Anne frank essay prompts
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Anne Frank s Final Entry
Friday, August 1, marks the 70th anniversary of Anne Frank s final diary entry. Three days later, she was arrested with her family in
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The Diary of Anne Frank Essay Topics - CliffsNotes
1984 opinion essays New Memoryhole story : Reinventing Big Brother [8 June,2003] A couple of days ago a new story has been added to the Memoryhole. Read more. 1984 opera [4 May,2005] On May the 3rd the opera adaption of George Orwell's 1984 received its premiere in the Royal Opera House (Covent Garden) in anne prompts, London. Read more. The sensitive person?s hostility to the machine is in one sense unrealistic, because of the obvious fact that the machine has come to arguable stay. But as an attitude of mind there is a great deal to be said for it. The machine has got to be accepted, but it is probably better to accept it rather as one accepts a drug ? that is, grudgingly and suspiciously. , George Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier. Essay on George Orwell's political development.
By Claus B. Storgaard. A review of John Newsinger 'Orwell's Politics'. By Anna Chen. A sharp attack against our western 'modern' media-driven society. By Yee Teck. An analysis of the political message in Orwell's 'Nineteen Eighty-Four', 'Animal Farm' and 'Homage to prompts Catalonia'. Before A Sonata And Other Writings! By Rhodri Williams. Writers who might have inspired Orwell. By Darran Oisin Anderson.
Writers who might have inspired Orwell. By Darran Oisin Anderson. Opinions : Essays : Orwell's Political Messages. Orwell's ambition as a political author was to anne essay make political writing into an art ('Why I Write'). He saw his duty as being to attack the Right, but not to flatter the Left.
His political views were shaped by his experiences of racism college essay, Socialism, Totalitarianism and Imperialism all over the world. In his essay 'Why I Write' (1946) he admitted that Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly against prompts, Totalitarianism and for Democratic Socialism, as I understand it. Orwell wrote about his experiences of the Spanish Civil War in 'Homage to Catalonia'. During the war Orwell began to realise the a sonata, true nature of Stalin's rule in Russia. The actions of the Communists in Spain exposed to prompts him how false the idea was that Russia was a Socialist State. He then went on to write Animal Farm as a way to remind people about the true facts of the Russian Revolution and financial the nature of Stalin's rise to power, becoming a totalitarian dictator. Essentially Orwell wanted to save Socialism from Communism.
It was the realisation of Orwell's fears about anne frank essay prompts Stalinist Russia and the rise of essays a sonata the majority and other, Totalitarianism that inspired him to write his final novel 'Nineteen Eighty-four' - an Anti-Utopian novel depicting a world where Totalitarianism had taken over. Orwell wrote 'Animal Farm' primarily as an allegory of the Russian Revolution thinly disguised as an animal fable. Orwell specifically had Russia in mind but also draws from his experiences in Spain to show that all well-meant societies are at risk. The major theme of 'Animal Farm' is the betrayal of the Russian Revolution and the way that good will can fall prey to ambition, selfishness and hypocrisy. 'Animal Farm' also addresses the prompts, abuse of power. Gradually as the pigs gain more and more power they find it harder to arguable generator resist temptation. Soon their resolution falters (Ch.I )and they adopt his vices(Ch.
I ) - they move into Jones' house, drink alcohol and engage in anne, trade with the other farms (all things which Old Major had specifically urged them not to homeworking uk do). Orwell's message is that any society which has leaders with absolute power is ultimately doomed to failure due to the inevitability of leaders manipulating power for frank essay their own personal benefit. Orwell mocks the pretence that any such society could be regarded as being fair or equal - hence addition of the suffix but some animals are more equal than others to the original commandment All animals are equal. The philosophy of 'Animalism' in racism college essay, 'Animal Farm' quite clearly is designed to anne essay prompts represent Marxist-Communism. The parallels between the commandment Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy and Marxism's hatred of Capitalism is obvious. What started off as a philosophical set of ideas by Karl Marx was transformed into a means of propaganda by Stalin. In 'Animal Farm' the homeworking uk, theory of essay, Animalism is drawn up into seven commandments exclusively by Snowball, Squealer and Napoleon.
Animalism quickly becomes a means of breeding such a great fear of man into the animals so that they would become even more determined to work hard. Orwell is attacking Stalin for buy a financial planning betraying the revolution to suit his own ends. Orwell hints at frank essay the shortcomings of Old Major's Marxist teachings in a number of subtle ways. The supposition that all animals are comrades is undermined straight away by the fact that the dogs and buy a financial business cats openly show hostility to the rats, who only by a swift dash for their holes escape from the dogs with their lives. A second thing which undermines the Animalist maxim that All animals are equal is the fact that even before the revolution there is evidence of a basic hierarchical society. Anne! The pigs straight away take their places immediately in front of the platform (Ch.I) when the animals meet to hear Old Major's speech, thus signalling the fact that they are seen as more important than other animals. It is the pigs who take it upon themselves to direct the homeworking uk, revolution, and it is frank essay they who assume leadership after Jones had been driven out. Animal Farm follows the events of the Russian Revolution quite closely with characters from the book representing real life people or groups. The way that Orwell presents these real-life people in the book gives an insight into his political feelings. Old Major represents a mixture of Marx and Lenin. He preaches the essays, Marxist Doctrine of Revolutionary Socialism and provides the basic beliefs which later become the anne essay prompts, Seven Commandments.
He is presented as being a kindly, wise, natural leader who has a dream about a Utopia where 'All animals are equal' (Ch. I ). Orwell shows Old Major in arguable generator, a sympathetic light - Old Major is seen as having good intentions but too much of anne essay, a naive idealism to realise that not all animals share the same public-spiritedness that he has. Revolution leads to power, and once power is financial achieved it is prone to being abused. Orwell himself believed that revolution was not the answer - he believed that revolution was not a way of changing society : it was in fact merely a way of keeping it the same. Revolutions often have good intentions and provide new faces with a new rhetoric but soon it is hard to tell the new faces from the old. The answer according to Orwell was reform, not revolution : Reform really changes. Orwell believed that The Left in Russia had been tricked into revolution by its enemies. Farmer Jones represents Czar Nicolas II who was the leader of Russia before the prompts, Revolution.
Right at thesis the start of the book Orwell shows Jones as being a drunk, neglectful Farmer who cares very little about essay his animals. The farm was in a terrible state - the fields were full of weeds, the structure contrast, buildings wanted roofing, the hedges were neglected, and frank essay prompts the animals were underfed(Ch.I). Orwell clearly wanted to compare contrast show that Nicolas was a bad ruler who ran Russia for his personal benefit only. Anne Prompts! The animals were clearly oppressed and had good reason to want change. Orwell deliberately contrasts the improving way of life for the animals after the revolution with the poor lives they had under Jones. He also draws parallels between Jones's drunkenness and the drunkenness of the pigs after they had moved into the house. Jones and racism essay Napoleon are as bad as each other - both exploit the animals for his own benefit : they are typical all-powerful dictators motivated solely by self-interest. Orwell's attitude towards religion is shown through the way that he presents Moses the Raven who symbolises organised religion in Russia.
Orwell is very critical of religion, describing Moses as being a spy, a tale, bearer but also a clever talker. At first Moses was loyal to Jones, just as the anne prompts, Russian Church had been to the Czarist Regime. Orwell showed how Moses's tales of a heaven called Sugarcandy Mountain were useful to Jones as a way of keeping the animals in order - religion gave them hopes of write revenge essay, a better life after they died and their belief made them more willing to accept their current harsh lives. Religion was contrary to the beliefs of Socialism and so the Church was heavily opposed after the revolution - hence Moses' disappearence. Moses's return in Chapter IX represents the way in which Stalin allowed religion to re-establish itself in Russia as he realised that he could use it ,just as Nicolas II had, as a way of frank, pacifying the animals. Essays Before A Sonata The Majority! Orwell showed religion to be a both a crutch for the animals to lean on when times were bad (gave them unrealistic hopes for anne essay the future), and also as a means of preventing rebellion against authority (whether it be Czarist or Communist). Orwell's views about Trotsky were mixed and these contrasting feelings are shown in homeworking uk, the way he describes Snowball (who represents Trotsky in the book). Snowball is shown to have been a key factor in anne frank essay, the success of the Battle of the Cowshed - his bravery was inspirational to animals around him. Orwell also describes him as being brilliant and inventive in Chapter 2. Homeworking Uk! Snowball is also shown to have a darker side - the fact that he supported Napoleon's seizure of the anne prompts, apples shows that he is essays the majority also susceptible to greed. Orwell clearly preferred Trotsky to anne frank prompts Stalin, but saw him as merely the lesser of two evils - the main difference between the two being that Stalin used terror and force in order to assert his authority over the animals and Trotsky main support was gained from homeworking uk his inspiring speeches. Snowball's collaboration with Napoleon leads us to wonder whether life for the animals would really have been much better under Snowball than it was under Napoleon.
Orwell's attitude towards Stalin is hinted at even in the naming of his equivalent in the book. Essay! 'Napoleon' was the name of a famous French revolutionary leader who tyrannised his people and was regarded by some as being the Anti-Christ. As far as Orwell was concerned, Stalin represented the main force behind the threat to true Socialism. Stalin claimed to be committed to making a fair and equal society but Orwell saw him in a very different light. In 'Animal Farm' Orwell closely follows Napoleon's rise to financial planning business power and illustrates to the reader how Napoleon used cunning and frank brute force to gain and maintain power on Animal Farm. Orwell is college keen to try and show how evil Stalin was and how far removed the way he ran Russia was from the original Marxist Socialist beliefs which had been the inspiration for the revolution in the first place.
The character Boxer in anne, 'Animal Farm' represents the typical loyal, hard working, man in essay, Russia. His name originates from the Boxer Rebellion in anne, China which signalled the rise of hamlet revenge essay, Communsim in frank essay, China. Orwell shows Boxer as being an honest worker who follows Animalism faithfully without fully understanding its more intricate details. Boxer is of limited intelligence and has complete trust in the pigs. His maxims Napoleon is always right and essay I must work harder are ultimately his downfall - he works himself to exhaustion and is sent off to the knackers yard by Napoleon, not realising his fate until it is anne essay too late. The example of Boxer is used by Orwell to show to the reader that even the most loyal and honest people suffer under such a brutal regime. The fact that Napoleon sends Boxer off to his death signals to the reader how corrupt this Stalinesque figure has become. Boxer's demise illustrates what can happen to those who have blind trust in homeworking uk, their rulers.
The dogs in anne frank essay, 'Animal Farm' are a metaphor for the Terror State which Stalin created in Russia as a means of college, keeping his political opponents in order. They are a tool of oppression for both Jones and Napoleon. Essay Prompts! Their lack of generator, loyalty to Animalism right from the start puts the whole principles of Animalism into question. If All animals are comrades then why do the dogs attack the rats at the first meeting in the barn? The gradual changing of the Seven Commandments of Animalism is one of the main devices which Orwell uses when illustrating to the reader the extent of the betrayal of the revolution. The commandments, which were themselves a crude simplification of anne frank essay prompts, Old Major's teachings, were altered by Squealer in order to write essay suit Napoleon's requirements.
The fact that even these blatant changes went almost unnoticed by many of the anne frank essay, Animals shows how little they really understood Old Major's teachings and a sonata the majority and other casts further doubt on Old Major's supposed wisdom. The constant arguing between Snowball and anne essay Napoleon over almost every issue (most notably the hamlet essay, windmill) on Animal Farm caused great tension. Within Russia the arguements between Trotsky and Stalin were also never-ending. Orwell mirrors this in the situation between Snowball and Napoleon, saying how These two disagreed at every point disagreement was possible. In the same way that Trotsky was exiled to Mexico due to Stalin's fears that Trotsky's supporters would assasinate him, Snowball was chased out of the farm by Napoleon who feared him in a similar way. Orwell wrote 'Nineteen Eighty-four' to anne frank prompts try and show how political systems can suppress individual freedom. 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is a warning for the future that of what society could become should totalitarianism be allowed to achieve dominance. Buy A Planning! The totalitarian Dystopia in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is inescapable for those who suffer under it and is constantly changing for the worst. Anne Frank Essay! The world of 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is a model of college essay, Orwell's idea of a Totalitarian state that has evolved into its ultimate form. Anne Frank Essay Prompts! However, Orwell is not trying to make a complete and accurate prediction of what the world will be like in the future under a totalitarian government, but instead he presents it as an extreme instance that sheds light on the nature of current societies that already exist. Shortly before his death Orwell spoke of essay compare, 'Nineteen Eighty-four', saying I do not believe that the kind of essay, society I describe necessarily will arrive, but I believe that something resembling it could arrive.
Orwell once said he writes because there is some lie that I want to expose. It is this fundamental lie upon which the political structure of 'Nineteen Eighty-four' rests. Essays Before The Majority And Other Writings! The very slogans of the anne frank essay, party are contradictions : War is racism essay Peace, Freedom is Slavery, Ignorance is Strength. In writing 'Nineteen Eighty-four' Orwell wanted to expose the cruelty of anne essay, political oppression and the kind of lie on which that inhumanity depends. 'Nineteen Eighty-four' can be interpreted as an antipolitical book - the nightmarish world in which Winston lives is one where politics has displaced humanity and the state has stifled society in its quest for structure essay compare total control over prompts its inhabitants. The purpose of the Party was not to rule for the general good, but in order to have control over before writings everyone and everything. Power is everything. Frank Prompts! The most startling concept that Orwell deals with in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is the idea that a political party could see power as being the thesis generator, ultimate goal. The Party rules over its people without even the pretence that it is governing for the benefit of the people. In 'Nineteen Eighty-four' Orwell used the form of frank, Scientific Romance because it allowed him to buy a planning express his political messages in the form of a novel. Orwell used the Scientific Romance in a realistic way in order to drive home his political point - that a Dystopia such as the one in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is a human possibility.
Essentially Orwell is warning us of anne frank essay prompts, what may happen should certain dangerous political trends be allowed to carry on. 'Nineteen Eighty-four' has a narrow plot which focuses solely on business the life of Winston Smith. However, Orwell makes a political point from this - Winston Smith is the only person left who is worth writing about; all the rest have been brainwashed already. Anne Frank Prompts! When considering the title for the novel Orwell mentioned in a letter that he was considering The Last Man in arguable, Europe - a clear indication that he saw Winston Smith as the last true free thinker in anne frank, Europe. The political and human aspects of 'Nineteen Eighty-four' are very closely linked. Buy A Financial Business! Every thought that Winston makes against anne frank prompts, Big Brother is Thoughtcrime, every time he writes another entry in his diary he is risking arrest, even embracing Julia was a blow struck against the party. His very relationship with her was a political act. In 'Nineteen Eighty-four' Orwell examines how the human spirit copes under the structure contrast, worst conditions possible. Winston is, as O'Brien laughingly calls him, the guardian of human spirit - a half starved wreck of a man.
He is the anne, last person alive capable of free thought against The Party. Orwell shows how political organisations are capable of doing anything in homeworking uk, order to reach their goals. In this case The Party's goal is to eradicate individual thought and they are prepared to do anything in order to achieve their goal and think nothing of torture. Winston's heresy is his insistence on the individual's right to make up his own mind rather than having to follow what the Party perceives as truth and so he is tortured constantly until, eventually, he has learned to love Big Brother(Section 3, Ch.VI). In the world of 1984 there has been no improvement in the living standards of the average person since1948. Big Brother had deliberately kept it this way in the belief that should people not have to concentrate on trying to get the bare essentials for life then they might turn their attentions to demanding more from the Party.
Orwell makes a political point from the similarity of living conditions in 1948 and 1984. The opening chapter of 'Nineteen Eighty-four' describes how the lift seldom worked even at the best of times, that the electricity was cut off during daylight hours, and how he had to use coarse soap and blunt razor blades. Winston has a nagging belief that life used to be better than what he could remember but he couldn't prove it - when he spoke to anne prompts the old prole in a pub the only fact that he could extract from him was that the beer tasted better before Big Brother. The description that Orwell gives of Big Brother as being a man of about forty-five, with a heavy black moustache and ruggedly handsome features immediately brings the image of Stalin to the reader's mind. Thesis Generator! 'Big Brother' is the icon of the Party and it is under his name that every Party announcement is frank prompts given - every success, every achievement, every victory, every scientific discovery, all knowledge, all wisdom, all happiness, all virtue, are held to issue directly from his leadership and inspiration (Part II, Ch.IX, Goldstein's book, Chapter I). The character of Goldstein is write hamlet revenge essay designed to resemble Stalin's political arch-enemy Trotsky. Just as in 'Animal Farm' a Trotsky-like scapegoat is anne frank prompts incessantly blamed for all problems and is labelled an enemy of the people by a government led by a Stalinesque figure. Thesis! Goldstein's book The Theory and Practise of Oligarchical Collectivism is an obvious replica of Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed. The sections of Goldstein's book which are printed in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' serves two purposes - firstly it identifies many of the ways in which the anne frank prompts, Party manipulates its own people (they are merely cheap labour), and secondly it mocks Trotsky's revolutionary rhetoric of polysyllables and ridiculous paradoxes such as The fields are cultivated with horse plows while books are written by machinery. In Section 1,Chapter 7 Winston writes in his Diary If there is hope, it lies in the Proles. However, there is homeworking uk no evidence of essay, any revolutionary desires amongst the Proletariat at all in homeworking uk, the novel.
O-Brien laughs at Winston in 3.3 for anne prompts placing his hopes in them and essays before a sonata writings declares The proletarians will never revolt. Essay Prompts! The reason for this is that the Proles do not show the intelligence, or the desire to essay revolt - The Party no longer fears the frank essay prompts, proles because as a class they have become totally demoralised. Orwell himself confessed in a letter written in 1940 I have never met a genuine working man who accepted Marxism. One of the major issues in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is the nature of freedom and the way that Totalitarianism has the capacity to destroy it. Winston's comment in his diary that Freedom is the freedom to say that two plus two makes four encapsulates Orwell's belief that the individual must have the right to make up his own mind, regardless of official political party lines. Orwell saw his role as a writer to buy a business be the anne frank prompts, objective conscience of a society - he was trying to express the truth as he saw it. 'Homage to Catalonia' differs from 'Nineteen Eighty-four' and 'Animal Farm' in that it is a non-fiction account of Orwell's actual experiences rather than an homeworking uk allegorical work of fiction or scientific romance novel. Orwell is describing events as he sees them, putting his own views across about real events. Orwell's experiences in Spain when fighting in the Civil War had a major effect on his political attitudes - before Spain he had read much about Socialism and had experienced varying degrees of Socialist rule, but this was the first time that he experienced an attempt to put a truly Socialist society into practice. Orwell came to frank essay prompts Spain as a journalist and claimed to buy a be uninterested in the political situation (Appendix I). He joined up in the POUM militia because he wanted to fight against the forces of Fascism (for this was how he saw the situation at that time, his knowledge mainly based on English newspaper reports).
Orwell showed his bitterness at frank prompts the Communists regularly after he left Spain, once commenting how The Spanish Communists and their Russian allies were bent not on essays before a sonata the majority and other making a social revolution happen, as most Western intellectuals believed, but on preventing one from happening. Instead he saw the anne frank prompts, Communists as being the true Conservatives - they simply used their rhetoric of radicalism in order to bamboozle the Spanish people. The issue of power which was crucial in both 'Animal Farm' and 'Nineteen Eighty-four' raised it's head in thesis, 'Homage to Catalonia' - the Communists were not Socialist, they were merely extremely adept at obtaining power and keeping it. Orwell's motive when writing 'Homage to Catalonia' seemed to anne be to simply tell the truth about the events in Spain. However, this 'truth' that Orwell was so desperate to write about was focused around the racism, treachery of the Communists in anne essay, Spain. Many historians have taken issue with Orwell's harsh words about the Communist influence, saying that they had to essays a sonata tone down the radical elements of the Federalist side (the militias) in prompts, order to try and thesis encourage other European countries to supply them with the essay, much needed weapons with which to fight Franco.
It was certainly true that most of the West preferred the thesis, prospect of a Franco-run Spain than a radically socialist one. Recent studies have also cast doubt on Orwell's accusation that the Communists deliberately held back weapons from the militias, fearing that they might get into the hands of Franco's troops. In 'Homage to Catalonia' Orwell describes the prompts, terrible conditions that he had to endure whilst fighting on the front line for the POUM. Before! He and essay prompts other troops had to endure boredom, heat, cold, dirt, lice, privation, and occasional danger. The rats that ran riot all over the trenches were one of the racism, most horrible, and most common problems. The ever-present rats which Orwell had to endure provided inspiration for his description of the dreaded Room 101 in frank essay, 'Nineteen Eighty-four' where they attacked Winston and caused him to eventually cry out Do it to Julia!
Not me! and write consequently betrayed his love for her. Although the chapters Orwell wrote about the political situation in Spain were relegated to appendices because he felt he needed to separate them from anne his account of his own personal experiences, Orwell still devotes a lot of space throughout the book to political and philosophical topics such as the nature of Socialism. In chapter VII he talks of the mystique of Socialism and how Socialism to most people means a classless society. Thesis! It was this attempt to create a classless society which Orwell found so intriguing. Orwell talks enthusiastically about the militias dotted around the front line and described them as a sort of microcosm of a classless society (Ch.VII) - it was the sense of comradeship and hope that permeated the militias that gave Orwell's desire to see Socialism established much more actual than it had been before. Anne Essay Prompts! Orwell describes how in Aragon there were thousands of people all living at the same level and a sonata writings mingling on terms of equality. in theory it was perfect equality, and in practice it was not far from it.
He then goes on to say how the situation in Spain was constantly changing so rapidly that such a state of affairs could not last. But it lasted long enough to have its effect upon anyone who experienced it. Anne Essay! Orwell's short time in Spain during the early stages of the war modified his political outlook - now he could believe in Socialism, not just as a theory, but (at least in its early stages) as a reality. He had breathed the air of equality (Ch.VII). The in-fighting between different factions of the Republican movement clearly distressed Orwell - it seemed to him that Spain was suffering from a plague of initials (Appendix I). When he arrived in Spain had the attitude why can't we drop all this political nonsense and get on write with the anne frank prompts, war?, but eventually even he was forced to take sides For even if one cared nothing for the political parties and their conflicting 'lines', it was all too obvious that one's own destiny was involved. College! Orwell described himself as a pawn in the enormous struggle being fought out between two political theories. Anne Essay Prompts! It was, most definitely, far more complex than simply a case of thesis, a struggle between the forces of Socialism and Fascism. Homage to frank Catalonia certainly provided a lot of inspiration for Orwell when he wrote 'Animal Farm' and structure contrast 'Nineteen Eighty-four' and frank prompts their are many aspects of the homeworking uk, book which link closely to them. The most obvious link that joins 'Animal Farm', 'Nineteen Eighty-four' and 'Homage to Catalonia' is the way that they all examine the frank essay, forces of totalitarian and socialist government. 'Homage to Catalonia' tells the story of Orwell's experiences in business, Spain in such a way that reveals not only what happened but his opinions, his feelings, and anne his political hopes. His two novels 'Animal Farm' and write revenge 'Nineteen Eighty-four' are also primarily self-revalations about his political ideas.
The in-fighting within the Republican movement in Spain, according to anne essay prompts Orwell, was caused by the different factions becoming engulfed in a struggle for power. The corrupting influence of mans desire for power over his fellow man is one of the most major themes in both 'Animal Farm' and 'Nineteen Eighty-four'. In 'Animal Farm' the revolution was betrayed by Napoleon in his quest for personal power and material benefit, and in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' Big Brother becomes the college essay, figurehead of an organisation whose sole goal is the anne prompts, acquisition and maintainance of political power. This site is protected by COPYLEFT. You are free to racism college use any material found on this page as long it is not for a commercial purpose, or unless otherwise stated on the page.
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The Diary of Anne Frank Essay Topics & Writing Assignments
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essay computer nteq The problem of integrating technology into teaching and learning process has become a perennial one. Common excuses for the limited use of technology to support instruction include shortage of computers, lack of essay computer skill and computer intimidation. While these could affect the success of technology integration, it should be acknowledged that the degree of success teachers have in using technology for homeworking uk instruction could depend in part on their ability to explore the essay prompts relationship between pedagogy and technology. Racism College! The article shows that technology integration is narrowly perceived and that such a perception might hinder teachers’ understanding of the scope of technology in education. Technology integration should be considered along with issues involved in teaching and learning. Such issues include developing learning objectives, selecting methods of instruction, feedback, and evaluation and anne essay prompts assessment strategies including follow-up activities. Technology used for teaching and learning should be considered an integral part of instruction and not as an object exclusive to thesis, itself. Viewing technology integration from a wide perspective will provide teachers with the necessary foundation to implement technology into the classroom more successfully. This article discusses the narrow perception of the essay prompts term “technology integration” and buy a financial considers that such a perception is likely to result in a poor use of technology for instructional purposes.
The scope of technology integration is examined with a view of showing its relationship with pedagogy. Anne Essay Prompts! It should be noted that technology, which is homeworking uk, used to facilitate learning, is part of the instructional process and anne essay not an appendage to be attached at any convenient stage during the course of instruction. Technology integration not only involves the inclusion of technical artifacts per se, but also includes theories about technology integration and the application of research findings to racism, promote teaching/learning. It is anne frank prompts, not restricted to the mechanical application of various new computer hardware and software devices during the process of instruction. It should include the strategies for selecting the desired technologies, skill to demonstrate how the selected technologies will be used, skill to evaluate such technologies, as well as the skill to customize the homeworking uk use of such technological skills in a way that addresses instructional problems.
The decision on the selection and use of technology for instruction should be made at the onset – when the instruction is being prepared, not in the middle or at the conclusion of the instruction. The objective and method of instruction including technology and outcomes of instruction should be specified at the planning stage. This point is frank essay prompts, illustrated by Diaz Bontembal ( 2000 ): Using technology to enhance the educational process involves more than just learning how to use specific piece of hardware and software. Planning! It requires an understanding of pedagogical principles that are specific to essay, the use of technology in an instructional settings…Pedagogy-based training begins by helping teachers understand the role of learning theory in the design and function of class activities and in the selection and use of instructional technologies. (pp. 2 and write revenge essay 6) The relationship between instructional technology and pedagogical concepts is considered with a view of assisting teachers to frank, recognize the impact of such a relationship in an educational inquiry. Technology integration is complex and is made up of processes of interconnected activities. The essence of this article is to explore those processes and to encourage teachers and those connected with technology integration to be reflective practitioners.
The Scope of structure compare contrast Instructional Technology. Technology in education is commonly defined as a technical device or tool used to enhance instruction. According to Lever-Duffy, McDonald, and Mizell ( 2005 ) “educational technology might include media, models, projected and non-projected visual, as well as audio, video and digital media.” These authors claim that some “educators may take a narrower view” and are likely to “confine educational technology primarily to computers, computer peripherals and related software used for teaching and learning” (pp. 4, 5). This definition does not take into essay prompts consideration the pedagogical principles upon compare contrast, which the application of various technologies into educational inquiry are based. Such a definition is narrow because it isolates technology from anne essay pedagogical processes that it is intended to support. It does not connect instructional technology with the learning objectives, methods of instruction, learning style and pace of learning, assessment and essays before a sonata the majority and other writings evaluation strategies, including follow-up procedures.
Specifically, technology integration should incorporate the technological skill and ability to use pedagogical knowledge as a base for integrating technology into teaching and learning. Anne Essay! This implies that teachers should develop strategies to compare contrast, motivate students to essay prompts, keep them focused as the instruction progresses and to consider that different students prefer different learning styles and structure essay compare that they learn at different rates. It is anne, important that teachers use a variety of teaching methods, and students must be taught to structure compare, use the frank newly acquired knowledge and skill as well as to critically evaluate and modify such knowledge. In other words, teachers should be able to engage students in an exploratory learning experience which is designed to stimulate thinking. According to structure compare contrast, Bruner (1966), the essence of anne prompts teaching and learning is to help learners acquire knowledge and use the knowledge they have acquired to create other knowledge. Bruner eloquently states: To instruct someone . is not a matter of getting him to commit results to mind.
Rather, it is to teach him to participate in the process that makes possible the establishment of knowledge. Arguable! We teach a subject not to produce little living libraries on that subject, but rather to get a student to think mathematically for anne frank essay himself, to consider matters as an historian does, to take part in the process of knowledge-getting. Hamlet! Knowing is a process not a product. (p. 72) This can imply that teaching software skills without consideration to the basic foundation knowledge that justifies their application is likely to result in rote memorization of disjointed information on various technologies used. Ausubel ( 1978 ) claims that this type of teaching method is likely to lead to forgetfulness. In a broad sense, technology integration can be described as a process of essay prompts using existing tools, equipment and materials, including the use of electronic media, for the purpose of enhancing learning. It involves managing and coordinating available instructional aids and resources in order to facilitate learning. It also involves the selection of suitable technology based on the learning needs of students as well as the ability of teachers to adapt such technology to fit specific learning activities.
It calls for teachers’ ability to arguable, select suitable technology while planning instruction. It also requires teachers to use appropriate technology to present and evaluate instruction as well as use relevant technology for follow-up learning activities. Such a broad definition of technology in frank education will help teachers develop a rational approach toward technology integration. Problems of structure essay contrast Technology Integration. The study of Leh ( 2005 ) reveals that teachers admitted “they did not resist technology per se but agreed that they could not fully integrate it into their own practices because of the organizational, administrative, pedagogical, or personal constraints” (p. 19).
Leh claims that the teachers acknowledge, “technology was more of a problem with multiple facets rather than a solution …” (p. 19). Defining instructional technology in broad spectrum helps educators, especially inexperienced teachers, understand the pedagogical issues to be considered when using technology to enhance the process of teaching and learning. Leh also calls for anne essay the “the national organizations involved in structure teacher standards to recognize that teachers need to anne frank prompts, … develop a foundation upon which to build their understanding of technology integration (p. 46). Bosch Cardinale (1993) maintain that while it is financial business, important for teachers to be provided with technological skill, it is also important to educate them on how to use that skill to support learning.
Infusing technology into a curriculum is less likely to essay, make an impact on students’ learning if technology is not considered as a component of write hamlet revenge instruction. Technology should not be treated as a separate entity but should be considered as an integral part of instructional delivery. The teacher should be able to anne, assess the appropriateness of any technology used for compare contrast teaching and learning in relation to specific instruction. Anne! The teacher should also consider how the racism college technology selected fits into the objective of the lesson, methods of instruction, evaluation, feedback and follow-up initiatives. Such consideration will provide teachers the opportunity to anne frank prompts, reflect on their practice and reduce the tendency to integrate technology into essays a sonata and other teaching and essay learning in a mechanistic way. Fletcher ( 1996 ) has provided an interesting scenario to buy a, show that technology integration should be grounded in sound educational practices: When you go to anne prompts, the hardware store to buy a drill, you don’t actually want a drill, you want a hole, they don’t sell holes at the hardware store, but they do sell drills, which are the planning technology used to make holes. We must not lose sight that technology for the most part is anne frank prompts, a tool and it should be used in write essay applications which address educational concerns. (p. 87)
In teaching and learning, technology should be applied as a process rather than as a single, isolated and discrete activity. The American Heritage Dictionary defines process as “a series of essay prompts actions, changes, functions bringing about a result.” Technology in education is not a mere object to be introduced into teaching and learning activities at will without considering basic principles of learning and sound teaching methodology. Therefore, to assume that educational technology is an object that can be used and detached at any time is a false assumption because educational technology is not applied in a vacuum. It is guided by learning principles about how individuals learn and how they retain the knowledge and skill they have acquired. It is also based on the students’ expectations of the outcome of learning and how the outcomes could be applied to enrich practical life experiences. Therefore, technological application should be based on sound teaching and learning principles to avoid teaching hardware and college essay software technologies in an isolated manner. Technologies used for instructional delivery should form part of the cohesive components of instruction; they should not be detachable objects. An ongoing action research project has shown that most in-service teachers have a narrow view of technology integration. When they were asked to briefly state why they need to apply technology in their teaching, most of the student teachers (70%) maintain that it is a tool for instruction; they fail to relate it to frank, pedagogy or identify how it will help them to homeworking uk, improve their teaching or facilitate learning. An educator who does not understand the purpose of essay technology integration or how it could be applied is less likely to achieve success in a technology-based learning environment.
Eby ( 1997 ) warns that “technology could not support learning without teachers who know how to structure essay, use it and integrate it into subject-specific area.” Means ( 1994 ) points out frank essay prompts, that technology training must go beyond focusing on the acquisition of technical skills but attention should be given “to the buy a instructional strategies needed to infuse technological skills into the learning process” (p.92). Yao and Quang ( 2000 ) argue that technology training tends to focus on computer applications such as word processing, spreadsheets and databases. Anne Frank Prompts! Technology for homeworking uk teaching and learning should be part of the instruction milieu and anne frank essay prompts not be added as an afterthought activity. Sprague et al. ( 1998 ) argue that using technology for instruction should include mastery of the techniques to apply it to teaching. Relationship between Technology in Education and Pedagogy. A major part of the problem related to technology integration is that most educators have not addressed the pedagogical principles that will guide their use of technology for teaching and learning. The intricate relationship between technology and pedagogy has not been adequately explored. As teachers explore the process of technology integration and search for ways that it can be effectively accomplished, they will develop the rationale to examine the appropriateness of the technologies they are using and whether such technologies are compatible with their lesson plan and learning outcomes. The process of exploring the before a sonata the majority relationship between technology in education and pedagogy will encourage critical thinking on the part of essay teachers as they practice technology integration. Mezirow ( 1990 ) argues: That thinking critically involves our recognizing the assumption underlying our beliefs and behaviors.
It can give justifications for our ideas and actions. Most important, perhaps, it means we try to judge the rationality of these justifications. (p. xvii) The words of Alfred Kyle, a Dean of essay Engineering, are very insightful in discussing critical and reflective teaching ( in anne frank prompts Schon, 1987 ). Dean Kyle maintains that “we know how to teach people to build ships but not how to figure out what ships to build” (p.11). Accordingly Ripley ( 2001 ) explains that what the buy a Dean of Engineering is conveying is for anne prompts “students to learn how to determine which ships to build while they master shipbuilding skills. He hopes that students will progress toward becoming reflective practitioners who think and rethink their positions and assumptions …” (p.
19). By the same token, it is hoped that instructors will develop similar awareness by becoming critical thinkers and reflective teachers as they engage in technology integration. The authors of this paper have observed that during the course of structure their teaching, education students were asked to frank essay prompts, discuss why they would like to essays before the majority writings, use technology for teaching and learning. A great majority of frank essay prompts them said that they use technology (more specifically computers) for instruction because it helps teachers to teach and students to learn. This response is too general and college essay does not convey an in-depth understanding of technology integration. These students fail to articulate in any meaningful way how technology can be used to improve learning. Their response does not capture the intricate relationship between pedagogy and technological resources. Lack of appropriate guidelines limit teachers’ use of technology for instruction, and limits their desire to explore the essay prompts use of technology beyond basic applications. Weizenbaum ( 1976 ) argues that “computers can be a powerful metaphor for understanding many aspects of the world.” However, he states “it enslaves the mind that has no metaphors and few resources to call on—the mind that has been educated with only facts and skills” (p.
51). It is important that practicing teachers and in-service teachers recognize that technology in education is structure essay, considered part of pedagogy. Bazeli ( 1997 ) is anne frank essay, critical of the way technology is used for instruction. She believes implementing technology in the classroom is timeconsuming and teachers do not have the time to involve students at the planning stage of essay compare technology integration. Bazeli asserts that when students participate in the planning and implementation stages of technology integration “the burden is lifted from the anne prompts teachers and the learning process becomes collaborative, with the teacher assuming the role of facilitator rather than a disseminator of information.
Further, as students are actively involved in essays the majority and other writings planning and implementing technology production, they gain critical thinking and problem-solving skills along with curricular learning.” She maintains that “unfortunately, the computer is frank prompts, often perceived as a separate entity, not an integrated part of the curricular areas of the school” (p. 201). Technology should be implemented in the classroom only homeworking uk, if its role in a given instruction is determined along with pedagogical issues related to anne frank essay prompts, a given instructional task. The role of technology in education can only be determined if teachers who implement technology at the classroom level are involved in technology decision- making because teachers have the responsibility of contrast facilitating instruction. Okojie et al. ( 2005 ) argue that school administrators make decisions about technology training without consulting teachers who will integrate technology into instructional process. Teachers who are in anne frank essay a better position to articulate their needs and identify their weaknesses have minimal input in planning the technology training they receive. Thus, technology integration training becomes a general identification of various hardware and software technologies, which does not address specific learning problems nor pinpoint the way technology can be used to improve instruction (p. 5). Pierson ( 2001 ) recognized that “society has embraced computer technology and allowed it to arguable thesis, reinvent the ways in which we create, find, exchange, and even think about information. Unable to ignore such deeply permeating innovation, school districts often bow to societal pressure to fund technology without having a thoughtful plan for implementation” (p.
413). Anne Frank Essay! Gunter ( 2002 ) argued that students learn computer skills in essays the majority and other writings isolation of the curriculum structure. Topper ( 2005 ) believes that “for teachers to frank essay prompts, use technology in support of their teaching, and to see it as a pedagogically useful tool, they must be confident and competent with the technology they are planning to use (p. 304). It is important that teachers recognize that a relationship exists between technology in education and pedagogical decision-making. According to homeworking uk, Anderson and Borthwick ( 2002 ) research evidence shows that “participants whose technology instruction was integrated in their methods course reported more frequent use of technology for both teacher productivity and student projects during both on-campus courses and their first year of actual classroom teaching” (p. 5). There is no blueprint for technology integration, however, it is suggested that effort be made to link technology for instruction to all levels of pedagogical processes and activities as described next.
Identifying learning objectives in a technology-based instruction requires teachers to select and/or adapt instructional technology to match the objectives based on the students’ needs. Frank Essay! Presenting instruction using technology as part of the college essay instructional process requires teachers to choose the methods that are relevant to anne frank essay, the objectives, the technology selected, learning styles, modes and pace of learning. Evaluating technology-based instruction requires teachers to select appropriate evaluation techniques that are relevant to the objectives, methods of a sonata writings instruction, and to technologies that have been used. Designing follow-up activities using technology requires teachers to select appropriate follow-up materials that are relevant to the objectives of the instruction and technologies that are accessible to anne, the students as well as easy to use. Developing course enrichment materials using technology requires teachers to provide opportunity for students to explore issues related to the course materials and to provide them with the opportunity to the majority, select and analyze course enrichment materials using technology in ways that broaden their problem-solving skills. Locating sources for anne essay additional instructional materials using technology requires teachers to use the internet and multimedia networks to buy a business, develop additional learning materials and expand instructional resources aimed at broadening the knowledge and the skill gained.
Designing a dynamic classroom using technology requires teachers to anne, provide a learning environment that is colorful, engaging, exciting, interactive and energetic as a way of encouraging students to venture into the world of technology and to discover knowledge for themselves. The essence of hamlet this article is to provide insight on how teachers can improve their use of anne frank essay prompts technology to support instruction. It explores pedagogical issues that are relevant and need to be considered in order to successfully apply technology into teaching and learning. It is important that educators perceive technology in education as part of the pedagogical process. This article also recognizes the relationship between pedagogy and technology in education. It is necessary that teachers understand the pedagogical principles that govern the application of technology into teaching and learning. Suggestions are made on how to improve technology integration.
Educators are encouraged to view technology integration from a wider perspective and be reflective in essay their teaching as they use technology to support and facilitate instruction. Technology integration should be considered as part of the process of instructional preparation. Instructional technology should be identified at the planning stage just as the students’ readiness is assessed, lesson objectives identified, methods of presenting are established, and evaluation strategies are determined. Follow-up activities should also be established at the planning stage. Poor implementation of anne frank essay technology integration is likely to affect the desired outcome. Dr. Mabel CPO Okojie is an assistant professor in the Department of Instructional Systems, Leadership Workforce Development at structure essay contrast Mississippi State University. Dr. Anthony A. Olinzock is the Head of the Department of Instructional Systems, Leader Workforce Development at Mississippi State University. Tinukwa C. Okojie-Boulder is a graduate assistant/doctoral student in the Department of Instructional Technology, Leadership Workforce Development at Mississippi State University.
Anderson, C. L. Borthwick, A. (2002). Results of separate and integrated technology instruction in pre-service training . ERIC Reproduction Document # IR021919, p.14. Ausubel, D. P. (1978). Frank Prompts! Educational psychology: A cognitive view. Structure! (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston. Bazeli, M, (1997). Visual productions and student learning. ERIC Reproduction. Fall Bosch, K.A.
Cardinale, L. (1993). Anne Frank! Preservice teacher’ perceptions of racism essay computer use during a field experience. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 10(1), pp. 23-27. Diaz, D. P. Bontenbal, K. F. (2000).
Pedagogy-based technology training. In P. Hoffman D. Lemke (eds.), Teaching and Learning in a Network World, pp. 50-54. Amsterdam, Netherlands: 105 Press. Fletcher, G. (1996). Former director of the essay prompts Division of Educational Technology, Texas Education Agency, Executive Vice President of T.H.E. Institute quoted in T.H.E. Journal , 24(4), p. 87. Eby, J. (1997).
Reflective planning, teaching and evaluation, K-12. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Gess-Newsome, J., Blocher, M., Clark, J., Menasco, J., Willis, E. (2003). Technology infused professional development: A framework for homeworking uk development and analysis. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education , 3(3), pp. 324-340.
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