhetorician, Buoncompagno da Signa. Essay Studying. Thus, we find him writing in 1201: I do not believe that Italy can be made tributary to any one, unless it come to pass from the malice and envy of Italians; for it is set down in the laws, that Italy is not a province, but the mistress of provinces— domina provinciarum , the phrase which we meet again ( donna di provincie ) in the Purgatorio 3). But it was Dante who first wedded an Italian national idea to the glorious modem vernacular which is the immediate continuation and pages for research development of the language of ancient Rome. It is to Dante, as Casini acutely observed, that we owe the discovery, so significant for our own times, that language is the character and symbol of to critical thinking joe lau, nationality. In the De Vulgari Eloquentia , he seeks the ideal Italian language, as the character and symbol of the Italian nation, and declares that, although their court in the body is scattered, the Italians have been united by the gracious light of reason. A keen sense of Italian citizen ship is revealed in the first of his political utterances after his exile: the Latin letter where he addresses the kings of papers, Italy all and several, the senators of her holy city, her dukes, marquesses, counts, and is the thesis peoples, and subscribes himself the for research papers humble Italian, Dante Alighieri, the Florentine. The respective rulers and peoples are admonished as members of one body; the writer's Italian nationality comes before his Florentine origin; the tidings of joy and hope are announced to Italy as a whole.

In the De Vulgari Eloquentia and in the Divina Commedia alike, Dante conceives of Italy as a cultural and geographical unity, from the extreme barriers of the Alps to furthest Sicily—the Alps alone being the northern boundary between the Italian and the German peoples. The cities of Istria are no less Italian than those of Lombardy and Tuscany; the eastern boundaries of an introduction and creativity joe lau, Italy are indicated by the Quarnaro Gulf: — che Italia chiude e suoi termini bagna. Reference. [1] It is true that, in the Divina Commedia , we do not find any indication of a political unification of Italy by the fusion of the several states. And we cannot deny that the good tidings, which Dante announced in the letter to the princes and peoples, was the advent of a German prince, Henry of Luxemburg, to restore the power of the Empire. Oedipus. But the Emperor, in Dante's theory, has two closely associated missions to perform: one universal and international, the other national and Italian.

The Veltro , the reference for research papers symbol of the ideal Emperor in the first canto of the Inferno , is not only to is the statement the last slay the lupa of pages, avarice, but to be the salvation of an introduction thinking and creativity, Italy: — di quell'umile Italia fia salute. The position of the Emperor with respect to Italy is clearly stated in the letter to the princes and peoples: Awake, then, all ye dwellers in Italy, and arise before your king, ye who are reserved not only for his empire, but, as free men, for for research, his rule. Like the other nations, Italy is included in and creativity, the Empire, but she has the special privilege of having the Emperor himself as her king. Reference Papers. There are no indications that Dante anticipated a fusion of the is the statement sentence different states; but the realisation of such an Italian kingdom would obviously imply a certain form of political unity and the end of the temporal power of the reference pages papers Church. In any case, the Emperor elect must drizzare Italia , he must inforcar li suoi arcioni , before he can fulfil his imperial mission of universal peace and liberation. The nationality of this imperial deliverer from resume strife and anarchy was, in pages for research, scholastic phrase, accidental; for Rome alone could confirm and give its sanctity to the choice of the Electors, and the tradition that he represented would be Latin. And, further, when we examine the De Monarchia , we find that Dante's imperialism is merely the outward form of resume, his conception. He looks to the goal of civilisation, the function proper to reference papers humanity as a whole; and he finds it to be the actualising, the bringing into play, of all the potentialities of the is the thesis statement sentence human mind for reference pages for research, thought and for action. For this to be realised, the first requisite is universal peace, and the second is freedom, the greatest gift bestowed by God on human nature.

In its ultimate analysis, the funny Empire meant for Dante the unity of papers, civilisation: a unity of civilisation, originally Italian because the continuation of that Latin civilisation which Rome and Italy had of old given to the world, but now diversified in accordance with the diverse needs of the new nations of Europe. It meant the realisation of the principles of justice embodied in Roman law, with full liberty to the individual nations and programmer resume states to regulate themselves by their own particular laws and customs, according to the special conditions of each. There is a striking sentence in the letter to the Florentines, where Dante rebukes his fellow-citizens because they are striving that the civic life of Florence may be one thing, that of Rome another. In this Romana civilitas —this civic life in the Empire under Roman law—he sees all the nations included. Papers. But, among these nations, Italy has high prerogatives of her own; she has been donna di provincie ; she is still the garden of the Empire, the noblest region of Europe. There is no opposition between Dante's nationalism and for and his imperialism, for his imperialism is itself essentially Italian. Rome is not only the seat of the reference for research Papacy and the capital of the Empire, but it is an Italian city, the centre and rallying point of the Italian people.

In the letter to the Italian cardinals, Dante speaks of Rome as Latiale caput : The head of essay, Latium must be reverently loved by pages for research, all Italians, as the common source of their civic life. The phrase, Latiale caput , is from Lucan; but, for Dante, it means the making essay capital of Italy. In the Convivio and the De Monarchia , Dante insists that the Empire is necessary for the well-being of the world, primarily in order to set a check upon illegitimate national aspirations and the greed of kingdoms for increase of territory, and to for research papers provide a supreme court of arbitration. In its essence, the world regime of his imagination was a Europe in an introduction thinking and creativity joe lau, which the individual characteristics and rights of races, nations, and states would be preserved and developed in the freedom and peace required for the realisation of the goal of civilisation: freedom and reference pages papers peace secured by programmer, an Empire which, translated into modern language, becomes a supreme international tribunal of for research papers, arbitration, armed with authority to compel the quarrels of princes and peoples to be submitted to it, and with power to resume enforce its impartial decisions for the temporal welfare of pages, humanity. The traditions of such a tribunal, in Dante's eyes, would be Italian, its centre of necessity—by divine predestination, as he would deem—Rome. Thus it was the leading part of Italy in a restored European unity of civilisation in peace and freedom to which Dante's thoughts were directed, rather than towards her political unity as a nation; but he indicated that unity as part of her heritage in the sacred name of Rome, and—though perhaps more dimly — foreshadowed the ideal to computer personal statement which we are now looking as the League of Nations 4). We pass into another atmosphere with Petrarca. It has been said: The italianita of Petrarca is one of his finest and most sahent characteristics; that italianita still somewhat mediaeval, still somewhat too enamoured of reference papers, ancient Rome, but which already presents and foretells modern Italy (1). Personal Statement Masters. From my boyhood, he writes, I have been inflamed—beyond all my contemporaries whom I have known—with a love of the reference pages for research papers name of Italy He exalts her beauty above that of all other lands, declaring that she lacks nothing—save only peace. And that peace is constantly upon for and essay, his lips. I've gridando: Pace, pace, pace ; is the pages for research papers close of the great canzone, Italia mia ; in which, as prelude to this peace, he confidently asserts that Italian arms can still achieve the destiny of the nation:—

Vertu contra furore. prendera l'arme; e fia'l combatter corto; che l'antiquo valore. ne l'italici cor non e ancor morto. When war breaks out between Venice and Genoa, he bids the contending states remember that they are both Italian, exhorting them to shrink from their fratricidal conflict and computer science personal statement turn their arms against the foreigner. If there is any reverence left for pages, the Latin name, he writes to the Doge of Venice, remember that those whose ruin you are preparing are your brothers. In the most famous of his lyrics, Spirto gentil che quelle membra reggi , the address to the new ruler of Rome (whether Cola di Rienzo or another), the man of destiny on the Capitol must restore Rome to her ancient way as a prelude to the regeneration of Italy, for to critical thinking and creativity joe lau, Italy herself is pages papers not yet aroused: — Ma non seiiza destino a le tue braccia, che scuoter forte e soUevar la ponno, e or commesso il nostro capo Roma.

Pon man in quella venerabil chioma. securamente e ne le trecce sparte, si che la neghittosa esca del fango. But the poet has no settled convictions as to how this peace of the nation in the fulfilment of her destinies is to be accomplished. Somewhat alien from the world of is the sentence, reality, Petrarca dreamed constantly of the restoration of the sovereignty of the Roman People. He set his hopes now upon the Angevin monarchy of pages for research, Robert of Naples, now upon the new Roman Republic of Cola di Rienzo, now in resume, the Holy Roman Empire as represented by Charles of Luxemburg, now in the papa angelico of the religious ideal — whose features, disgusted as he was with the corruption of preceding popes and their neglect of Italy, he seemed for a moment to discern in pages papers, Urban V (2). The second half of the thirteenth century offers a notable series of programmer resume, political lyrics. Fazio degli Uberti, an exiled Florentine and great-grandson of that Farinata whom Dante saw rising indomitable from pages for research his fiery tomb in the Inferno , composed—probably in 1368—a striking canzone ( Di quel possi tu ber che bevve Crasso ), in which he brings the Italian nation herself upon the scene to rebuke the degenerate Caesar, Charles of Luxemburg:—

Sappi ch'i'son Italia che ti parlo. Cursing the oedipus essays funny crowns of Aix, Milan, and Rome, he declares that Italy will accept no more greedy adventurers from Germany, but calls upon reference pages, God to take from their hands the sacro segno, the imperial eagle, which they have dishonoured, and give it back, thus defaced, again to my Itallans and to the Romans. To Critical Thinking Joe Lau. (3). A more definite national idea, even an anticipation of the political unity of Italy, appears in other poets. It is found most explicitly in the famous Canzone di Roma ( Quella virtu che'l terzo cielo infonde ), formerly attributed to Fazio, but now recognised to be by Bindo di Cione, a Sienese. The poet prays Love to give him grace to recite in defence of reference pages papers, Italy what he has heard in programmer, vision from a white-haired lady, who told him that she was Rome. She has appeared to him, stately in pages for research papers, aspect, but in mourning attire, poor and in need, surrounded by programmer resume, the ghosts of the heroes of antiquity.

To restore her to her throne, to reference pages secure peace and stamp out tyranny, there is only one way:— Se Italia soggiace. Let Italians accept one sole king, who shall found a line of essays, hereditary sovereigns; thus will Italy, questa ch'e donna dell' altre province, ascend to new greatness:— Canzon mia, cerca il talian giardino. chiuso da' monti e dal suo proprio mare, e piu la non passare. In this poem, composed in 1355, the writer does not seem to have any definite Italian prince in reference pages, his mind, and the conception is still in part that of mediaeval imperialism, inasmuch as this national king is to receive investiture from the Emperor. Oedipus Essays Funny. Towards the end of the century, a bevy of poets hailed the coming redeemer of Italy in the first Duke of Milan, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, A Paduan poet, Francesco di Vannozzo, composed, in 1388, a cantilena of eight sonnets, in reference pages for research, which first Italy herself and then her cities in turn offer homage to the Lombard ruler, saluting him as the national Messiah, the chorus closing with the voice of masters, Rome. A few years later, Simone Serdini, a Sienese, addressed the Duke with a canzone, exhorting him, per parte d'ogni vero italiano, to take the crown of all Italy (4).

But the time was not ripe for the fulfilment of pages papers, such designs. The need for political unification was less felt in the following century, the Quattrocento, when the balance of power between the five greater states, through the diplomacy of the funny Medici, had almost converted Italy into a federation, and at papers, least gave the peninsula the appearance of independence. The classical revival confirmed and strengthened a sense of thesis sentence, spiritual unity based on the sentiment of the romanita of Italy. And men prided themselves on working for Italy. Francesco Barbaro, defending Brescia for the Venetians, speaks constantly of the hberty of Italy, declaring that he has striven to reference pages for research fulfil his duty patriae sed potius Italiae . Pius II exclaims in making essay, his Commentaries : I will help thee, Italy, to the utmost of my power, that thou mayst not endure any masters. Giovanni Pontano, the great Latin poet who was chief minister of the Aragonese kings of Naples, foretells that Italy will in for research, future ages be united under one single government and resume the majesty of the programmer Empire, and claims everlasting fame after death, not merely as a poet, but as the statesman who for years had sought the peace and pages tranqiullity of Italy (5). More particularly, as the fatal year 1494 approached, when Lodovico Sforza was preparing to resume ally with the French against king Ferrante of reference, Naples, and men saw that disaster could not long be averted, the name of Italy—with impassioned intonation—is on the lips of poets and statesmen alike. Selfish as the foreign policy of the programmer Italian states usually was, the cynical reply of reference for research papers, Lodovico Sforza to the Florentine ambassador is nevertheless an eloquent testimony to the reality of this national feeling: But you keep talking to me of this Italy, and I never saw her in the face ( Ma voi mi parlate pure di questa Italia, et io non la vidi mai in essays funny, viso ). In the dispatches which Pontano wrote for the old king Ferrante, in his despairing efforts to avert the national calamity, such phrases as la pace italica, lo comune reposo d'Italia, Italia unita , fall constantly from his pen. And, when Ferrante dies, this is Pontano's advice to the new king, Alfonso, if he wishes to save his throne.

Let him say in the hearing of reference pages for research papers, all the nation : I have taken up arms not for myself alone, but for the reputation of programmer, Italy, that she may be in the hand and rule of Italians, not of foreigners. The lyrical counterpart of Pontano's letters is the reference pages for research papers virile canzone of another southern poet, his friend and colleague, Chariteo ; the vanguard of the invaders had already crossed the Alps, when he exhorted the Italian states to lay aside private ambitions, and combine in the face of the common foe:— Quale odio, qual furor, qua! ira immane, quai pianete maligni. han vostre voglie, unite, hor si divise? Qual crudelta vi move, O spiriti insigni,

O anime Italiane, a dare il Latin sangue a genti in vise? It was with the name of Italy, in the last stanza of the Orlando Innamorato, that Boiardo, sick to death, drops his pen, too full of apprehension for his native land to continue his story:— Mentre che io canto, o Iddio redentore, vedo ritaUa tutta a fiamma e a foco, per questi Galli, che con gran valore. vengon per is the sentence, disertar non so che loco. (6) The independence of the pages Quattrocento had been extinguished, and Italy was the essays funny battle ground of the contending armies of her conquerors (though the contest was still undecided between France and Spain), when Machiavelli, in reference pages, 1513, wrote the Principe . Science Personal Masters. He is, as it were, crystallizing his observation of the political life of his own time, and his study of ancient history, into pages for research, the conception of such a prince as he deemed called for by the exceptional conditions of Italy.

It closes with that chapter of impassioned eloquence in resume, which the reference for research writer appeals to his new prince, backed by programmer, a national army, to come forward as the redeemer of for research, Italy from the dominion of the science personal statement foreigner:— If it was necessary, in reference for research papers, order to behold the virtue of Moses, that the people of Israel should be slaves in is the thesis statement, Egypt, and to recognise the greatness of the mind of Cyrus that the Persians should be oppressed by the Medes, and the excellence of Theseus that the pages for research papers Athenians should be scattered; so, at an introduction joe lau, the present time, in order to reference pages papers know the virtue of an Italian spirit, it was necessary that Italy should be reduced to that condition in essays funny, which she now is, and that she should be more enslaved than the Hebrews, more down-trodden than the Persians, more scattered than the Athenians; without a head, without order, beaten, despoiled, torn, overrun, the victim of every kind of ruin … Left without life, she waits to see who it is pages for research papers that shall heal her wounds … We see how she prays God to send her some one to redeem her from these barbarian cruelties and insolence. We see her all ready and disposed to follow a banner, if there be the man to raise it … Then let not this occasion pass, in order that Italy, after so long a time, may see one who shall be her redeemer. Resume. Nor could I express with what love he would be received in pages papers, all those provinces which have suffered from these foreign inundations; with what thirst for vengeance, with what steadfast faith, with what devotion, with what tears. What gates would be barred against resume, him? What people would refuse him obedience? What envy would oppose him? What Italian would deny him homage? This barbarian domination is repugnant to all.

The figure of the redeemer of Italy again comes before us, in Machiavelli's later work, the Arte delta Guerra ,—and now the prophecy is reference more explicit. Machiavelli is showing, from the examples of the past and present, how a national army should be raised, equipped, and essay studying handled in the field. A prince, of a character totally different from that of those who held sway in the land before the disasters ushered in by the French invasion of 1494, is reference papers needed for the purpose:— I declare to you that, whichever of to critical, those who now hold states in Italy shall first enter upon pages for research papers, this road, he will—before any other—become ruler of this country; and programmer it will befall his state as befell the reference papers kingdom of the Macedonians, which, coming under Philip, who had learned the method of training armies from Epaminondas the Theban, became so powerful by this training and discipline, that, in a few years, Philip was able to against studying abroad occupy the reference pages for research whole of Greece. And Creativity. (1) No such clear vision is found in the other political writers of the Cinquecento. If we turn to the poets, Ariosto reveals a certain sense of nationality, in his impassioned denunciation of all Italy's invaders, Frenchman and Spaniard, Swiss and German alike, and vaguely anticipates a time when Italians will have the power to repay them in kind. He gives the reference pages papers answer to Boiardo's dying cry of dismay, in his pictured pageant of the French invasions of Italy and their results:— Poco guadagno et infinito danno. riporteran d'Italia; che non lice. che'l Giglio in quel terreno habbia radice.

Vivra, barbaro stolto, la grandezza. del gran popol di Marte in quella pura. voce, che poco di tua man si cura, e la vecchiezza e 'l tempo insieme sprezza. Non potra molto il latin sangue adorno. sotto giogo si vil rimaner preso, lo qual piu volte alteramente ha scosso. In a celebrated series of sonnets, Giovanni Guidiccioni exhorts Italy to be true to her former self, urging her, by her memories of old, to recover her lost liberty from those who once adorned her triumphs, closing with an inspired picture of the return of peace and freedom to the land (2). Nor are such ideas confined to the polished lyrics of the Petrarchists, who may be regarded as merely following in the steps of Petrarca himself.

We find them expressed, with uncouth vigour, by the greatest realist among the making process essay Italian poets of the Cinquecento: Teofilo Folengo (Merlino Coccaio). What his latest editor, Alessandro Luzio, well calls the magnanimo orgoglio di italianita, appears alike in the hexameters of his maccheronic epic, Baldus , and the unpolished octaves of his Italian poem, Orlandino :— Italia bella, Italia, fior del mondo, e patria nostra in monte ed in campagna, Italia forte arnese che, secondo. si legge, ha spesso visto le calcagna. de l'inimici, quando a tondo a tondo.

ebbe talor tedeschi, Franza e Spagna; che se non fusser le gran parti in quella, dominarebbe il mondo, Italia bella. Now in the period that followed the Renaissance and preceded the French Revolution—the period in which Italy first lay under the dominion of Spain, then became again the reference pages battlefield of Europe, and finally in great part a political dependency of Austria—there were two states that preserved the Italian independence and remained the depositaries of Italian nationality: the Republic of Venice and the Duchy of is the thesis, Savoy. Reference For Research. Bernardo Tasso wrote of Venice:— Is she not the ornament and thesis statement the last splendour of Italian dignity? Does she not represent an image of the authority and reference greatness of the Roman republic? In this dark and thinking joe lau tempestuous age, what other light or splendour remains to hapless Italy? Are we not all servants, all tributaries, I will not say of barbarian, but of foreign nations? of those, I say, whom the noble Italians of old led captive in pages for research papers, their triumphs?

She alone has preserved her ancient liberty; she alone renders obedience to none save God and making her own well-ordered laws (1). The part of Venice, in the shaping of the national destiny, was to maintain the glory of the Italian name and preserve the Latin civilisation on the eastern shore of the pages for research papers Adriatic, bequeathing her rights and essays tradition to the Italy of to-day; the part of Savoy was the ultimate fulfilment of Machiavelli's prophecy. Pages. There is a noble canzone by statement masters, Marino, composed in the early years of the for research seventeenth century, in which Italy appeals to Venice, urging an alliance between the Lady of the Sea and the Unicorn of the for and against essay abroad Alps, for the deliverance of the nation from the power of Spain (2). Traiano Boccalini, writing in the shelter of reference for research, la serenissima liberta veneziana, prophesies that the universal monarchy, which Spain is vainly seeking, will return again alia nobilissima nazione italiana, and styles the Duke of Savoy, Charles Emanuel I., il primo guerriero italiano. This phase of Italian political thought, looking to resume the House of reference pages papers, Savoy for deliverance though hardly yet for science personal statement masters, unification, is represented in the famous poem addressed to Charles Emanuel by pages for research papers, Fulvio Testi in 1614: — Carlo, quel generoso invitto core, da cui spera soccorso Italia oppressa, a che bada? a che tarda? a che piu cessa? nostre perdite son le tue dimore. Chi fia, se tu non se', che rompa il laccio. onde tant' anni avvinta Esperia giace? posta ne la tua spada e la sua pace, e la sua liberta sta nel tuo braccio. (3)

More than a century later, in 1739 (by which time the Dukes of oedipus essays, Savoy had attained the reference for research title of Kings of masters, Sardinia), we find a southern Italian, Pietro Giannone, writing that the antico valor d'Italia is preserved alone in the Italian peoples who form the dominions of the princes of Savoy, and calling upon reference, the other Italian rulers to follow their example, and oedipus restore in their subjects the ancient military discipline, whereby they will see Italy delivered from servitude and brought back to her former glory (4). But not even Giannone has yet the conception of the reference pages for research unification of the peninsula and its islands under the sceptre of the King of Sardinia. I do not quote the famous sonnets of Vincenza da Filicaia on Italy. The typically Italian spirit at any epoch reveals itself, I think, not in melancholy sentiment concentrated on Italy's dono infelice di bellezza, but in sheer virility of thought and utterance—that virilita that Santa Caterina so prized even in the last sentence, the mystical life. And this national virilita is personified in the poet who arose during the period immediately preceding the French Revolution, the period of literary and intellectual renovation which heralded the Risorgimento.

This poet, in whose person Piedmont became identified with Italy, was Vittorio Alfieri. At the end of one of his works in prose, Del Principe e delle lettere , completed in 1786, Alfieri speculates upon the form in which the destiny of pages papers, Italy will be accomplished. Italy, he thinks, will soon be reunited under two princes (evidently the kings of Sardinia and Naples), and these two kingdoms will afterwards, either by marriage or conquest, be reduced to one. At this stage in Alfieri's political creed, king and tyrant were synon5nnous. So he continues that this one remaining sovereign will proceed to abuse his excessive power, and will in consequence be abolished by the Italians, who by then, being all united and illumined, will have learned to act together and to is the sentence consider themselves one single people. The form of reference papers, government, then to be introduced, he declares elsewhere to be a question which must be solved by the best Italians living at the time of this liberation. But Alfieri's gift to the nation was not his political reflections, but his poetry.

The passion for liberty and making process essay hatred of oppression, with the belief in the power of literature as an instrument for national and social regeneration, is the animating spirit of his tragedies. For him the drama, as he says in one of his letters, should be a school in which men may learn to be free, strong, generous, impelled by true virtue, intolerant of all violence, lovers of reference, their native land, fully conscious of their own rights, and in process essay, all their passions ardent, upright, magnanimous. The aim of the poet in reference for research, his dramas was the creation of characters of essay abroad, rigid strength and reference for research papers inflexible wills, to thesis sentence inspire and form men and reference papers women of virile temper for personal statement masters, the popolo italiano futuro , the generous and free Italians of the reference papers future,—to whom he dedicated his latest tragedy, the for and abroad Bruto secondo , in 1789, the year that marks the reference papers beginning of the French Revolution (5). Eight years after Alfieri's dedication, that popolo italiano futuro saw what was destined to become the symbol of Italy's national aspirations. In January, 1797, during the republican movement that accompanied the resume invasion of Italy by the French revolutionary armies, the future banner of the papers nation—the tricolour of red, white, and green, the mystical hues of is the sentence, love and faith and hope—was raised for the first time at Reggio Emilia (1).

In spite of the for research devastations of the French armies and the prepotency of the conqueror (himself of Italian name and Italian blood), to whom, in common with a great part of Europe, Italy was made subject, the revolutionary and Napoleonic era stimulated the national consciousness of Italians, turning their thoughts—though as yet but vaguely—towards an programmer ultimate renovation and unification. Potremo sperare di risorgere fra non molto, the poet Giovanni Fantoni had written in 1796 (2). In an ode. La Repubblica Cisalpina (written at the end of 1797), Giovanni Pindemonte salutes the national banner, uttering the hope that the new republic may liberate all the other Italian states, reign sul bel paese intero, and change its name from Cisalpina to Italica. He is addressing Milan:—

Oggi in te la Repubblica nascente. fonda suo centro e di sua possa il nido; e finor troppo ignoto Italia sente. uscir da te di libertade il grido. Il Mincio istesso nel cui forte aiuto. il Teutone oppressor vivea tranquillo, su le torn ondeggiar vede il temuto. tricolorato libero vessillo. Pages Papers. (3) Vincenzo Monti, in his tragedy Caio Gracco (finished in exile at thesis the last sentence, Paris in 1800), makes his hero appeal to the Romans in reference for research, the name of l'italiana liberta, and receive as answer from the assembled citizens:— Itali siam tutti, un popol solo, una sola famiglia. tutti, e fratelli. Ugo Foscolo, in the days of Napoleon's power, had fearlessly admonished him in the name of computer personal statement masters, Italy. For Research Papers. On the return of the Austrians to Milan, in 1815, he chose to leave his native land rather than swear allegiance, Cosi Ugo Foscolo diede alia nuova Italia una nuova istituzione, l'esilio (4).

In that same spring, almost exactly a century before Italy drew her sword in computer science personal, the great European war, came the pages for research proclamation of Rimini—Murat's abortive call to the Italians from the Alps to Sicily to is the thesis statement assert their independence. A poet, then thirty years old, destined in old age to pages become a citizen of the Rome of United Italy, Alessandro Manzoni, hailed the proclamation in thesis statement the last sentence, a noble canzone, cut short by the failure of the enterprise:— Liberi non sarem se non siamo uni. It is the first lyric of the Risorgimento (5). It was in the middle of the epoch of Italy's political martyrdom that followed the Congress of Vienna — the reference pages epoch at the beginning of which we hear Leopardi's lyrical cry of despair—that the luminous vision of the Third Italy formed itself in the mind of the man who was at once the apostle of the oedipus funny unity of Italy and the prophet of universal brotherhood among the nations: Giuseppe Mazzini. Da quelli scogli, onde Colombo infante. Nuovi pe'l mar vedea monti spuntare, Egli vide nel ciel crepuscolare.

Co'l cuor di Gracco ed il pensier di Dante. A lei trasse per mezzo un cimitero, E un popol morto dietro a lui si mise (1). In 1831, Mazzini opened his Giovine Italia propaganda, declaring that Italy must be founded on reference pages for research papers the three inseparable bases of Unity, Liberty, and Independence, associating the future of Italy with international social regeneration, giving a mystical colouring to the national movement as the cause of an introduction to critical, God and the People. The note of self-sacrifice, in the cause of a nation and thence for that of all humanity, was Mazzini's great gift to the Italian spirit of the Risorgimento. Man has no rights from nature, save this alone: to emancipate himself from every obstacle that impedes the free fulfilment of his own duties, Life is pages a mission. Virtue is sacrifice.

Where shall we go, O Lord? Go to die, ye who have to the last sentence die; go to suffer, ye who have to reference pages for research suffer (2). In this spirit he sent men forth on against studying abroad forlorn hopes to die for Italy, on the scaffold as conspirators or in hopeless struggles against for research, overwhelming numbers; in thesis statement, this spirit he prepared the way for the national uprising of 1848, when, as George Meredith writes: Italy reddened the sky with the banners of a land revived. It was then that one of his disciples, the young poet Goffredo Mameli, who fell tra un inno e una battaglia under Garibaldi in reference papers, the defence of Rome, wrote the battle-hymn of the Risorgimento, the hymn that was sung again, in y the early days of the European war, by the soldiers of United Italy on their way to making process the front:— l'Italia s'e desta, dell'elmo di Scipio. s'e cinta la testa; dov'e la Vittoria? Le porga la chioma, che schiava di Roma. Iddio la creo. Reference Pages For Research. (3). Mazzini wrote of Dante: L'Italia cerca in lui il segreto della sua Nazionalita; l'Europa, il segreto dell' Italia e una profezia del pensiero moderno. And it is in Dante, so to speak, that Mazzini finds the starting point of his own political creed. Programmer. He is with Dante in associating the national aspirations of Italy with a philosophical theory of the function of nationality in for research, himian civilisation.

Like Dante, he looked for a restored unity of civilisation, and assigned to Italy a leading part therein. But there is this difference. Dante started from the conception of this greater unity, merely leaving place for the free development of nationality within it; Mazzini held that the unity of is the thesis statement sentence, civilisation could only be attained by first solving the question of nationalities: Without the reference for research papers recognition of nationalities, freely and spontaneously constituted, we shall never have the United States of Europe, On the map of Europe, you can see the oedipus essays design of God clearly marked by the courses of the great rivers, the reference pages papers curves of the great mountains, and other geographical conditions. These natural national boundaries have been violated by an introduction thinking, treaties inaugurated by conquest, by artificial politics, by the will of dynasties. In the name of nationality, these violations must be ended, in accordance with the tendencies and the vocations of the papers peoples, and with their free consent. The instinct of nationality thus satisfied, he looked forward to a universal federation of unified and republican nations, uno spirito d'affratellamento e di pacifica emulazione sulle vie del progresso. And from Rome alone can come la parola della unita moderna . The destinies of Italy are those of the world. The Italian people will be the Messiah people to making process essay initiate this new epoch of the human race.

Rome is reference pages for research called upon to spread for a third time among the nations a gospel of civilisation, a gospel of moral unity: From the Rome of the People will issue the unity of civilisation, accepted by the free consent of the nations, for Humanity (4). We find some of Mazzini's noblest passages on the national idea of Italy and her international mission, infused with that political mysticism which at times resembles the national Messianism of the poets of Poland, in the little book. Ai giovani d'Italia , published in 1860. It is there that he declares that Nationality is the sign placed by God on to critical thinking and creativity joe lau the brow of every people; it is the sign of its special mission, which must be developed in harmony with the special missions of the other peoples, and the union of all these missions, when fulfilled, will one day represent la patria di tutti, la patria delle patrie, l'Umanita ; and only then will the word foreigner pass from the reference pages speech of men. But the individual can do nothing to actualise this conception, save in union with those who share his nationality. When God created Italy, He smiled upon her, and gave her as boundaries the making process two most sublime things that He placed in pages, Europe, symbols of Eternal Power and of Eternal Motion, the Alps and the Sea.

From the immense circle of the Alps descends a wonderful chain of making, continuous ranges that reaches to where the sea bathes her, and even beyond into severed Sicily. And, where the mountains do not gird her, the sea girds her as with a loving embrace; that sea which our forefathers called mare nostra . Scattered around her in that sea, like gems fallen from her diadem, are Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, and other lesser islands, where the nature of the reference pages soil and the structure of the mountains and science personal the language and the hearts of men, all speak of Italy. Papers. Within those boundaries all the nations passed, one after the thesis the last sentence other, as conquerors and savage persecutors; but they have not been able to extinguish the holy name of reference pages for research papers, Italy, nor the innermost energy of the race that first peopled her; the for and against essay studying Italic element, more powerful than all, has worn out the religions, the reference pages papers speech, the tendencies of the conquerors, and superimposed upon them the imprint of for and essay abroad, Italian Life. A little further on is the picture of Rome: Rome of the Caesars, Rome of the reference papers Popes, Rome of the People to making process take the place of both, to unite all the world in the faith of Thought and of Action: E la trinita delta sioria, il cut verbo e in Roma . The pact of the new Faith will shine one day upon the nations from the reference for research papers Pantheon of Humanity. In the meantime Rome is your metropolis.

You cannot have a native land save in her and with her. Without Rome, there is no Italy possible. There is the sanctuary of the nation. Even as the Crusaders moved to the cry of Gerusalemme , you must advance to the cry of Roma , nor have peace or truce, until the oedipus essays funny banner of Italy floats in the pride of victory from each of the seven hills. I tell you that, as when the pagan gods died and Christ was born, so Europe to-day is athirst for a new life and a new heaven and a new earth; and she will follow, as on a holy crusade, the steps of the first people from whom, supported by strong deeds, a voice will come forth to proclaim adoration of the Eternal Truth and Eternal Justice, and to anathematise the power that oppresses and the lie that debases life. Be yours that voice and reference pages for research papers that living example. You can do it. And Europe will crown your native land with a crown of love, upon which God will write: Woe to him who touches it (5).

The opening and making essay closing sentences of his Politica internazionale (published in 1871) may be regarded, as it were, as Mazzini's political testament. Reference Papers. The moral law is the criterion by which must be judged the worth of the social and political acts that constitute the life of nations. Great ideas make great peoples. And ideas are not great for for and essay studying abroad, peoples save inasmuch as they pass beyond their own boundaries. A people is only great on the condition of fulfilling a great and holy mission in the world, even as the importance and worth of an individual are measured by what he accomplishes on reference behalf of the essays society in which he lives. Internal organisation represents the sum of the means and forces gathered for the fulfilment of the appointed external work. As circulation and exchange give value to production and reinvigorate it, international life gives worth and for research papers motion to the internal life of a people. National life is the means; international life is the for and against end. The first is the pages work of man; the second is prescribed and pointed out by programmer resume, God. The prosperity, the reference glory, the future of a nation are in proportion to its approach to the end thus assigned (6).

As a political idealist, a man whose lips too were touched with the process prophetic fire, we associate with the name of Mazzini that of his rival, Vincenzo Gioberti. In 1843, Gioberti published his famous book, Il primato morale e civile degli Italiani . The conception, from which the work takes its title, is similar to that of Mazzini's third Rome: Italy, by pages, her history and by her nature, is the nazione madre del genet e umano , destined by Providence to exercise a primato morale e civile , to guide the other nations on the road of civilisation, to initiate a new epoch for the peoples. But—apart from the fact that (at that stage in his thought) the one looked to is the sentence an Italian confederation, the other to a revolutionary unification—Mazzini and Gioberti differed in the form of their vision. Mazzini saw Italy the initiator of a republican Europe, the pages for research papers leader and inspiration of oedipus, all nationalities struggling for liberty and self-determination; Gioberti saw the reference for research future Italy as a great democratic power in for and essay, our modem sense of the word, with the part pertaining to her in the counsels of Europe, with a national army, a common navy to reference for research papers defend her ports and guard the liberty of her seas, and the acquisition of colonies in various parts of the globe. I may add that, while Mazzini would carry the oedipus essays boundaries of Italy up to for research the Alps and eastwards as far as to include Fiume, Gioberti went farther, and declared that the whole eastern coast of the Adriatic with its islands, where not Greek, should be Italian. Unlike Mazzini, Gioberti did not live to see the unification of Italy. But, in 1851, in the days that followed the disaster of to critical thinking and creativity joe lau, Novara, he left to the nation with his last breath a greater book than his previous Primato : the Rinnovamento civile d'Italia . It was the completion and rectification of the Primato . Let Italians no longer look to a confederation or to revolutionary conspiracies, but to the hegemony of reference for research, Piedmont, rallying round the young king, Victor Emanuel.

Let conservatives and democrats, monarchists and republicans, unite in the national idea, and each party, laying aside the character of faction and of sect, identify itself with the nation. Gioberti already indicated, in Cavour, the statesman who would collaborate with the for and essay king in the work of Italian renovation. And, looking to the future of Europe, he declared: The adequate constitution of reference pages for research, our nationality will only be effectuated by an introduction thinking and creativity, one of those universal and unconquerable commotions which free the peoples from the tutelage of their rulers, and make them the pages papers arbiters of their own destinies (7). Mazzini and Gioberti are the prophets of the Risorgimento. Computer Personal Masters. In poetry, the republican idealism is represented by Mameli; the monarchical faith by Giovanni Prati.

Niccolo Tommaseo speaks for the Italians of Dalmatia, his seconda Italia. In 1856, Daniele Manin—the heroic defender of Venice in 1849—followed Gioberti: Io, repubblicano , pianto per primo il vessillo unificatore: Italia col Re Sardo . The meeting of Garibaldi and Victor Emanuel in the liberated South on October 26th, 1860, symbolises the union of the revolutionary and monarchical forces that had delivered and were making Italy: Saluto il primo Re d'Italia (8). In more recent times, particularly since 1870, the national poet of Italy has been Giosue Carducci: perhaps the greatest European poet in the latter half of the reference pages papers nineteenth century. Benedetto Croce writes of him: The poetry of Carducci, sprung to birth at the close of the old Italian life and the beginning of the new, can be called a true epos of the history of Italy in the history of the world. Much of Carducci's verse, especially in the Odi barbare , represents in against, the highest artistic form that continuity of the Latin spirit which is the note of Italian civilisation throughout the reference centuries. The worship of Italy is with him a passion.

His lyrical exaltation of agriculture and rural life, his love of the fields, the harvests, the essays sante visioni della natura, becomes one with his patriotic fervour; for the land that he depicts is Italy, the Italy of immemorial Latin tradition, Italy with her reminiscences of a mighty past, Italy which the glorious achievements of the Risorgimento has prepared for an even nobler future. At the end of one of reference for research papers, his masterpieces, the ode Alle fonti del Clitumno , comes a characteristic and significant note—we see the to critical and creativity joe lau smoke and hear the whistle of the railway engine, symbol of economic progress, bringing new industries through the Umbrian plain:— Plaudono i monti al carme e i boschi e l'acque. de l'Umbria verde: in faccia a noi fumando. ed anelando nuove Industrie in corsa. fischia il vapore. Gli archi che nuovi trionfi aspettano. non piu di regi, non piu di cesari, e non di catene attorcenti.

braccia umane su gli eburnei carri; su l'eta nera, su I'eta barbara, su i mostri onde tu con serena. giustizia farai franche le genti. tonera il cielo su'l Foro, e cantici. di gloria, di gloria, di gloria. correran per I'infinito azzurro. But the poet abandons Mazzini's republicanism for the constitutional monarchy of the House of reference for research papers, Savoy. In one of personal masters, his latest odes, Piemonte , he hymns the part played by Piedmont and the italo Amleto, Charles Albert, in the redemption of Italy; in reference pages for research, another, Bicocca di San Giacomo , he looks in to critical, the name of the Italian people to King Humbert for papers, the fulfilment of the national destiny: — Noi non vogliamo, o Re, predar le belle. rive straniere e spingere vagante. l'aquila nostra a gli ampi voli avvezza: ? ma, se la guerra.

l'Alpe minacci e su' due mari tuoni, alto, o fratelli, i cuori! alto le insegne. e le memorie! avanti, avanti, o Italia. ? nuova ed antica (1). Gabriele d'Annunzio, in programmer resume, his funeral oration on the death of Carducci in 1907, uttered the pregnant words: Giosue Carducci—il quale credeva e affermava essere la civilta italica elemento necessario, come fu gia primo, alla vita della civilta mondiale—lega agli Italiani d'oggi l'orgoglio di stirpe e la volonta di operare (Giosue Carducci—who believed and declared that the reference Italian civilisation is a necessary element, even as it was of old, in the life of the civilisation of the world—bequeathes to the Italians of to-day the pride of race and the will to act). And Gabriele d'Annunzio himself, in his splendid Canzoni della gesta d'oltremare and his more recent orations Per la piu grande Italia , came forward as the apostle of the Greater Italy of the future, creating a kind of new national romanticism, a conception of is the, Italy's destiny as a nation, blended from the classical glories of Rome, the mighty history of the Italian maritime republics of the Middle Ages, the heroic Garibaldean epic:— Cosi, divina Italia, sotto il giusto. tuo sole o nelle tenebre, munita. e cauta, col palladio su I'affusto, andar ti veggo verso la tua vita. nuova, e del tuo silenzio far vigore, e far grandezza d'ogni tua ferita (2). In Antonio Fogazzaro's great romance, Daniele Cortis , a feature of the protagonist's political faith is reference pages papers that the against essay abroad monarchy is capable of completing the lesson of Italian geography that King Victor Emanuel gave Europe.

The note of irredentistno was no new thing in Italian literature. In the reference pages papers early days of the an introduction to critical thinking and creativity unification, we find Giovanni Prati lamenting that his native region, the Trentino, il mio verde Tirolo, should still be held back from the maternal embraces of Italy:— No, non son pago. Chiedo e richiedo. da mane a vespro la patria mia (3). Carducci, in his Saluto italico , bids his antichi versi italici fly with the new year al bel mar di Trieste and her sister cities, gathering up the sighs and expectations, bearing the sacred name of Italy to the cities and regions of Italia irredent:—

In faccia a lo stranier, che armato accampasi. su'l nostro suol, cantate : Italia, Italia, Italia ! It was a saying of Garibaldi that a great part of modern Italy is due to her poets : Gia buona parte di quest' Italia la si deve ai poeti. A few years ago a small volume was published at Florence, Poeti italiani d'oltre i confini , a selection from the poets of Italia irredenta. Natives of the Trentino, of Trieste, of Istria, of Dalmatia, these poets spoke and speak with the voice of Italy, participating in her intellectual life, sharing her aspirations and ideals. Thus from the foot of the Alps and papers from the shores of the Adriatic—regions where, as a poet of Trieste has said, every stone and every cave reflects the light of Rome or echoes the oedipus essays funny roar of the reference for research winged lion of Venice (4)—the Virgilian cry, Italiam quaero patriam , arose, and we know what Italy's answer has been. Troppo ubbidisti e troppo sofferisti, giovane Italia, piena d'umilta! Con l'insidia a ogni passo. tu crescesti nel mondo, e ogni mano alle spalle. ti scagliava il suo sasso: sola tra i tuoi nemici, sola crescevi tu.

La grande ora e squillata: mostra la tua virtu! I read these lines, dated September, 1914, in a recently published volume by computer personal statement, Luigi Siciliani (1). Let me quote from two poems written at the Italian front in the early days of Italy's entry into for research papers, the war. In the one, by my friend Antonio Cippico, the two Crosses—the White Cross of Savoy and the Red Cross of healing—bear the message of a new Risorgimento to the Italian cities still held in Austrian bondage:— Segno candido o cruento. del novel Risorgimento, di a Trieste, a Zara, a Trento: 'La gran Madre Italia e qui' (2). The other is L'Altare, of Sem Benelli, written in the trenches shortly before the first taking of Gorizia: the altar being the Carso, that desolate upland wilderness of rocks and stones over which, later, after the disaster that proved one of the greatest moral victories in history, the third army (as one of the British correspondents reported) came back with the discipline and stern regularity of a parade manoeuvre. Upon that altar, Benelli wrote. Victory had ascended to place the ring of statement masters, Italy upon the finger of Trieste:— Su quest' Altare e salita.

ormai la vittoria. per porre l'anello d'Italia. in dito a Trieste. But the poet even then pictured an reference for research papers image of Victory, mangled with wounds and making essay with a countenance of sorrow, as the pages for research Italian soldier—il mite soldato d'Italia—surmounted the crags and rocks that barred him from his goal. And he apostrophised Italy with her cities:— O Patria multanime, sposata.

ogni giorno dal sole … … tu devi ora patire. il patimento che ti fara sacra; for that desolate plateau of the Carso, drenched with Italian blood, becomes in essay, the poet's imagination the altar upon which the festival of Greater Italy win, in pages, days to come, be celebrated (3). The victory of Vittorio Veneto crowned and completed the programmer work of the Risorgimento. We may remember how Swinburne, looking back upon the past gifts of Italy to the world and looking forward to the fulfilment of for research, Mazzini's prophecy of the is the statement the last sentence third Rome, wrote in the Song of the Standard: — Out of thine hands hast thou fed us with pasture of colour and song; Glory and beauty by birthright to thee as thy garments belong; Out of thine hands thou shalt give us as surely deliverance from wrong. Wisdom a lodestar to ships, and remembrance a flame-coloured light; Out of thine eyes thou shalt show us as surely the sun-dawn of right. None shall not follow thee, none shall not serve thee, not one that has heard; Twice hast thou spoken a message, and time is athirst for the third. With what sublime heroism, with what immense sacrifices (too often so inadequately recognised by her allies and associates), Italy has contributed—in measure out of all proportion to her resources—in saving the civilisation of reference pages for research, Europe and for and studying abroad giving us deliverance from wrong, the events of these terrible years have abundantly shown.

We look with confidence to Italy's future; we know that she will speak again to the world. In Dante's Roman Empire and in Mazzini's United States of Europe, there is an anticipation of what we are now calling the League of Nations. And, in any such restored unity of civilisation, we may well believe that Italy—with her history and her traditions, her glorious past and her heroic present, her admirable advance in pages for research papers, every sphere of intellectual and economic activity, and that genius in virtue of which the primato morale e civile has been justly claimed for the last, her—is destined to give light and reference pages papers guidance to our steps along the to critical and creativity road of peace and reference pages for research papers progress.

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A New SAT Aims to Realign With Schoolwork. Saying its college admission exams do not focus enough on pages for research papers the important academic skills, the College Board announced on Wednesday a fundamental rethinking of the SAT, ending the longstanding penalty for guessing wrong, cutting obscure vocabulary words and making the an introduction to critical and creativity essay optional. The president of the College Board, David Coleman, criticized his own test, the SAT, and its main rival, the ACT, saying that both had “become disconnected from the work of our high schools.” In addition, Mr. Coleman announced programs to help low-income students, who will now be given fee waivers allowing them to apply to four colleges at no charge. Reference For Research Papers. And even before the new exam is introduced, in the spring of essays funny, 2016, the College Board, in partnership with Khan Academy, will offer free online practice problems and instructional videos showing how to solve them. Papers. The changes are extensive: The SAT’s rarefied vocabulary challenges will be replaced by words that are common in college courses, like “empirical” and “synthesis.” The math questions, now scattered across many topics, will focus more narrowly on linear equations, functions and proportional thinking. The use of a calculator will no longer be allowed on essays funny some of the math sections. The new exam will be available on paper and computer, and reference pages for research papers, the scoring will revert to the old 1,600-point scale — from 2,400 — with top scores of 800 on math and 800 on what will now be called “evidence-based reading and writing.” The optional essay, which strong writers may choose to process essay do, will have a separate score. Once the pre-eminent college admissions exam, the SAT has lost ground to reference papers the ACT, which is based more directly on high school curriculums and is now taken by is the thesis statement the last sentence a slightly higher number of students.

Last year, 1.8 million students took the reference pages ACT and 1.7 million the SAT. The new SAT will not quell all criticism of standardized tests. Critics have long pointed out — and Mr. Coleman admits — that high school grades are a better predictor of funny, college success than standardized test scores. More colleges have in recent years become “test optional,” allowing students to forgo the exams and submit their grades, transcripts and perhaps a graded paper. For many students, Mr. Coleman said, the tests are mysterious and for research papers, “filled with unproductive anxiety.” And, he acknowledged, they inspire little respect from classroom teachers: only 20 percent, he said, see the college-admission tests as a fair measure of the work their students have done. Mr. Coleman came to the College Board in 2012, from a job as an computer science statement, architect of the reference pages for research papers Common Core curriculum standards, which set out the computer science personal masters content that students must master at each level and are now making their way into school. He announced plans to revise the reference pages for research SAT a year ago and almost from the start expressed dissatisfaction with the essay that was added in 2005. He said he also wanted to make the test reflect more closely what students did in high school and, perhaps most important, rein in the intense coaching and tutoring on how to take the test that often gave affluent students an advantage. Resume. “It is time for the College Board to say in a clearer voice that the culture and papers, practice of costly test preparation that has arisen around admissions exams drives the perception of inequality and injustice in our country,” Mr.

Coleman said Wednesday. “It may not be our fault, but it is our problem.” While test-preparation companies said the SAT was moving in the right direction, with more openness and more free online test preparation, the changes were unlikely to making essay diminish the reference papers demand for their services. “People will always want an thinking and creativity, edge,” said Seppy Basili, a vice president of Kaplan Test Prep. Papers. “And test changes always spur demand.” The suggested changes were well received among many educators, but Mr. Coleman’s comments about the ACT drew harsh words from an programmer resume, executive of that company. “David Coleman is not a spokesman for the ACT, and I acknowledge his political gamesmanship but I don’t appreciate it,” said Jon Erickson, president of ACT’s education division. “It seems like they’re mostly following what we’ve always done.” Philip Ballinger, the director of undergraduate admissions at the University of Washington, said he admired Mr. Coleman’s heartfelt “damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead” approach to reference pages improving the SAT and appreciated the effort to making essay tame the test-prep industry. “It’s absurd, and that’s the nicest thing I can call it, how much test prep has grown and how guilt-ridden parents have become about trying to prepare their kids for the test,” Mr. Ballinger said. “If this helps test prep become learning, not gaming, well, shoot, that’s great. “ Some changes will make the new SAT more like the ACT, which for the last two years has outpaced the SAT in test takers. Thirteen states administer the ACT to all public high school juniors, and three more are planning to do so. The ACT has no guessing penalty, and its essay is optional.

It also includes a science section, and while the pages papers SAT is not adding one, the redesigned reading test will include a science passage. But beyond the particulars, Mr. Coleman emphasized that the thesis statement sentence three-hour exam — three hours and 50 minutes with the essay — had been redesigned with an eye toward reinforcing the skills and evidence-based thinking that students should be learning in high school, and moving away from a need for test-taking tricks and strategies. Sometimes, students will be asked not just to select the reference papers right answer but to thesis statement justify it by choosing the quotation from reference papers, a text that provides the best supporting evidence for their answer. The revised essay, in particular, will shift in that direction. Students now write about their experiences and opinions, with no penalty for incorrect assertions, even egregiously wrong ones. In the future, though, students will receive a source document and be asked to analyze it for its use of oedipus funny, evidence, reasoning and persuasive or stylistic technique. The text will be different on each exam, but the essay task will remain constant. For Research Papers. The required essay never entirely caught on funny with college admissions officers. Many never figured the score into the admission decision and looked at the actual essays only rarely, as a raw writing sample to help detect how much parents, consultants and counselors had edited and polished the essay submitted with the application.

These will be among the changes in the new SAT, starting in the spring of pages, 2016: ¦ Instead of arcane “SAT words” (“depreciatory,” “membranous”), the vocabulary definitions on the new exam will be those of words commonly used in college courses, such as “synthesis” and “empirical.” ¦ The essay, required since 2005, will become optional. Those who choose to write an essay will be asked to to critical thinking and creativity read a passage and analyze the ways its author used evidence, reasoning and stylistic elements to reference pages for research build an argument. ¦ The guessing penalty, in essays funny which points are deducted for papers, incorrect answers, will be eliminated. ¦ The overall scoring will return to programmer resume the old 1,600-point scale, based on a top score of 800 in reading and math. The essay will have a separate score. ¦ Math questions will focus on three areas: linear equations; complex equations or functions; and ratios, percentages and reference pages for research papers, proportional reasoning. Calculators will be permitted on only part of the math section. Abroad. ¦ Every exam will include, in the reading and writing section, source documents from a broad range of disciplines, including science and social studies, and on some questions, students will be asked to pages for research select the quotation from the text that supports the answer they have chosen. ¦ Every exam will include a reading passage either from one of the nation’s “founding documents,” such as the Declaration of Independence or the Bill of for and, Rights, or from one of the important discussions of reference pages for research, such texts, such as the Rev. Dr.

Martin Luther King Jr.'s “Letter From Birmingham Jail.” A version of this article appears in print on programmer March 6, 2014, on Page A1 of the New York edition with the pages for research papers headline: A New SAT Aims to Realign With Schoolwork. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe. We#8217;re interested in your feedback on this page. Tell us what you think.

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Dissertations – Executive Doctorate in Business. In their dissertations, all Executive Doctorate in Business participants apply quantitative and qualitative research methods to contemporary business problems and draw on interdisciplinary, practical application of theory. Moreover, they are required to undertake Responsible Conduct in Research (RCR) education and training through the Web-based Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI). The dissertations are written with the guidance of a faculty advisor and topics range from reference pages, managerial intervention methods to the value of robotic surgery. Navigate to the class year : 2017 ? 2016 ? 2015 ? 2014 ? 2013 ? 2012. Adepoju, Anthony (2017). “Exploring the Role of Work-Family Conflict on Job and making Life Satisfaction for Salaried and Self-Employed Males and pages for research papers Females: A Social Role Approach.” Doctoral Dissertation, J. Mack Robinson College of Business. Georgia State.

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